Food on Susceptibility of Stored-Product Insects

The availability or the type of food can influence insect susceptibility to pesticides or heat treatments physically by providing a refuge and nutritionally by making insects healthier and more resistant. Food may also remove pesticide from insects as they move through it. A good sanitation program therefore is important to maximize the effectiveness of pesticides or heat treatments. The following 53 references add to the Arthur 2000a paper cited on page 167 of the textbook, Fundamentals of Stored-Product Entomology.

Amin, M. E., A. H. Kamel, I. I. Ismail and A. K. M. El-Nahal. 1978-1979. Effect of rearing Tribolium castaneum (Hbst) on rice germ and rice bran on the susceptibility of its developmental stages to methyl bromide fumigation. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic series. 11: 57-63.

Arthur, F. H. 1998. Effects of a food source on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) survival after exposure on concrete treated with cyfluthrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 773-778.

Arthur, F. H. 2000a. Impact of accumulated food on survival of Tribolium castaneum on concrete treated with cyfluthrin wettable powder. J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 15-23.

Arthur, F. H. 2000b. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 1347-1356.

Arthur, F. H. 2008. Aerosol distribution and efficacy in a commercial food warehouse. Insect Science 15: 133-140.

Arthur, F. H. 2009. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against adult Tribolium castaneum exposed on concrete: effects of exposure interval, concentration and the presence of a food source after exposure. Insect Sci. 16: 157-163.

Arthur, F H. and Campbell, J. F. 2008. Distribution and efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol to control Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in food storage facilities. Journal of Stored Products Research 44: 58-64.

Arthur, F. H. and E. Fontenot. 2012. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom (R)). J. Pest Sci. 85(2): 277-282.

Arthur, F. H. 2013. Dosage rate, temperature, and food source provisioning affect susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum to chlorfenapyr. J. Pest Sci. 86: 507-513.

Athanassiou, C. G. 2006. Influence of instar and commodity on insecticidal effect of two diatomaceous earth formulations against larvae of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1905-1911.

Athanassiou, C. G., F. H. Arthur, and J. E. Throne. 2009. Efficacy of grain protectants against four psocid species on maize, rice and wheat. Pest Manag. Sci. 65: 1140-1146.

Athanassiou, C. G., F. H. Arthur, G. P. Opit and J. E. Throne. 2009. Insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth against three species of stored-product psocids on maize, rice, and wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 1673-1680. (Differences in adult mortality among grains)

Athanassiou, C. G., N. G. Kavallieratos, F. C. Tsaganou, B. J. Vayias, C. B. Dimizas, and C. T. Buchelos. 2003. Effect of grain type on the insecticidal efficacy of SilicoSec against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Crop. Protect. 22: 1141-1147.

Athanassiou, C. G., N. G. Kavallieratos, and N. S. Andris. 2004. Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on oat, rye and triticale. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 2160-2167.

Athanassiou, C. G., N. G. Kavallieratos, B. J. Vayias, and E. C. Panoussakis. 2008. Influence of grain type on the susceptibility of different Sitophilus oryzae (L.) populations, obtained from different rearing media, to three diatomaceous earth formulations. J. Stored Prod. Res. 44: 279-284.

Baskaran, P. and P. B. Mookherjee. 1971. Effect of food on the susceptibility of Cadra cautella Walker and Trogoderma granarium Everts to phosphine. Indian J. Entomol. 33: 23-29.

Brijwani, Monika, Bhadriraju Subramanyam and Paul W. Flinn. 2012 Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill. J. Econ. Entomol. 105(2): 703-708

Brijwani, Monika, Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Paul W. Flinn, Michael R. Langemeier, Michelle Hartzer, Rajshekhar Hulasare. 2012, Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs. J. Econ. Entomol. 105(2): 709-717

Chatterji, S. 1955. Effect of nutrition and starvation on the susceptibility of Corcyra cephalonica Staint. to carbon disulfide. Current Science 24: 206-207.

Colman, W. 1940. Effect of paradichlorobenzene on the feeding of the black carpet beetle. J. Econ. Entomol. 33: 816-817.

Devraj Urs, K. C. and P. B. Mookherjee. 1966. Effect of oilseed food on the biology of Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Trogoderma granarium Everts and Corcyra cephalonica Staint. and their susceptibility to pyrethrins. Indian J. Entomol. 28: 234-240.

Devraj Urs, K. C. and P. B. Mookherjee. 1967. Effect of oilseed food on the susceptibility of three species of storage insects to methyl bromide. Indian J. Entomol. 29: 297-298.

El-Buzz, H. K., A. H. Kamel, A. K. M. El-Nubal and F. M. El-Borallosy. 1974. Effect of diet on the susceptibility of the different developmental stages of Corcyra cephalonica to carbon bisulfide and methyl bromide. Agricultural Research Review, Cairo 52(1): 21-30.

El-Lakwah, F. 1978. Effect of nutrition on reproduction of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) and susceptibility of larvae to high poisonous gases. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pfanzenschutz Umweltschutz 51: 148-151.

Els, J. M., W. M. deViliers and J. J. Matthee. 1978. The effect of laboratory rearing medium on the sensitivity of Lasioderma serricorne (F.) for two residual insecticides. Phytophylactica 10: 129-130.

Faruki, S. and A. Khan. 1996. The pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki on the tropical warehouse moth, Cadra cautella (Walker), as influenced by groundnut varieties. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 68: 113-117.

Gbaye, O. A.,  J. C. Millard and G. J. Holloway. 2011. Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 47(1): 8-12.

Gbaye, O. A., J. C. Millard, and G. J. Holloway. 2012. Synergistic effects of geographical strain, temperature and larval food on insecticide tolerance in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). J. Appl. Entomol. 136:282-291.

Lord, J.C. 2010. Dietary stress increases the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum to Beauveria bassiana. J Econ Entomol 103: 1542–1546.

Loschiavo, S. R. 1988. Availability of food as a factor in effectiveness of a silica aerogel against the merchant grain beetle (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) J. Econ. Entomol. 81(4 ): 1237-1240.

Mundhe, D. R. and N. D. Pandey. 1979. Effect of different foods on the susceptibility of Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. to some fumigants. Indian J. Entomol. 42: 787-790.

Murthy, K. S. and B. P. Srivastava. 1971. Effect of food on susceptibility of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) to different fumigants. Indian J. Entomol. 33: 148-151.

Nguyen, Tam T., Ramandeep Kaur, David I. Schlipalius, Patrick J. Collins, Paul R. Ebert. 2016. Effect of diet on phosphine toxicity, rate of development and reproduction of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus). J. Stored Prod. Res. 69: 221-226.

Omana, M. M., N. M. Das and M. R. G. K. Nair. 1972. Effect of nutrition on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst to the toxicity of different insecticides. Agric. Res. J., Kerala 10: 32-37.

Potter, C. 1956. Resistance of insects to insecticides: The effect of age and stage of development and nutrition. Chemistry and Industry 42: 1178-1181.

Punj, G. K. and G. K. Girish. 1968. Effect of nutrition and starvation on the susceptibility of adults of Tribolium castuneum Herbst to carbon disulphide. Bull. Grain Techn. 6: 187-191.

Punj, G. K. 1970. The effect of nutrition on the susceptibility of larvae of Trogoderma granarium  Everts (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) to certain fumigants. J. Stored Prod. Res. 6: 181-185.

Punj, G. K. 1971. The effect of certain artificial diets on the susceptibility to ethylene oxide of larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts.(Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 6(4): 347-349.

Rattan Lal and B. S. Attri. 1967. Effect of food on the susceptibility of Trogoderma granarium Everts to insecticides. Indian J. Entomol. 29: 329-338.

Rattan Lal and Y. P. Singh. 1966. Effect of food on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst to contact insecticides. Indian J. Entomol. 28: 89-93.

Rint, J. R. and B. M. Rejesus. 1988. Host preference of coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus de Geer (Anthribidae: Coleoptera) and its susceptibility to organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. p. 143-157. In Naewbanij, J.O. (Ed.) ASEAN Technical Seminar on Grain Postharvest Technology, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), 23-26 Aug 1988. ASEAN Grain Postharvest Programme, Bangkok, Thailand

Salama, H. S. and A. Abdelrazek. 1992. Effect of different kinds of food on susceptibility of some stored products insects to Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Appl. Entomol. 113: 107-110.

Saxena, P., and P. Sarup. 1992. Impact of increasing rations on the joint action of insecticides formulated with non-toxic chemicals against Sitophilus oryzae Linn. New Botanist 19: 127.

Saxena, S., and R. Gohain. 1976. Susceptibility to Insecticides of Lasioderma-Serricorne (F) (Coleoptera Anobiidae) Grown on Vitamin-Deficient Diets. Archives Internationales De Physiologie De Biochimie Et De Biophysique 84: 53-61.

Senapati, B., J. M. Satpathy and B. K. Maiti. 1973. Effect of food on the susceptibility of rice weevils, Sitophilus oryzae Linn. to malathion and influence of storage temperature and humidity on the persistent toxicity of malathion. Bull. Grain Techn. 11: 140-146.

Shaurub, El-Sayed H.; Gharsa, Genan M. Abou. 2012. Food consumption and utilization by Tribolium confusum du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and their susceptibility to the acetone extract of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) leaves in relation to three types of flour. J. Stored Prod. Res. 51: 56-60

Sun, Y. P. 1947. Analysis of some important factors affecting the results of fumigation tests on insects. Techn. Bull. Minn. Agric. Exp. Sta. 177.

Teotia, T. P. and N. Prasad. 1974. Effect of food on the susceptibility of larvae of Cadra cautella (Walker) to some insecticides. Indian J. Entomol. 36: 179-184.

Toews, M. D., F. H. Arthur and J. F. Campbell. 2010. The presence of flour affects the efficacy of aerosolized insecticides used to treat the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. J Insect Sci 10:196. Available online:

Verma, A. N. and Punj, G. K. 1969. Effect of nutrition on susceptibility of larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts to ethylene oxide. Bull. Grain Technol. 7(3): 150-153.

Visalakshy, A. and M. R. G. K. Nair. 1975. Effect of food, growth and body lipid contents on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst to toxicity of insecticides. Agric. Res. J. Kerala 13: 62-66.

Vrba, C. H., H. P. Arai, and M. Nosal. 1983. The effect of silica aerogel on the mortality of Tribolium confusum (Duval) as a function of exposure time and food deprivation. Can. J. Zool. 61: 1481-1486.

White, N.D.G., and S. R. Loschiavo. 1989. Factors affecting survival of the merchant grain beetle (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and the confused flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to silica aerogel. J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 960-969.

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