Diapause on insect population growth and pest management

Diapause is arrested development or reproduction that is generally initiated or terminated by photoperiod, thermoperiod, temperature, moisture, food quality, crowding, or some combination of these cues (Bell 1994). He reviewed diapause for 40 species of stored-product insects in the families Pyralidae, Dermestidae, Ptinidae, and Bruchidae. Diapausing insects may be more tolerant to food shortages, adverse environments (temperature or moisture), toxic chemicals or ionizing radiation making pest management less effective.

Stress can result in extra instars that can be mistaken for diapause. Diapause and extra instars delay reproduction reducing population growth and changing the optimal timing of pest management. Bell (1994) and Howe (1962) include several species  (Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Gnatocerus cornutus, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrio obscurus, Tribolium destructor, Tribolium freemani, Tribolium madens, Tribolium castaneum) for which stress induced extra instars might be responsible for the delayed maturation rather than diapause. The variation between geographical locations in diapause in pyralid moth species has been studied by Bell et al. (1979), Bell (1982, 1983) and Cox et al. (1984).

Diapause allows insects to survive in an empty storage facility or transport vehicle until they are reloaded, or in food residues in food processing facility until they can infest products making elimination of infestations difficult. Our knowledge of stored product insect pest diapause in the field and storage populations is limited and includes:  Apomyelois ceratoniae (Al-Izzi et al. 1985), Bruchus rufimanus (Medjdoub-Bensaad et al. 2007, 2015), Callosobruchus maculatus (Taylor 1970, 1974, 1975, Taylor and Agbaje 1974, Taylor and Aludo 1974), Ephestia cautella (Hagstrum and Sharp 1975a), Ephestia elutella (Richards and Waloff 1946), Ephestia kuehniella (Cole and Cox 1981, Skovgard et al. 1999) and Trogoderma granarium (Burges 1959). A better understanding of the effects of diapause on pest ecology and pest management may help us make better pest management decisions.

In addition to species covered by Bell (1994), studies are cited here on diapause in several other beneficial (Dinarmus acutus, Bracon hebetor, Trichogramma cacoeciae, Trichogramma evanescens) and pest species (Acanthoscelides pallidipennis, Amyelois transitella, Apomyelois ceratoniae, Bruchidius dorsalis, Bruchus affinis, Callosobrnchus analis, Callosobruchus chinensis, Callosobruchus maculatus, Callosobruchus rhodesianus, Callosobruchus subinnotatus, Contarinia sorghicola, Cydia pomonella, Eurytoma amygdali, Pectinophora gossypiella, Phthorimaea operculella, Zabrotes subfasciatus) that may be important to postharvest stored product protection. For Callosobruchus maculatus, Hodek (2012) says “Dissections reveal immature ovaries and male gonads, so we might consider this suspension of reproduction an adult diapause or at least a diapause-like phenomenon.” Polymorphism in bruchids has now been studied for more species and is more frequently called reproductive diapause. Citations for some more recent and additional papers not cited by Bell (1994) are included here.

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Appleby, J. H. and P. F. Credland. 2001. Bionomics and polymorphism in Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Bulletin of entomological research 91(4): 235-244.

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Bains, S. S. et al. 1975. Role of temperature and food in the pre-diapause development of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Indian J. Ecol. 2: 37-42.

Bains, S. S. et al. 1977. Effect of powdered neem (azadirachta indica a. juss) material on the diapause in larvae and population build-up of Trogoderma granarium Everts, infesting stored wheat. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 4: 192-196.

Bains, S., G. Battu and A. Atwal. 1976. Efficacy of Ethylene Dibromide Against Diapause Larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts at Low-Temperature. Bulletin of Grain Technology 14: 235-238.

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Bell, C. H. 1976. Factors governing the induction of diapause in Ephestia elutella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera). Physiol. Entomol. 1:83-91.

Bell, C. H. 1976. Factors influencing the duration and termination of diapause in the warehouse moth, Ephestia elutella. Physiol. Entomol. 1: 169-178.

Bell, C. H. 1977. Tolerance of the diapausing stages of four species of Lepidoptera to methyl bromide. J. Stored Prod. Res. 13: 119-127.

Bell, C. H. 1978. Effect of Temperature on the Toxicity of Low Concentrations of Methyl-Bromide to Diapausing Larvae of the Warehouse Moth Ephestia elutella (Hubner). Pestic. Sci. 9: 529-534.

Bell, C. H. 1979. The efficiency of phosphine against diapausing larvae of Ephestia elutella (Lepidoptera) over a wide range of concentrations and exposure times. J. Stored Prod. Res. 15: 53-58.

Bell, C. H. 1981. Effect of Short Exposures to a High-Concentration on the Subsequent Toxicity of Low Concentrations of Methyl-Bromide to Diapausing Larvae of the Warehouse Moth, Ephestia elutella (Hubner). Pestic. Sci. 12: 59-64.

Bell, C. H. 1982. Observations on the Intensity of Diapause and Cold Tolerance in Larvae from 12 Populations and 2 Reciprocal Crosses of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella. Physiol. Entomol. 7: 371-377.

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Bell, C. H. 1992. Time, Concentration and Temperature Relationships for Phosphine Activity in Tests on Diapausing Larvae of Ephestia elutella (Hubner) (Ledidoptera, Pyralidae). Pestic. Sci. 35: 255-264.

Bell, C. H. 1994. A Review of Diapause in Stored-Product Insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 30: 99-120.

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