Biological Control

Many stored-product insect pests have natural enemies. Table 6.5 on pages 104-106 of the textbook, Fundamentals of Stored-Product Entomology, include 212 estimates from 40 studies of the percent parasitization of 19 species of stored-product insect pest resulting from the release of 13 species of natural enemies. Here, we summarize 258 estimates of the percent parasitism from 35 additional studies adding 21 natural enemy-pest species combinations to the previous list. These additional studies include 13 species that were not on the previous list: five host species (1 anobiid, 2 bruchids and 2 pyralids) and seven natural enemy species (4 Trichogrammatids , Spathius exarator, a second Dinarmus species and 2 mite species).

In June 1968, Mathias Scholler and Sabine Prozell founded Biological Consultants selling parasitoids to organic food trade including farmers, wholesale retail trade, food processing industry and mills.

Lists of references for demonstration studies that did not determine the percent parasitization, but did demonstrate the effectiveness of biological control and for the ability of natural enemies to locate hosts are also included. Finally, references reviewing current usage of biological control are listed.

Adarkwah, Charles, C. Büttner, C. Reichmuth, D. Obeng-Ofori, S. Prozell & M. Schöller 2010. Ability of the larval ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to locate the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in bagged and bulk stored rice (Wirtsfindung des Larvalparasitoiden Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in gesacktem und geschüttetem Reis gegenüber der Reismotte Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)) Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117 (2): 67–70. (92% reduction)

Adarkwah, C., D. Obeng-Ofori, C. Buettner, C. Reichmuth, and M. Schoeller. 2012. Potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Forster) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to suppress the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in bagged and bulk stored maize. Biological Control 60: 175-181. (81% reduction)

Adarkwah, Charles and Matthias Schöller. 2012. Biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by single and double releases of two larval parasitoids in bulk stored wheat. Journal of Stored Products Research 51: 1-5. (Habrobracon hebetor parasitized 39-66%, Venturia canescens parasitized 34-59%, a combination of both species parasitized 51-93% of Plodia interpunctella in 20 kilograms of wheat)

Adarkwah, C., C. Ulrichs, S. Schaarschmidt, B. K. Badii, I. K. Addai, D. Obeng-Ofori, and M. Schöller. 2014. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags. Bull. Entomol. Res. 104: 534-542. (79% reduction of Corcyra cephalonica larvae by Venturia canescens)

Ahmed K. N. and Kabir S. M. H. 1995. Role of the ectoparasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the suppression of Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica. Entomon 20: 175–182. (Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitized 21.7-53.0% of Sitophilus oryzae and 20.6-45.6% of Rhyzopertha dominica in 200 grams of wheat)

Amevoin, K., A. Sanon, M. Apossaba, I.A. Glitho. 2007. Biological control of bruchids infesting cowpea by the introduction of Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) adults into farmers’ stores in West Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research 43: 240–247. (Dinarmus basalis parasitized 43.6-87.1% of Callosobruchus maculatus, Callosobruchus rhodesianusand Bruchidius atrolineatus population in 50-liter earthenware jars used by the local farming communities)

Auer, J., and A. Kassel. 2014. Braconid Wasps: A Biological Control Method for the Common Furniture Beetle, pp. 335-340. In G. Müller, R. Pospischil and W. H. Robinson (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Urban Pests, July 20 – 23, 2014, University of Zurich. OOK-Press Kft., H-8200 Veszprém, Papái ut 37/a, Hungary. (79% parasitism of Anobium punctatum by Spathius exarator)

Canevari, C. d. C., F. Rezende, L. R. D. A. Faroni, J. E. Serrao, S. C. Papadopoulou, J. C. Zanuncio, and C. T. Buchelos. 2011. Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) as biological control agent for Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) larvae. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 69: 205-208. (Tyrophagus putrescentiae reduced Lasioderma serricorne population by 54-78%)

Chaisaeng, P., W. Chongrattanameteekul, P. Visarathanonth, and B. Vajarasathiara. 2010. Laboratory studies on control of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais by the parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae. Scienceasia 36: 6-11. (Anisopteromalus calandrae reduced Sitophilus zeamais population by 55-80% on 500 grams of milled rice.)

De Oliveira, C. R. F., L. R. D’A Faroni, R. N. C. Guedes, A. Pallini, and J. Goncalves. 2002. Parasitism of Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross&Krantz) (prostigmata: acarophenacidae) on Dinoderus minutus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) (Parasitismo de Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross & Krantz) (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae) sobre Dinoderus minutus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)). Neotropical Entomology 31: 245-248. (Acarophenax lacunatus parasitized 45.5% of larvae and 59.7% of adult Dinoderus minutus)

De Oliveira, C. R. F., L. R. D. Faroni, R. N. C. Guedes, A. Pallini, and J. R. Goncalves. 2006. Parasitism of the mite Acarophenax lacunatus on Tribolium castaneum. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 41: 1059-1061. (Acarophenax lacunatus reduced Tribolium castaneum population by 42.5-85% on 25 grams of broken wheat)

De Oliveira, C., L. Faroni, R. Guedes, and A. Pallini. 2003. Parasitism by the mite Acarophenax lacunatus on beetle pests of stored products. Biocontrol 48: 503-513. (Acarophenax lacunatus did not attack Oryzaephilus surinamensis eggs, but reduced Cryptolestes ferrugineus population by 26%, Rhyzopertha dominica population by 61% and Tribolium castaneum population by 53% on 25 grams of broken wheat)

Dongre, T., R. Hire, and A. Sahasrabudhe. 2004. Efficiency of parasitoid, Dinarmus vagabundus (Timberlake) in inhibiting the multiplication of stored grain pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored mungbeans. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 41(5): 536-539. (Dinarmus vagabundus parasitized 71-91% of Callosobruchus maculatus on mungbeans)

Faroni, L. R. D’A., R. N. C. Guedes and A. L. Matioli. 2000. Potential of Acarophenax lacunatus (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae) as a biological control agent of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 55-63. (According to De Olivera 2006, Acarophenax lacunatus reduced Rhyzopertha dominica population by 40-94% on 420 grams of wheat in this study.)

Gredilha, R., A. R. Carvalho, A. F. Lima and R. P. Mello. 2006. Parasitismo de Anisopteromalus calandrae Howard, 1881 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) sobre formas imaturas de Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) na cidade do Rio De Janeiro, RJ. Arq. Inst. Biol., São Paulo, 73(4): 489-491. (Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitized 84.6% of Lasioderma serricorne in pet food bags)

Grieshop, Matthew J., Paul W. Flinn and James R. Nechols. 2006. Biological Control of Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Finished Stored Products Using Egg and Larval Parasitoids. J. Econ. Entomol. 99(4): 1080-1084. (Habrobracon hebetor parasitized 42-72%, Trichogramma deion parasitized 0-87% and a combination of both species parasitized 54-97% of Plodia interpunctella in 100 grams cornmeal)

Grieshop, M.J., Flinn, P.W., Nechols, J.W., Campbell, J.F., 2006. Effects of shelf architecture and parasitoid release height on biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs by Trichogramma deion (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 2202-2209. (Trichogramma deion parasitized 12.8-68.9% of Plodia interpunctella inside and outside packages)

Grieshop, M.J., Flinn, P.W., Nechols, J.R., Schöller, M., 2007. Host foraging success of three species of Trichogramma in simulated retail environments. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 591598. (Trichogramma deion parasitized 39-68.9%, Trichogramma ostriniae parasitized 5-43.9% and Trichogramma pretiosum parasitized 5.3-41% of Plodia interpunctella on sentinel egg cards)

Grieshop, Matthew J., Paul W. Flinn, James R. Nechols and James F. Campbell. 2008. Effects of fine-grain habitat complexity on egg parasitism by three species of Trichogramma. Biological Control 45:  328336. (Trichogramma deion parasitized 29.5-57.5%, Trichogramma ostriniae parasitized 18.5-32.7% and Trichogramma pretiosum parasitized 22.2-41.5% of Plodia interpunctella in 5 grams flour or 7.5 grams millet; Trichogramma deion parasitized 15.8-65.8%, Trichogramma ostriniae parasitized 11.7-31.7% and Trichogramma pretiosum parasitized 15.8-39.2% of Plodia interpunctella on sentinel egg cards)

Hansen, L. S. 2007. Biocontrol potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae) against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) at low temperatures: Reproduction and parasitoid-induced mortality. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1011-1016. (Lariophagus distinguendus parasitized 42-70% of Sitophilus granarius in 50-80 kernels of wheat)

Hansen, L. S., and T. Steenberg. 2007. Control of Sitophilus granarius in grain using a combination of parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi-preliminary results. In Proceedings, Meeting: IOBC Working Group on “Integrated protection of stored products”, 20-23 September, Prague, Czech Republic. IOBC/wprs Bull. 30(2): 21-23. (Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitized 99.4% and Lariophagus distinguendus parasitized 99.96% Sitophilus granarius in 9 kg wheat)

Helbig, J. 1999. Efficacy of Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Het., Anthocoridae) to suppress Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae) in traditional maize stores in southern Togo. J. Appl. Ent. 123: 503-508. (Xylocoris flavipes reduced Prostephanus truncatus populations by 57.6%)

Islam, N., W. Islam and K. A. M. S. H. Mondal. 2003. Suppression of residual populations of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) by parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Bangladesh J. Entomol. 13: 103-110. (Dinarmus basalis reduced Callosobruchus maculatus populations by 52-100% on black gram residue in a room. Reduction varied from 19-29% with black gram in polythene bags and 76-91% with black gram in cotton or jute bags.)

Mahal, N.; Islam, W.; Parween, S.; Mondal, K.A.M.S.H. 2005. Effect of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymentoptera: Pteromalidae) in controlling residual populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae in wheat stores. Intern. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 25(4): 245–250. (Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitized 48.8-83.5% of Rhyzopertha dominica in bulk wheat and 275 grams of wheat in bags)

Na, J.H., Y.S. Chun and M.I. Ryoo. 2005. Suppression of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by iterative mass release of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in wheat elevators. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 44: 237-241 (70% reduction)

Ngamo, T. S. L., H. Kouninki, Y. D. Ladang, M. B. Ngassoum, P. M. Mapongmestsem, and T. Hance. 2007. Potential of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biocontrol agent of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae). African Journal of Agricultural Research 2: 168-172. (Callosobruchus maculatus population was reduced 4.97% by one female and 42.34% by four female Anisopteromalus calandrae.)

Perez-Mendoza, J., J. Baker, F. Arthur, and P. Flinn. 1999. Effects of protect-it on efficacy of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae) parasitizing rice weevils (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) in wheat. Environ. Entomol. 28: 529-534. (Anisopteromalus calandrae reduced Sitophilus oryzae population by 67.6-76.3% on 20 grams of wheat.)

Prozell, S. and M. Schöller. 1998. Insect fauna of a bakery, processing organic grain and applying Trichogramma evanescens Westwood. In Integrated Protection of Stored Products. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 21: 39-44. (Trichogramma evanescens parasitized 80% of Ephestia kuehniella)

Qumruzzaman, A.H.M.; Islam, W. 2005. Interaction between Dinarmus basalis and Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) ad different parasitoid densities on Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Intern. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 25 (1): 6–11. (Dinarmus basalis parasitized 21.4-91.0%, Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitized 19-67.2% and a combination of both species parasitized 18.9-82.5% of Callosobruchus chinensis in 125 grams of lentil)

Schöller, Matthias 2000. Forager in the rye: Biological control of Ephestia elutella in bulk grain. IOBC Bulletin 23 (10): 149-159. (Habrobracon hebetor parasitized 34.3- 84.6 % and Trichogramma evanescens parasitized 31.4% of Ephestia elutella)

Schöller, M., M. S. A. Hassan and C. Reichmuth. 1996. Efficacy assessment of Trichogramma evanescens and T. embryophagum (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) for control of stored product moth pests in bulk wheat. Entomophaga 41: 125-132. (Trichogramma evanescens parasitized 67-78% and Trichogramma embryophagum parasitized 27-38.8% of Ephestia elutella)

Schöller, Matthias, and Sabine Prozell. 2005. Natural enemies to control stored-product pests in grain stores and retail stores. p. 85-106. In Proceedings of the international workshop on Implementation of biocontrol in practice in temperate regions—present and near future. (Trichogramma evanescens parasitize 65.3-100% of sentinel eggs.)

Tuncbilek, A. S., U. Canpolat, and F. Sumer. 2008. Studies on storage, release and host finding of Trichogramma evanescens to control Ephestia kuehniella. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 40: 171-179. (Trichogramma evanescens parasitized 50% of Ephestia kuehniella in flour mill)

Visarathanonth, P., R. Kengkanpanich, J. Uraicheun, and J. Thongpan. 2010. Suppression of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky by the ectoparasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), pp. 755-759. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany. (Anisopteromalus calandrae reduced Sitophilus zeamais by 94.6-97.3% in 25 kilogram sacks of rice and by 98 % on 200 grams of rice with monthly releases over a year.)

Demonatration studies

Adler, C., M. Schöller, and S. Beier. 2012. Development of insects in a flour mill treated with Holepyris sylvanidis (Hym., Bethylidae) for biological control of the confused flour beetle,Tribolium confusum (Col., Tenebrionidae). IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 81:169-170.

Amevoin, K., I. A. Glitho, Y. Nuto, and J. P. Monge. 2006. Population dynamics of natural bruchids and their larval and pupae parasitoids in experimental cowpea storage in Guinean zone. Tropicultura. AGRIOverseas, Brussels, Belgium 24: 45-50.

Huis, A. van, F.A.N. van Alebeek, M. van Es and S.B. Sagnia. 2002. Impact of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga and the larval-pupal parasitoid Dinarmus basalis on Callosobruchus maculatus populations and cowpea losses. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 104: 289-297.

Kraaz, I., B. Meierhofer, D. Fassbind, G. S. Wyss and D. Zigg. 2011. The use of beneficial insects against stored product pests- results and experience from three years of field tests in Switzerland. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 69: 209.

Meierhofer, Brigitte, Fassbind, D., Brand, S., Kraaz, I., Zingg, D., & Wyss, G. S. 2008. Experiences with beneficial insects for pest control in storage buildings and processing units. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 40: 155-159.

Norris, J. D. 1958. Observations on the control of mite infestations in stored wheat by Cheyletus spp. (Acarina, Cheyletidae).  Ann. Appl. Biol. 46(3): 411-422

Plarre, R., K. Lieber, W.Burkholder, J. Phillips. 1999. Host and host instar preference of Apanteles carpatus (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) a possible parasitoid for biological control of clothes moths (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). J. Stored Products Research 35: 197-213. (Apanteles carpatus released in rug store against Tineola bisselliella. Parasites alone did not control moths, but parasites and sanitation did.)

Prozell, S. and M. Schöller. 2003. Five years of biological control of stored-product moths in Germany. p. 322-324. In Credland, P.F., Armitage, D.M., Bell, C.H., Cogan, P.M. & Highley, E. eds Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22.-26. July 2002, York, United Kingdom.

Pulpan, J. and P. H. Verner. 1965. Control of tyroglyphoid mites in stored grain by the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Schank). Can. J. Zool. 43: 417-432. (25 out 28 releases successful against Acarus siro and Glycyphagus destructor in grain stores.)

Querner, Pascal,and Stephan Biebl. 2012. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum) and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella). Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research 43(2): 169-175.

Sanon, A., C. Dabire, A. P. Ouedraogo, and J. Huignard. 2005. Biological control of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) populations by two sympatric parasitoid species, Dinarmus basalis Rond. and Eupelmus vuilleti Crw. Belgian J. Entomol. 7: 57-69.

Soundararajan, R. P., Chitra, N., Geetha, S., & Poorani, J. (2012). Biological control of bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in blackgram. Journal of Biopesticides, 5: 192-195

Zaghloul, O. A., and A. K. Mourad. 1998. Studies on the egg-parasitoid, Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), with reference to its role in the assessment of cowpea losses due to Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Egypt. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Univer. Gent.  63: 441-453.

Zdarkova, E. and E. Horak. 1990. Preventive biological control of stored food mites in empty stores using Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank). Crop Protection 9: 378382.

Mobility Natural Enemies

Belda, C. and J. Riudavets 2010. Distribution of insect pests and their natural enemies in a barley pile. p. 741-745. In Carvalho, M.O.; Fields, P.G.; Adler, C.S.; Arthur, F.H.; Athanassiou, C.G.; Campbell, J.F.; Fleurat-Lessard, F.; Flinn, P.W.; Hodges, R.J.; Isikber, A.A.; Navarro, S.; Noyes, R.T.; Riudavets, J.; Sinha, K.K.; Thorpe, G.R.; Timlick, B.H.; Trematerra, P.; White, N.D.G. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June to 2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut Berlin, Germany. Three species of natural enemies (Anisopteromalus calandrae, Cephalonomia waterstoni, Withius piger) were occasionally found in the deepest samples, thus, they were able to penetrate around 80-cm deep in the grain searching for their hosts.

Brower J. H. 1990. Host location ability of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in inshell peanuts under laboratory conditions. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 7: 265-273.

Cortesero, A., J. Monge and J. Huignard. 1997. Dispersal and parasitizing abilities of Eupelmus vuilleti (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) within a column of cowpea seeds. Environ. Entomol. 26: 1025-1030. (Bruchidius atrolineatus)

Collatz, Jana and Johannes LM Steidle. 2008. Hunting for moving hosts: Cephalonomia tarsalis, a parasitoid of free-living grain beetles. Basic and Applied Ecology 9(4): 452-457.

Desouhant E, Driessen G, Wielaard B, Lapchin L, Bernstein C 2003. Dispersal between host populations in field conditions: navigation rules in the parasitoid Venturia canescens. Ecol Entomol 28: 257–267.

Desouhant, Emmanuel, Patrice Lucchetta, David Giron and Carlos Bernstein. 2010. Feeding activity pattern in a parasitic wasp when foraging in the field. Ecological research 25(2): 419-428.

Eliopoulos, Panagliotis A., Apostolos Kapranas, E. G. Givropoulou, and Ian CW Hardy. 2016. Reproductive efficiency of the bethylid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis: the influences of spatial structure and host density. Bulletin of Entomological Research (): 1-9

Howard, R., and P. Flinn. 1990. Larval Trails of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) as Kairomonal Host-Finding Cues for the Parasitoid Cephalonomia waterstoni (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 83: 239-245.

Klomp, H. 1980. Parasitic Wasps as Sleuthhounds Response of an Ichneumon Wasp To the Trail of Its Host. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 31(4): 762-772. (Poecilostictus cothurnatus, a parasitoid of the advanced larvae of the pine looper, Bupalus piniarius )

LeCato, G. 1975. Habitat-Influencing Predation by Xylocoris Flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera-Anthocoridae). Am. Midl. Nat. 93: 510-512.

Lorenz, S., C. Adler and C. Reichmuth. 2010. Penetration ability of Holepyris sylvanidis into the feeding substrate of its host Tribolium confusum. p. 721-725. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Mbata, G., S. Shu, T. Phillips, and S. Ramaswamy. 2004. Semiochemical cues used by Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae) to locate its host, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97: 353-360.

Niedermayer, S., L. Krogmann, and J. L. M. Steidle. 2016. Lost in space? Host-finding ability of the parasitoids Lariophagus distinguendus and Anisopteromalus calandrae in empty grain storage facilities to control residual pest populations. BioControl 61: 379-386. (Sitophilus)

Press, J.W. 1988. Movement of a weevil parasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), within a column of wheat in relation to host location. J. Agric. Entomol. 5: 205–208.

Press, J. 1992. Comparative Penetration Efficacy in Wheat between the Weevil Parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae and Choetospila elegans (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 27: 154-157.

Press, J. W., B. R. Flaherty, and R. T. Arbogast. 1979. Vertical dispersion and control efficacy of the predator Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in farmers stock peanuts. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 52: 561-564.

Press, J., G. LeCato, and B. Flaherty. 1978. Influence of Media Particle-Size on Distribution of Predaceous Bug Xylocoris-Flavipes (Hemiptera-Anthocoridae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 13: 274-278.

Steidle, J., and M. Schöller. 2000. Host finding of the granary weevil parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in storage environment. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 23: 135-141.

Stejskal, V., J. Lukáš, E. Žd’árková, M. Wakefield, and J. Hubert. 2002. Spatial arrangement of Venturia canescens and Ephestia kuehniella in the extremely infested pasta-producing factory: a case history, pp. 116-117. In E. Zdarkova, M. Wakefield, J. Lukas and J. Hubert (eds.), Biological Control of pest insects and mites with special reference of entomophthorales. Proceedings of the second meeting of working group 4, COST Action 842, 30-31 May 2002, Prague, Czech Republic. Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic.

Stolk C., 2002.- Biocontrol in store: spatial and behavioural apsects of foraging by Uscana lariophaga, egg parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea, 160 p., PhD thesis, Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Stolk C., Stein A., Slumpa S. B., Tiase S. K., Van Huis A., 2001. Exploring the foraging environment of a natural enemy of Callosobruchus maculatus: spatial egg distribution in stored cowpea.- Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 101: 167-181.

Stolk, C., M. Ghimire, S. Souquie, W. van der Werf, and A. van Huis. 2005. Host finding by Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae) in stored cowpea: the effect of distance, time interval, host patch size and spatial orientation. Bull. Entomol. Res. 95: 231-241.

Stolk, C., W. v. d. Werf., and A. v. Huis. 2002. Bugs in space: aspects of the system Callosobruchus maculatus (Col.: Bruchidae) and Uscana lariophaga (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) in stored cowpea. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 25: 141-144.

Strand, M. R., H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson and A. Mudd. 1989. Arrestment and trail following response of Bracon hebetor (Say) to kairomones from Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. J. Chem. Ecol, 15: 1491-1500.

van Alebeek, F.A.N., Antwi, K.K., van Arnold, H. and van Lenteren, J.C. 2007. Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds. Bull Insectology 60: 63–70. (Callosobruchus maculatus)

Yao, W., and G. Lu. 1993. Investigation on the distribution of the predaceous bug Xylocoris galactinus in bulk-stored paddy. Chinese Journal of Biological Control 9: 96-97.

Reviews of current usage

Amante, M., P. Suma, M. Schöller, and A. Russo. 2018. The Bethylidae (Hymenoptera): a tool for biological control programmes in food industries. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 130: 135-138.

Prozell, Sabine and Matthias Schöller 2018. Does it really work? 25 years biological control in Germany p. 439-441. In Proceedings of the 12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018.

Schöller, M., S. Prozell, P. Suma, and A. Russo. 2018. Biological Control of Stored-Product Insects, pp. 183-209. In C. G. Athanassiou and F. Arthur (eds.), Recent Advances in Stored Product Protection. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Schöller, Matthias. 2015. Recent advances in the commercial application of beneficials against stored-product and cultural heritage pests. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 111: 345-348.

Schöller, Matthias, and Sabine Prozell. 2014. Stored-product insects and their natural enemies in Germany: a species-inventory. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98: 27-34.

Flinn, P. W., and M. Schöller. 2012. Biological Control: Insect Pathogens, Parasitoids, and Predators, pp. 203-212. In D. W. Hagstrum, T. W. Phillips and G. Cuperus (eds.), Stored Product Protection, vol. S156. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Scholler M, Prozell S 2011. Biological control of cultural heritage pest Coleoptera and Lepidoptera with the help of parasitoid Hymenoptera. J Ent Acarol Res Ser II 43(2): 157-168

Schöller, M. 2010. Biological control of stored-product insects in commodities, food processing facilities and museums. p. 596-606. InM. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Scholler, M. 2010. Prospects for biological control of stored-product pests, pp. 25-31. In C. Reichmuth and M. Schoeller (eds.), International European Symposium on Stored Product Protection “Stress on chemical products” 429, 25-26 May 2009, Berlin, Germany. Julius-Kühn-Archive

Hansen, L. S. 2007. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests – the European perspective. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43: 312-313.

Schöller, M., P. W. Flinn, M. J. Grieshop, and E. Žďárková. 2006. Biological control of stored-product pests, p. 67-87. In J. W. Heaps (ed.), Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing, 2nd ed. AACC International, St Paul, MN.

Ambrosius, F., C. Adler, Ch Reichmuth, and J. L. M. Steidle. 2005. Invasion of Trichogramma evanescens into food packages and the risk of food contamination. Implementation of biocontrol in practice in temperate regions–present and near future. p. 109-118. In Proceedings of the Proceedings of the International Workshop “Implementation of Biocontrol in Practice in Temperate Regions – Present and Near Future” DIAS report 119, Flakkebjerg, Denmark.

Scholler, M. and Prozell, S. 2005. Natural enemies to control stored-product pests in grain stores and retail stores. pp. 85–106. In Proceedings of the Proceedings of the International Workshop “Implementation of Biocontrol in Practice in Temperate Regions – Present and Near Future”; DIAS Report No. 119: Flakkebjerg, Denmark.

Hansen, Lise Stengård and Tove Steenberg 2005. Potential of biocontrol of pests in grain stores and flour mills. p. 119-123. In Proceedings of the Proceedings of the International Workshop “Implementation of Biocontrol in Practice in Temperate Regions – Present and Near Future” DIAS report 119, Flakkebjerg, Denmark.

Schöller, M. 2004. Potential use of biological control of stored-product pests in bakeries and mills. 31-37. In: Stengård Hansen, L., Wakefield, M., Lukáš, J. & Stejskal, V. (eds.) Proceedings of the third meeting of working group 4 of COST Action 842, RICP, Prague

Stengard Hansen, L., C. Adler, C. Athanassiou, S. Cobanoglu, S. Dorn, H. Klapal, C. Mateus, J. Riudavets, P. Trematerra, M. Wakefield, and E. Zdarkova. 2004. Legal aspects of application of biological control on food storage and processing in different European countries, pp. 49-50. In L. Stengård Hansen, M. Wakefield, J. Lukáš and V. Stejskal (eds.), Biocontrol of Arthropod Pests in the Stored Products. Proceedings of the 3rd meeting of the Working Group IV of the COST Action 842 (1999-2004), 4-5 December 2003, Berlin, Germany. Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic.

 Prozell, S. and Schöller, M. 2003. Five years of biological control of stored-product moths in Germany. p. 322-324. In Credland, P.F., Armitage, D.M., Bell, C.H., Cogan, P.M. & Highley, E. eds. Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22.-26. July 2002, York, United Kingdom

Scholler, M., E. Žd’árková, J. Hubert, and J. Lukáš. 2002. Commercial application of parasitoids to control stored product pests in Germany and Austria, pp. 29-32. In E. Žd’árková, J. Hubert and J. Lukáš (eds.), Biological control of pest insects and mites, with special reference to entomophthorales. Proceedings of the First Meeting of Working Group 4, COST Action 842 (1999-2004), 6-7th September 2001, Lisbon, Portugal. Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic.

Flinn, P. W. and D. W. Hagstrum. 2001. Augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps in stored wheat reduces insect fragments in flour. J. Stored Prod. Res. 37: 179-186.

Prozell, S. and Schöller, M. 2000. Commercial application of parasitoids and predators of stored-product pest insects. In: Integrated protection in stored products, eds. Adler, C. & Schöller, M, IOBC wprs Bulletin 23(10), 165-168.

Reichmuth C 2000. Biological control in stored product protection. IOBCIWPRS Bull 23(10):11-23

Schöller, M. and P.W. Flinn 2000. Parasitoids and Predators. In: Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM, eds. Subramanyam, B. and Hagstrum, D.W. Boston /Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Haines, C. P. 1999. Arthropod natural enemies in stored products-overlooked and under-exploited. p. 1205-1226. In Jin, Z.; Liang, Q.; Liang, Y.; Tan, X.; Guan, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China

Stolk, C., W. van der Werf, and A. van Huis. 1999. Models of stored-product pests: Their relevance to biological control in traditional storage in developing countries, pp. 72-87. In Z. Jin, Q. Liang, Y. Liang, X. Tan and L. Guan (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China.

Schöller, M. 1998. Integration of biological and non-biological methods to control arthropods infesting stored products. IOBC Bulletin 21:13-25.

Scholler, M.; Prozell, S.; Al-Kirshi, A.G.; Reichmuth, C. 1997. Towards Biological Control as a Major Component of Integrated Pest Management in Stored Product Protection. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33: 81–97.

Brower, J. H., L. Smith, P. V. Vail and P. W. Flinn. 1996. Biological control, p. 223-286. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum eds. Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Prozell, S., Schöller, M., Reichmuth, Ch., Wührer, B. & Hassan, S.A. 1995. Akzeptanz von Trichogramma-Freilassungen im Einzelhandel – Monitoring und Erfolgskontrolle. (Acceptance of Trichogramma releases in retail – monitoring and success control) Deutsche Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie Nachrichten 9: 121.

Bhatti, U.S., Bhatti, S.K. and Teotia, U.V.S. 1991. Status of natural enemies as biological control agents of stored products insect pests. (Abstract) p. 1255-1256. In Fleurat-Lessard, F.; Ducom, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc, Bordeaux, France

Arbogast, R.T. 1985. Biological control of stored-product insects: status and prospects. In: Baur FJ (ed) Insect management for food storage and processing. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, pp 226-238

Arbogast, R.T. 1984. Natural enemies as control agents for stored-product insects. p.  360-374. In Mills, R.B.; Wright, V.F.; Pedersen, J.R.; McGaughey, W.H.; Beeman, R.W.; Kramer, K.J.; Speirs, R.D.; Storey, C.L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Working Conference on Stored-Product Entomology, 23-28 October, 1983, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.  Manhattan, Kansas, USA

Haines C. P. 1984. Biological methods for integrated control of insects and mites in tropical stored products. III: The use of predators and parasites. Tropical Stored Products Information 48, 17-25.

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