The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 authorized the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent interstate shipment of food containing filth or prepared, packed or held under unsanitary conditions. Inspection program began with foods eaten without further cooking such as those sold by bakeries (Larrick 1956). Flour mills were next. Based upon studies of wheat and wheat flour (Harris et al. 1952) and corn and corn meal (Harris et al. 1953) the “Clean Grain Program” was initiated. A program of country elevator inspection began in 1952. Starting January 1, 1955 grain with two or more rodent hairs or 2% or more by weight insect damaged kernels was seized and released only for sale as animal feed (Larrick 1956). In July 1956, the tolerances for seizures were tightened to one or more rodent hairs or 1% or more by weight insect damaged kernels. The grain sanitation program is described by Prentice (1953). The following seven conferences on grain sanitation were held to help reduce insect problems.
Larrick, G. P. 1956. Clean grain program, PCO skills needed to halt insect and rodent contamination of nation’s cereal products. Pest Control, 24(5): 9-10, 12.
Harris, K. L., Nicholson, J. F., Randolph, L. K., & Trawick, J. L. 1952. Investigation of insect and rodent contamination of wheat and wheat flour. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 35: 115-158.
Harris, K. L., Trawick, J. L., Nicholson, J. F., & Weiss, W. 1953. Investigation of rodent and insect contamination of corn and corn meal. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 36: 1037-1064.
Prentice, Clarence Edward. 1953. The grain sanitation program. MS thesis Kansas State College Department of Economics and Sociology. http://www.itemright-trial.com/emit/erf/Papers/1953/s53-15.pdf
Anonymous. 1954. Grain sanitation. A synopsis of lectures in the agricultural short course on grain sanitation, Pullman, Washington, Oct. 5-6, 1954. Washington State University.
Brannon, David H. 1954. The extension entomologist and the grain sanitation program. 30-31.
Cotton, R. T. 1954. Grain sanitation. p. 13-18.
Harwood, Robert F. 1954. Anatomy of insects and their conservation of water. p. 3-4.
Johnson, Carl A. 1954. Insect growth, metamorphosis, and habits. p. 1-2.
Telford, H. S. 1954. Insecticides. p. 5-12.
Walker, David. 1954. Control of grain insects in the Pacific Northwest. p. 26-29.
Winburn, T. F. 1954. Fumigants and protectants for controlling insects in stored grain. p. 19-25.
Anonymous. 1957. Grain sanitation. A synopsis of lectures of the fourth agricultural short course on grain sanitation, Pendleton, Oregon, Nov. 20-21, 1957. Oregon State University Press.
Busdicker, H. B. The khapra beetle program. p. 49-
Jones, M. P. 1957. Clean grain program. p. 4-10.
Klepser, George E. 1957. Aeration fumigation systems (Panel report). p. 31-34.
O’Brien, J. F. 1957. Stored-grain insect research in Oregon. p. 46-48.
Reed, Roy B. 1957. Some observations on aeration of grain in commercial storage – facilities of the Touchet Valley Grain Growers, Inc. (Panel report). p. 35-36.
Roberts, J. 1957. Aeration of wheat by mechanical means. (Panel report). p. 37-42.
Romig, H. W. 1957. Milling company problems – Birds, rodents and insects. p. 26-27.
Smith, H. W. 1957. Research on stored-grain insects in Idaho. p. 23-25.
Walker, David W. 1957. Insect control by aeration (Panel report). p. 28-30.
Walker, David. W. 1957. Research progress report on stored grain insects. p. 43-45.
Winburn, T. F. 1957. Grain fumigants and residual spray. p. 11-22.
Anonymous. 1958. Grain sanitation. A synopsis of lectures of the fifth agricultural short course, Pullman, Washington, Oct. 28-29, 1958. Washington State University.
Gray, H. E. 1958. Grain fumigants, their use and misuse. p. 33-43.
Gray, H. E. 1958. Some factors in the control of grain pests. p. 10-26.
Hardwood, Robert F. 1958. Hazards of seed treatment of control of wireworms and other insects. p. 52-53.
Kedzior, John A. 1958. The grain sanitation program of the Food and Drug Administration. p. 1-4.
Klepser, George. Movement of air and fumigants through bulk grains. p. 44-47.
Krantz, G. W. 1958. Research in progress in Oregon. p. 8-9.
Meek, LeRoy. 1958. Washington state food inspection as it applies to the grain sanitation program. p. 5-7.
Purdy, Henry. 1958. Seed treatments to prevent smut, why they present a hazard. p. 51.
Shaw, C. Gardner. 1958. Grain molds and their control. p. 30-32.
Smith, Howard W. 1958. Stored grain insects research in Idaho. p. 27-29.
Walker, David. 1958. Specific fumigation problems in the Pacific Northwest. p. 48-50.
Grain sanitation short course attendance. p. 54-56.
Anonymous. 1960. Grain sanitation. A synopsis of lectures in the seventh annual short course on grain sanitation, Pendleton, Oregon, Sept. 9-10, 1960. Oregon State University Press.
Capizzi, J. 1960. Granary insects and their injury. p. 41-42.
Evans, K. E. 1960. Khapra beetle survey – a federal approach. p. 33-35.
Kirk, J. L. 1960. Safety measures in fumigation. p. 23-27.
Larson, F. P. 1960. Khapra beetle survey – a state approach. p. 37-39.
Morton, A. N. 1960. The clean grain program. p. 3-5.
Powelson, R. L. 1960. Seed treatment for smut. p. 29-31.
Radinovsky, S. 1960. Some recent developments in granary mite research at Oregon State College. p. 9-11.
Schoenherr, H. W. 1960. The role of elevator construction in grain sanitation. p. 17-22.
Smith, H. W. 1960. Research on stored grain insects in Idaho. p. 7-8.
Teal, Ray. 1960. Agricultural adjustment – an open discussion.
Whiteaker, Don. 1960. Application techniques in fumigation and demonstration of fumigation equipment.
Zwick, R. W. 1960. Research report from Washington State University. p. 13-15.
Grain sanitation short course attendance. p 43-46.
A. O. M. Sanitation Committee (ed.). 1966. Proceedings of the grain and cereal products sanitation conference. January 26-28, 1966, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
Brockington, S. F. 1966. A quality product requires sanitary ingredients. p. 79-83.
Dodson, M. 1966. What’s new in rodent and bird control around grain elevators and cereal plants. p. 85-90.
Foltz, V. D. 1966. Microorganisms and possible toxins on grains. p. 61-66.
Gaines, J. P. 1966. The rice millers’ viewpoint of sanitation. p. 27-31.
Goossen, H. J. 1966. Selection of grain for processing. p. 55-60.
Henderson, L. S. 1966. Selection of pesticidal chemicals and application methods for product processing and storage — Insecticides and fumigants. p. 131-140.
Hurley, J. 1966. A cereal company takes a close look at sanitation. p. 19-25.
Hurtig, H. 1966. Pesticide residues on cereal grains and their milled products. p. 99-109.
Kennedy, R. 1966. Significance of sanitation in grain handling and storage. p. 33-38.
Liscombe, E. A. 1966. Insect and rodent contamination of boxcar origin. p. 111-114.
Long, K. J. 1966. A training techniques – Tape-slide presentation. p. 41-48.
Mann, D. L. 1966. What sanitation means to the baking industry. p. 9-13.
McSpadden, P. 1966. Infestation and rodent contamination of box car origin. p. 115-119.
Moses, W. R. 1966. Food and drug laws as they apply to sanitation in the grain and cereal industries. p. 49-53.
Pillsbury, P. W. 1966. A milling company’s top management viewpoint of sanitation. p. 15-18.
Stevens, S. N. 1966. Training programs for employees. p. 39-40.
Wagner, G. B. 1966. Sanitation: past, present, and future. p. 121-129.
Wagner, G. B. 1966. Airborne contaminants as they occasionally appear in food products. p. 67-77.
Wilbur, D. A. 1966. The variable factors affecting the successful application of fumigants and protectants to stored grain. p. 91-98.
Anonymous. 1967. Proceedings grain and cereal products sanitation conference, February 16-17, 1967. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota
Christensen, C. M. 1967. Maintaining quality of stored grains. p. 42-43.
Durham, Joe. 1967. Federal law on grain comtamination.
Faulkner, C. E. 1967. New aspects of bird and rodent control. p. 90-91.
Foltz, Vernon. 1967. Microorganisms and production of toxins.
Harein, Phillip K. 1967. Toxicity and hazards of pesticides.
Hartig, H. 1967. Pesticide residues.
Henderson, Lyman. 1967. Preventing insect infestations.
Hodson, A. C. 1967. Relationship between insects and microorganisms in stored grain.
Laudani, H. 1967. New nonchemical insect-control methods. p. 70-89.
Lawson, Warren. 1967. Rescue and first aid measures.
Lofgren, John. 1967. Correct storage, handling, application and disposal of pesticides.
Nelson, Glen. 1967. Foods, fungi and animal health.
Pratt, H. D. 1967. It’s easy to identify common beetles and weevils infesting stored foods with new cdc pictorial key. p. 23-27.
Rosenthal, Abe. 1967. Minnesota law on grain contamination.
Wagner, G. B. 1967. Pest, present, and future of sanitation in the grain and cereal industry. p. 45-54.
Wilbur, D. A. 1967. Variable factors affecting the successful application of fumigants and protectants to stored grain, pp. 55-61.
Williams, N. H. 1967. Importance and simplicity of a sanitation program, pp. 6-10.
Anonymous. 1968. Proceedings sanitation workshop grain and cereal products, Sept 8-11, 1968, Manhattan, Kansas
Boyd, H. H. 1968. Flour mill sanitation problems, pp. 25-29.
Champion, E. 1968. Sanitation service, pp. 137-147.
Cramer, J. L. 1968. Developing and implementing a plant sanitation program, pp. 51-60.
Foltz, V. D. 1968. Microorganisms and the cereal grain industry, pp. 103-107.
Harein, P. K. 1968. Pesticides for use in and around grain storage mills, warehouses and grocery stores, pp. 77-87.
Hibbs, A. 1968. The operative miler’s attitude toward sanitation, pp. 3-5.
Jones, D. 1968. Sanitation through engineering design, pp. 99-101.
Jones, D. F. 1968. Food plant sanitation inspection proceedures, pp. 37-39.
Kahn, J. 1968. Guidelines for use of pesticides in food plants, pp. 123.
Landry, L. 1968. Pest control service Part I, pp. 125-130.
McCloud, T. 1968. Pest control service Part II, pp. 131-135.
McSpadden, P. 1968. Contamination in transit and consumer channels, pp. 89-97.
Pedersen, J. R. 1968. Packing and storage of finished products, pp. 31-35.
Pedersen, J. R. 1968. Problems created by stored-products pest other than insects, pp. 71-75.
Rasco, M. R. 1968. Sanitation problems and needs of the baking industry, pp. 111-119.
Rutledge, J. 1968. Goals of an adequate inspection program, pp. 41-49.
Rutledge, J. 1968. Possible contamination of grain during growth, harvest and storage, pp. 19-24.
Strait, M. L. 1968. Concern and challenge, pp. 9-17.
Wagner, G. B. 1968. Personal hygiene and habits, pp. 109.
Wagner, G. B. 1968. The role of the pest control operator in the American society, pp. 173-176.
Walter, V. E. 1968. Communications between pest control industry and the food industry, pp. 149-171.
Wilbur, D. A. 1968. Problems created by stored-products insects, pp. 61-69.
Wilson, R. 1968. Bakery equipment – selection and inspection, pp. 121.