Fumigant Distribution

Fumigants are volatile gases that penetrate commodities and the air space in equipment and facilities. Gravity can result in heavier than air fumigants introduced at the top penetrating commodities and lighter than air fumigants introduced at bottom rising. Natural ventilation in the air spaces between granular commodities can move fumigants up or down depending upon the commodity temperature and the outside air temperature. Recirculation or combining a fumigant with another fumigant or carrier solvent such as carbon dioxide have been used to increase the uniformity of fumigant distribution. Recirculation fumigation was patented by Moffett in 1927 to reduce the sorption of hydrogen cyanide fumigant. Recirculation fumigation was popular in Europe in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s (Munro 1956). Quarantine of pink bollworm and grain surpluses in 1948 increased research on recirculation fumigation in the United States. The use of carbon dioxide to increase the effectiveness of fumigants was patented by Cotton and Young in 1935. Perforated tubing has been used to distribute fumigant during in-transit fumigation of grain. Trickle method has been used to add fumigant to replace fumigant lost by leakage.

Sorption of fumigant into commodity and leakage can reduce the fumigant concentration in air space in granular commodities. Sorption of hydrogen phosphide, methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide and hydrocyanic acid by wheat and corn was greater as the moisture content increased (Vincent and Lindgren 1971). Sorption is inversely related to temperature (Walters 1991). Repeated fumigation of the same grain reduced the rate at which phosphine sorbed into wheat (Reed and Pan 2000). Leakage can reduce the uniformity of fumigant distribution and sealing can help increase uniformity. Wind can increase leakage, so not fumigating on a windy day is recommended.

References are listed under the following categories:    Reviews                                                                                                                      Gravity and Natural Ventilation    Recirculation                                                                                                            Carrier_Solvent                                                                                                        Perforated_Tubing                                                                                                 Trickle Method                                   Sorption                                                                                                  Wind                                                    Leakage                                                                                                                      Sealing and Pressure Test

Reviews

Bond, E. J. 1984. Manual of fumigation for insect control. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 54

Lindgren, D. L. and L. E. Vincent. 1962. Fumigation of food commodities for insect control. p. 85-152. In R. L. Metcalf [ed.] Advances in Pest Control Research Volume 5, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Monro, H.A.U. 1969. Manual of Fumigation for Insect Control, 2nd ed. Agric. Studies Pub. 79. Food and Agriculture of United Nations, Rome.

Mueller, D. 1990. Fumigation. p. 901-939. In Keith Story and Dan Moreland eds. Handbook of Pest Control, The Behavior, Life History and Control of Household Pests, 7th ed. Franzak and Foster, Cleveland, OH.

Mueller, D. 1997. Fumigation. pp. 1103-1152. In: Hedges, S., Ed. Mallis Handbook of Pest Control. 8th Edition. Mallis Handbook and Technical Training Company.

Page, A. B., and O. F. Lubatti. 1963. Fumigation of insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 8:239-264.

Phillips, T. W., E. M. Thoms, J. DeMark, and S. Walse. 2012. Fumigation, pp. 157-177. In D. W. Hagstrum, T. W. Phillips and G. Cuperus eds. Stored Product Protection, vol. S156. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas

Thoms, E. M. and T. W. Phillips. 2004. Fumigation, pp. 1165-1216. In D. Moreland and S. A. Hedges eds. Handbook of Pest Control, The Behavior, Life History and Control of Household Pests, 9th ed. GIE Media, Cleveland, OH.

Walter, V. E. 1991. Fumigation in the food industry. p. 441-457. In Gorham, J. R. [ed.], Ecology and Management of Food Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

Walter, V. 2006. Commodity and space fumigations in the food industry. Pages 183-198 in: Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing, 2nd ed. J. Heaps (ed.) AACC International, St. Paul, MN.

Gravity and Natural Ventilation

Banks, H. J., and P. C. Annis. 1984a. Importance of processes of natural ventilation to fumigation and controlled atmosphere storage. p. 299-323. In Ripp, B.E. Ed. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Banks, H.J., and Annis, P.C. 1984b. On criteria for success of phosphine fumigations based on observations of gas distribution patterns. p. 327-341. In: Ripp, B.E., et al. ed., Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia, Amsterdam, Elsevier

Barker, P. S. 1974. Hydrogen phosphide concentration gradients in wheat. Manitoba Entomologist 8:85-89.

Barker, P.S. 1974. A theoretical consideration of the behaviour of air-fumigant mixtures in stored grains in relation to the laws of gases. The Manitoba Entomologist, 8, 80-84.

Berck, B. 1975. Interstitial air movement in model grain silo. Pestic. Sci. 6:639-644.

Berck, B. 1975. Determination of air movement in stored grain as a factor in dynamic dispersion and distribution patterns of gaseous pesticides (fumigants). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13:527-533.

Berck, B., and J. Solomon. 1962. Wheat as a chromatographic column toward methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide, acrylonitrile, chloropicrin, and carbon tetrachloride in the vapor phase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 10:163-167.

Bibby, I. P., and S. T. Conyers. 1998. Numerical Simulations of Gas Exchange in Leaky Grain Silos, Using Measured Boundary Conditions. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34:217-229.

Boac, J.M.; Casada, M.E.; Lawrence, J.; Plumier, B.; Maier, D.E.; Ambrose, R.P.K. 2014. Modeling phosphine distribution in grain storage bunker. p. 256-263. In Proceedings of the 11th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection.

Brown, W. B. 1937. Application of fumigants to ships and warehouses. v. distribution of ethylene oxide in barges containing dried fruit. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.(Great Britain) 56:116T-122T.

Bond, E.J., Sellen. R.A., and Dumas, T. 1977. Control of insects with phosphine in open-ended bin spouts. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70, 22-25.

Casada, Mark; Siliveru, Kaliramesh; Arthur, Frank H.; Brabec, Daniel; Campbell, James F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Maier, Dirk E.; Conley, Taylor; Jones, Carol 2018. Phosphine distribution during fumigation of wheat in steel bins: extended abstract. p. 718-724. In Adler, C.S.; Opit, G.; Fürstenau, B.; Müller-Blenkle, C.; Kern, P.; Arthur, F.H.; Athanassiou, C.G.; Bartosik, R.; Campbell, J.; Carvalho, M.O.; Chayaprasert, W.; Fields, P.; Li, Z.; Maier, D.; Nayak, M.; Nukenine, E.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Phillips, T.; Riudavets, J.; Throne, J.; Schöller, M.; Stejskal, V.; Talwana, H.; Timlick, B.; Trematerra, P. eds. Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018.

Chandra, S., B. P. Khare, and V. K. Sharma. 1975. Relative penetration power of some selected fumigants and their mixtures. Indian J. Agric. Res. 9:127-134.

Chayaprasert, W., D. E. Maier, B. Subramanyam, and M. Hartzer. 2012. Gas leakage and distribution characteristics of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride during fumigations in a pilot flour mill. J. Stored Prod. Res. 50: 1-7

Cotton, R. T., G. B. Wagner, and H. D. Young. 1937. Heavier-than-air fumigants and their relation to methods of fumigation for insect control. National Grain Journal 2: 10, 12.

El Nahal, A. K. 1953. Fumigation of agricultural products. VI.-penetration and sorption of hydrogen cyanide in wheat fumigated at reduced pressures. J. Sci. Food Agric. 11:517-522.

El Nahal, A. K. 1954. FumigatioN of agricultural products. VII.-Penetration and sorption of ethylene oxide in wheat fumigated at reduced pressures. J. Sci. Food Agric. 5:205-208.

El Nahal, A. K. 1954. Fumigation of agricultural products. VIII. Penetration and sorption of methyl bromide in wheat fumigated at reduced pressures. J. Sci. Food Agric. 5:369-373.

Flinn, P., C. Reed, D. Hagstrum and T. Phillips. 2007. Seasonal and spatial changes in insect density in commercial elevator bins: implications for phosphine fumigation. International Miller 2006-2007: 36-40.

Gilby, A. R. 1983. Movement of halogenated fumigants through wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 19:199-202.

Jian F, Jayas DS 2016 Engineering considerations for creating uniform distribution of applied gas during controlled atmospheres and fumigation. Pp. 361–370. In: Navarro S, Jayas DS, Alagusundaram K, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products (CAF2016), CAF Permanent Committee Secretariat, Winnipeg, Canada

Kaloudis, E., Bantas, S., Athanassiou, C. G., Agrafioti, P., and Sotiroudas V. 2018. Modeling the distribution of phosphine in cylindrical grain silos with CFD methods for precision fumigation. p. 711-718. In: Adler C., S., Opit G., Furstenau B., Muller-Blenkle C., Kern P., Arthur F. H., Athanassiou C. G., Bartosik R., Campbell J., Carvalho M. O., Chayaprasert W., Fields P., Li Z., Maier D., Nayak M., Nukenine E., Obeng-Ofori D., Phillips T., Riudavets J., Throne J., Scholler M., Stejskal V., Talwana H., Timlick B. and Trematerra P. (eds.). Procedings of the 12th International Working Conference for Stored Product Protection. Julius Kuhn Archiv 463.

Kavadia, V. S. et al. 1986. Dispersal of fumigants in empty and sorghum filled mud kothi. Bulletin of Grain Technology 24:127-131.

Mian, L. S. and M. Shahid. 1976. Downward penetration of fumigants through a column of wheat grains. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 8: 65-68.

Majumder, S.K., K.S. Narasimhan and M. Muthu. 1963. Behavior of ethylene dibromide, methyl bromide, and their mixtures. I. In columns of grains and milled materials. Food Technol. 17:344-347.

Mathis, W. et al. 1961. Relationship of ventilation and dosage to the effectiveness of DDVP as a residual fumigant. Bull. World Health Organ. 24:646-649.

McClurkin, J.D.; Maier, D.E.; Ileleji, K.E. 2013. Half-life time of ozone as a function of air movement and conditions in a sealed container. J Stored Prod Res 55: 41–47.

Mendez, F., Maier, D.E., Mason, L.J., Woloshuk, C.P., 2003. Penetration of ozone into columns of stored grains and effects on chemical composition and processing performance. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39: 33-44.

Mian, L. S. et al. 1976. Downward penetration of fumigants through a column of wheat grains. Pak. J. Zool. 8: 65-68.

Nguyen.T. V. 1986. Modelling temperature and moisture changes resulting from natural convection in grain stores. In Champ, B. R. and Highley, E. ed. Preserving grain quality by aeration in-store drying, Proceedings of an international seminar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9-11 0ctober 1985. ACIAR Procceclings No. 15. 81-88.

Nguyen, T. V. 1987. Natural convection effects in stored grains – a simulation study. Drying Technol 5:541-560.

Paes, J. L. 2008. Difusao e sorcao do isotiocianato alilo e o seu efeito no controle de Sitophilus zeamais e na qualidade do milho. (Diffusion and sorption of allyl isothiocyanate and its effect on the control of Sitophilus zeamais and maize quality) Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa

Page, A. B. P., and O. F. Lubatti 1933. The application of fumigants to ships and warehouses. I. Distribution of ethylene oxide in empty warehouses. I. Soc. Chem. Ind. (Great Britain) 52: 309T-16T.

Page, A. B., and O. F. Lubatti. 1933. Application of fumigants to ships and warehouses. II. Distribution of hydrogen cyanide in empty warehouse. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry (Great Britain) 52:316T-323T.

Page, A. B. P., and O. F. Lubatti. 1933. The application of fumigants to ship and warehouses. III. Pendtration of hydrogen cyanide into bags of raw cacao stacked in piles of different sizes. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 52:323-326.

Peng, W. K., C. C. Yang, and T. K. Lee. 1999. Horizontal diffusion of phosphine through grain Chinese J. Entomol. 19:201-207.

Peng, W.K.;Yang, C.C.; Lee, T.K.; Cheng, H.Y. 1999. Vertical penetration and distribution of phosphine in corn and sorghum stored in steel silos. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 19(3): 279-291.

Qi, Z. y., Y. d. Yao, Y. x. Li, B. y. Yuan and Y. l. Leng. 2009. Phosphine distribution rules in grain bulks during fumigation in squat silo. Grain Storage 38: 29-32.

Rangaswamy, J. R., and N. Gunasekaran. 1993. Free phosphine in the void space of food commodities during phosphine fumigation. J. Food Sci. Technol. 26:447-449.

Reed, C. and H. Pan. 2000. Loss of phosphine from unsealed bins of wheat at six combinations of grain temperature and grain moisture content. J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 263-279.

Sinha, A. K., G. Nath, and B. P. Srivastava. 1979. Studies on the behaviour of phosphine gas in stored maize. Bulletin of grain technology 17: 48-54.

Smith, E. A., and D. S. Jayas. 2001. Modeling the movement of fumigant gas within grain beds. American Society of Agricultural Engineers 44:661-667.

Steponavicius, D., A. Steponavicienė, A. Raila, E. Zvicevicius, and A. Kemzuraitė. 2012. Investigation on ozone penetration along grain mound height. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 10(1): 742-747.

Stevenson, J. H. 1959. Distribution of methyl bromide in barges containing dried fruit. J. Sci. Food Agric. 10:86-89.

Strand, A. L. 1927. Comparison of the toxicity and the diffusion in a column of grain, of chloropicrin, carbon disulphide, and carbon tetrachloride. Minnesota Agric. Exp. Sta. Techn. Bull. 49.

Williams, Scott B.; Murdock, Larry L.; Kharel, Kabita; Baributsa, Dieudonne. 2016. Grain size and grain depth restrict oxygen movement in leaky hermetic containers and contribute to protective effect. J. Stored Prod. Res. 69: 65-71.

Zaiton, Mat Isa. 2014. Mathematical modelling of fumigant transport in stored grain. Doctor of Philosophy in the Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology

Recirculation

Anonymous. 1955. Use of methyl bromide for the fumigation of grain by forced recirculation. Dow Chemical Company

Anonymous. 1957. A portable recirculation system for use in freightcar loads of bulk products. USDA–AMS-MRD

Anonymous. 1963. A portable recirculation system for fumigating bulk products in freight cars. USDA Marketing Bulletin 24

Boland, F. B. 1981. Recirculation fumigation at terminals and country storages (Section 5), pp. 15-18. In P. Williams and T. G. Amos (eds.), Proceedings first Australian stored grain pest control conference, 18-22 May 1981, Melbourne, Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)

Boles, H. P. et al. 1957. A test fumigation of bulk milo with methyl bromide using the forced recirculation method. USDA Special Report C-274

Brook, T. S., and L. M. Redlinger. 1954. Methyl bromide to control insects in rough rice. Texas A & M University Progress Report 1683.

Brown, W. B., and H. K. Heseltine. 1949. Fumigation of grain in silo bins, the provision of circulating systems. Milling 112: 229-233. March.

Cook, J. S. 1984. Use of controlled air to increase the effectiveness of fumigation of stationary grain storages. In Ripp, B.E., Ed. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Cook, J.S. 1980. Low air flow fumigation method. U.S. Patent No. 4, 200, 657.

Cotton, R. T. and H. H. Walkden. 1951. Fumigation of large bulks of sorghum grain. Down to Earth 7 (1): 6-7.

Glass, E. H. 1944. Recirculation in atmospheric fumigation of commodities wtih nitriles. J. Econ. Entomol. 37(3): 388-391.

Hardin, J. A., C. L. Jones, E. L. Bonjour, R. T. Noyes, R. L. Beeby, D. A. Eltiste, and S. Decker. 2010. Ozone fumigation of stored grain; closed-loop recirculation and the rate of ozone consumption. J. Stored Prod. Res. 46:149-154.

Howe, R. G. e. a. 1958. Forced recirculation control of stored-grain insects. Down to Earth 14:6-9.

Jones, C., J. Hardin and E. Bonjour. 2011. Design of closed-loop fumigation systems for grain storage structures. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet BAE-1111-8. (available at http://osufacts.okstate.edu)

Kelly, M. 1987. A recirculatory fumigation technique for stacked commodities, pp. 267. In T. J. Lawson (ed.), Stored Products Pest Control, 25-27 March, 1987, University of Reading.

Kenkel, P.; Noyes, R.; Cuperus, G.; Criswell, J. 1993. Costs and benefits of installing closed loop fumigation systems in commercial elevators. OSU Fact Sheet 219

Kenkel, P. and R. T. Noyes. 1993. Costs and benefits of installing closed loop funugation systems in commercial elevators, OSUfact sheet No. 219, Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, July, 1993, 4p.

Lindgren, D., and L. Vincent. 1959. Sorption of single-component and multiple-component fumigants by whole-kernel corn under recirculation, and correlated mortality of stored-product insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 52:1091-1096.

Lindgren, D., and L. Vincent. 1960. The relation of moisture content and temperature of stored grain to the effectiveness of grain fumigants under forced circulation. J. Econ. Entomol. 53: 1071-1077.

Lindgren, D. L. and L. E. Vincent. 1962. Fumigation of food commodities for insect control. p. 85-152. In R. L. Metcalf [ed.] Advances in Pest Control Research Volume 5, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Longde, Y., Y. Zili, J. Tianke, Q. Zhanggui, Y. Longde, D. Gang, W. Xiuqong, and Y. Xiaoping. 2003. Efficacy against resistant strains of insects of recirculated phosphine fumigation of paddy rice held under PVC sheeting, pp. 841-845. In P. F. Credland, D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley (eds.), Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22.-26 July 2002, York, United Kingdom.

Luzaich, G. 1991. Recirculation fumigation, pp. 119. In Anonymous Proceedings of the III National Stored Grain Pest Management Training Conference, Oct 20-21, 1990, Kansas City, Missouri. Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, .

Meyer, I. K., and W. Gliksman. 1932. Ein neues technisches Verfahren zur Bekampfung von Speicherschadlingen (A new technical procedure to combat of storage pest. Nachrichten uber Schadlingsbekampfung 7:110-113.

Millard, R. 1962. Bugs cause “hot box” by excessive activity, Recirculation triumphs, warm air currents develop upwards carrying moisture of insects’ respiration. Grain Terminals and Processing Plants

Moffet, E.C. 1927 Fumigating process U.S. Patent No. 1,913,186.

Monro, H. A. 1956. History of the use of the recirculation method for applying fumigants in grain storage. Down to Earth 11:19-21.

Navarro, S., E. G. Jay, and J. G. Leesch. 1986. Recirculation rate requirements for adequate distribution of carbon dioxide in grain bins. American Society of Agricultural Engineers.Transactions 29:1348-1354.

Noyes, R. T., Kenkel, P., Criswell, J. T., and Cuperus, G. W. 1996. Manifolding and sealing installation methods for manifolded phosphine recirculation systems in multiple concrete silos in US elevators. p. 359 In Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Cyprus.

Noyes, R. T., P. Kenkel, and G. Tate. 1995. Closed Loop Fumigation Systems, pp. 153-161. In V. Krischik, G. Cuperus and D. Galliart (eds.), Stored Product Management, vol. E912. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

Noyes, R. T., and Kenkel, P. 1994. Closed loop fumigation systems in the south-western
United States. Pages 335-341 in: Proc. 6th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection. (Canberra, Australia.) E. Highley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks, and B. R. Champ, Eds. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.

Noyes, R., Navarro, S. and Armitage, D. 2002. Supplemental Aeration Systems. In The Mechanics and Physics of Modern Grain Aeration Management, 413-488 (Eds S. Navarro and R. Noyes). Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press.

Noyes, R.T., T.W. Phillips, G.W. Cuperus, and E.L. Bonjour. 1999. Advances in recirculation fumigation technology in the U.S.A. pp. 554-561. In: Zuxun, J., L. Quan, L. Yongsheng, T. Xianchang, and G. Langhua, Eds. Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection. Beijing, China. 14-19 October 1998. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China.

Phillips, G. L. 1952. Methyl bromide fumigation of cottonseed in freight cars for the destruction of pink bollworm. USDA-ARA-BEPQ-E-838

Phillips, G. L. 1955. Grain fumigation. Part I. Agric. Chem. 10:55-56, 111-121.

Phillips, G. L. 1955. Grain fumigation. Part II. Agric. Chem. 10:41-43, 133, 125.

Phillips, G. L. 1956. Use of the aeration system to distrubute methyl bromide in the fumigation of wheat stored in silo-type elevator tanks by the forced distribution method. USDA-AMS-MRD-BSB-A-161.

Phillips, G. L. 1957. Experiments on distributing methyl bromide in bulk grains with aeration systems. USDA, AMS-150

Phillips, G. L. 1957. Experiments on distributing liquid fumigants in bulk grains with aeration systems. USDA, AMS-151

Phillips, G. L. 1957. Experiments on distributing HCN in bulk grain with aeration system. USDA-AMS-152

Phillips, G. L. and W. G. Bodenstein. 1948. A Successful Large-Scale Experiment in Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Bulk Cottonseed for Pink Bollworm Control. J. Econ. Entomol. 41(5): 804-805

Phillips, G. L., and R. Latta. 1953. Value of forced circulation in the fumigation of bulk commodities in freight cars. Down to Earth 8:13-15.

Phillips, G. L., W. K. Whitney, C. L. Storey, and H. H. Walkden. 1959. Bulk cocoa bean fumigation for tobacco moth: gravity penetration vs. recirculation. Pest Control 27:39-42, 44.

Pustet, A. 1932. Ein Versuch zur Begasung von Speicherschadlingen in Getreidesilo mit Wechselluftung (An attempt to fumigate storage pests in grain silo with exchange ventilation). Nachrichten uber Schadlingsbekampfung 7:136-145. R. A. E. A 26: 120.

Redlinger, L. M. 1957. Studies on fumigating rice in flat storage by the forced circulation method. Rice J. 60:18-23.

Storey, C. L. 1960. What are the prerequisites to any successful fumigation in the forced vs. gravity way? Infestation problems multiply: excessively expenses for the uninformed. Grain and Feed Journals 117: 49-50.

Storey, C. L. 1967. Comparative study of methods of distributing methyl bromide in flat storages of wheat: gravity-penetration, single pass, and closed recirculation. USDA, ARS-MRR-794 .

Storey, C. L. 1971. Distribution of grain fumigants in silo-type elevator tanks by aeration systems. USDA Marketing Research Report 915

Storey, C. L. 1971. Three methods for distributing methyl bromide in farm-type bins of wheat and corn. USDA

Storey, C. L. 1971. Effect of temperature and commodity on distribution of CC14-CS2 (80:20) and EDC-CC14 (75:25) applied by gravity penetration and closed recirculation. J. Econ. Entomol. 64:227-230.

Thomas, D. 1979. Fumigation of horizontal and vertical storages with methyl bromide using recirculatory techniques. In Evans, D.E., Ed. Australian contributions to the symposium on the protection of grain against insect damage during storage, Moscow, U.S.S.R. July. 1978. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)

Whitney, W. K. and E. E. Kenaga. 1960. Distribution and sorption of liquid fumigants applied to wheat by recirculation. J. Econ. Entomol. 53:259-261.

Wilson, A. D. 1980. Pilot commercial treatment of bulk wheat with CO2 for insect control; the need for gas recirculation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 20:618-624.

Wilson, A. D. et al. 1984. Use in recirculation of carbon dioxide in welded steel bins in Victoria. In Ripp, B.E., Ed. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Carrier Solvent

Banks, H. J. et al. 1987. Bromine-containing residues resulting from fumigation of grain with methyl bromide-carbon dioxide mixtures. J. Stored Prod. Res. 23:105-113.

Bond, E. J., and C. T. Buckland. 1978. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of fumigants in atmospheres of carbon dioxide. J. Econ. Entomol. 71:307-309.

Cotton, R. T. 1930. Carbon dioxide as an aid in the fumigation of certain highly adsorbtive commodities. J. Econ. Entomol. 23: 231-233.

Cotton, R. T., and H. A. Young. 1929. Use of carbon dioxide to increase the insecticidal efficacy of fumigants. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 31: 97-102.

Cotton, R. T. and Harry D. Young. 1935. Fumigants. U. S. Patent No. 2, 024, 027

Dennis, N. M., and N. M. Whitney. 1955. Effect of varying the volatilization of methyl bromide by combinations with various solvents on its distribution in bulk grain fumigation. USDA-AMS-73.

Dumas, T. and E. J. Bond. 1977. Penetration, sorption, and desorption of fumigant in the treatment of food materials with a methyl bromide-acrylonitrile mixture. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25:677-680.

Jones, R. M. 1938. Toxicity of fumigant-CO, mixtures to the red flour beetle. J. Econ Entomol. 31, 298-309.

Kashi, K., and E. Bond. 1975. Toxic Action of Phosphine – Role of Carbon-Dioxide on Toxicity of Phosphine to Sitophilus-Granarius (L) and Tribolium confusum Duval. J. Stored Prod. Res. 11: 9-15.

Leesch, J. G. 1991. Effect of low concentrations of carbon dioxide on the penetration of phosphine through wheat., pp. 859-865. In F. Fluerat-Lessard and P. Ducom eds., 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection. Bordeaux, France. September 9-14, 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Medoc, Bordeaux-Blanquefort, France.

Leesch, J. G. 1992. Carbon dioxide on the penetration and distribution of phosphine through wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 156-161.

Navarro, S. 1986. Gaseous fumigant mixtures, with special reference to mixtures of carbon dioxide with phosphine or methyl bromide. p. 150-158. In Anonymous GASGA Seminar on fumigation in developing countries, 18-21 MAR 1986, Slough, United Kingdom.

Storey, C. L. 1971. Distribution of chloropicrin used alone or mixed wtih 80:20 to fumigate wheat and sorghum. USDA

Viljoen, J. H. et al. 1981. Fumigation trials with a mixture of methyl bromide and carbon dioxide in larger type silo bins storage pests. Phytophylactica Plantbeskermingswetenskappe en mikrobiologie (Plant protection sciences and microbiologie) 13: 127-137.

Wainman, H. E. et al. 1983. Use of a methyl bromide/carbon dioxide mixture as a space fumigant. International Pest Control 25: 174-175.

Williams, P. et al. 1984. Commercial potential of methyl bromide and carbon dioxide mixtures for disinfesting grain. In Ripp, B.E. Ed. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Perforated Tubing

Leesch, J. G., R. Davis, J. L. Zettler, D. R. Sukkestad, J. M. Zehner, and L. M. Redlinger. 1986. Use of perforated tubing to distribute phosphine during the in-transit fumigation of wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 1583-1589.

Zettler, J. L., H. B. Gillenwater, L. M. Redlinger, J. G. Leesch, R. Davis, L. L. McDonald, and J. M. Zehner. 1984. Efficacy of perforated tubing in assisting phosphine distribution for in-transit fumigation of export corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 77:675-679.

Trickle Method

Anderson, Ian. 1989. Pumps deliver a fatal blow to grain pests. New Scientist 24 June

McGaughey, W. H. and R. G. Akins. 1989. Application of modified atmospheres in farm grain storage bins. J. Stored Prod. Res. 25(4): 201-210.

Pratt, S. J. 1998. Phosphine levels outside grain stores during Siroflo® fumigation. p. 391-398. In Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection

Ralph, W. 1988. A new way of fumigating with phosphine. Rural Research: CSIRO Quarterly 140:15-18.

Rees, D. P. and Starick, Noel. 2000. Controlling the psocid Liposcelis decolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) infesting grain in open-topped, concrete vertical bins with a combination treatment of phosphine (SIROFLO®) and a space treatment of dichlorvos. p. 132-136. In Proceedings of the 2nd Australian Postharvest Technical Conference. 1-4 August, 2000, CSIRO-SGRL, Australia

Varnava, A., and D. Yiasoumis. 2008. Aeration, fumigation by Siroflo®/Eco2Fume® and storage in modern bunkers and hermetic platforms under PVC – A review of three ecologically friendly technologies used for grain storage and protection in Cyprus. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 40:371-379.

Winks, R. G. 1992. The development of SIROFLO® in Australia. p. 399-410 In Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages

Winks, R. G. and Russell, G. F. 1994. Effectiveness of SIROFLO® in vertical silos. p. 1245-1249. In Proc. 6th Int. Working Conf. on Stored-Product Protection

Sorption

Banks, H. J. 1986. Sorption and desorption of fumigants on grains: mathematical descriptions. p. 179-193. In Champ, B.R.; Highley, E., Eds. Pesticides and humid tropical grain storage systems.

Berck, B. 1965. Sorption of ethylene dibromide, ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride by cereal products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 13:248-254.

Berck, B. 1968. Sorption of phospine by cereal products. Agric.Food and Chem. 16:419-425.

Berck, B. et al. 1970. Rapid determination of sorption affinity of phosphine by fumigation within a gas chromotographic column. J. Agric. Food Chem. 18:148-153.

Bielorai, Rachel and Eugenia Alumot. 1975. Temperature effect on fumigant desorption from cereal grain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:426-429.

Bond, E. J. 1978. Use of titrated phosphine for studies on absorption of the fumigant by insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 844-846.

Bond, E. 1980. Sorption of tritiated phosphine by various stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). J. Stored Prod. Res. 16: 27-31.

Braby, M. 1992. Sorption of methallyl chloride on wheat. J-Stored-Prod-Res 28:183-186.

Carpenter, E. L. et al. 1938. Sorption of hydrocyanic acid by different species of insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 31:270-275.

Cofie-Agblor, R., W. E. Muir, D. S. Jayas, and N. D. G. White. 1998. Carbon dioxide sorption by grains and canola at two CO2 concentrations. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 159-170.

Cotton, R. T., H. H. Walkden, and R. B. Schwitzgebel. 1944. Role of sorption in the fumigation of stored grain and milled cereal products. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 17: 98-103.

Daglish, G. J., and H. Pavic. 2008. Effect of phosphine dose on sorption in wheat. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:513-518.

Daglish, G. J., and H. Pavic. 2009. Changes in phosphine sorption in wheat after storage at two temperatures. Pest Manag. Sci. 65:1228-1232.

Dhaliwal, G. S., and R. Lal. 1974. Studies on the behaviour, sorption and residues of phosphine in fumigated commodities. Bulletin of Grain Technology 12:14-24.

Dhaliwal, G. S. 1975. Analysis of some important factors affecting sorption of fumigants by food commodities. Journal of Food Science and Technology 12: 1-5.

Dumas. T. 1980. Phosphine sorption and desorption by stored wheat and corn. JournaI of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 28, 337-339.

El Rafie, M. S. 1954. Fumigation of agricultural products. X.Sorption of carbon disulphide by wheat and flour. J. Sci. Food Agric. 5: 536-541.

El-Lakwah, F. 1978. Sorption of phosphine (ph3) and of mixtures of phosphine plus methyl bromide by expellers and extracted byproducts of oilseeds. Nachrichtenblatt des deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes 30:113-117.

El-Lakwah, F. 1978. Untersuchungen uber das Sorptionsverhalten Verschiedener Expeller und Extraktionsschrote bei Methylbromidbegasung. (Studies on the absorption behavior of Different expeller and extraction meal with methyl bromide fumigation) Nachrichtenblatt des deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes (Newsletter of the German Plant Protection Service) 30: 1-7.

El-Lakwah, F. A., C. Reichmuth, M. M. Khattab, and A. A. Darwish. 1989. Sorption of phosphine by larvae and pupae of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), Lepidoptera; Gelechiidae. Egypt.J.Appl.Sci. 4:1-21.

Goodship, J. et al. 1982. Effects of the moisture content on the sorption and desorption behaviour of fumigants on grain with special reference to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Pestic. Sci. 13: 149-155.

Gorringe, B. S. 1955. Fumigation of agricultural products. XI.-Sorption of mercury vapour by wheat. J. Sci. Food Agric. 6: 791-799.

Griffin, E. L., and E. A. Back. 1924. Absorption and retention of hydrocyanic acid by fumigated food products. Part II. USDA Bulletin 1307.

Griffin, E. L., I. E. Neifert, N. Perrine, and A. B. Duckett. 1923. Absorption and retention of hydrocyanic acid by fumigated food products. USDA Department Bulletin 1149 .

Harein, P., and G. Krause. 1961. differential sorption of fumigant formulations by wheat and relative toxicity to adult rice weevil, Sitophilus sasakii. J. Econ. Entomol. 54:261-264.

Heuser, S. G. 1959. Determination of fumigants: gas measurements in sorption tests. J. Sci. Food Agric. 10:90-93.

Heuser, S. G. (1959). Behaviour of fumigants during vacuum fumigation. IV.—Sorption of fumigants by wheat and wheat feed under atmospheric and reduced pressure. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 10(2), 93-100

Hilton, S. J., and H. J. Banks. 1997. Methyl bromide sorption and residues on sultanas and raisins. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33:231-249.

Husain, S. et al. 1958. Standardization of doses of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride (3:1) mixture in relation to insect resistance and sorption exhibited by rice. Agriculture Pakistan 9: 82-87.

Hwaidi, Mudhir, Patrick J. Collins, Mike Sissons, Hervoika Pavic, Manoj K. Nayak. 2015. Sorption and desorption of sulfuryl fluoride by wheat, flour and semolina. Journal of Stored Product Research 62: 65-73.

Isikber, A. A., S. Navarro, S. Finkelman, M. Rindner, and R. Dias. 2005. Sorption of propylene oxide by various commodities. J. Stored Prod. Res. 41:311-321.

James, D., T. Willis, and K. Damcevski. 2009. Modelling the kinetics of ethyl formate sorption by wheat using batch experiments. Pest Manag. Sci. 65:982-990.

Lubatti, O. F. 1945. Sorption of fumigants. Nature 155: 577.

Lubatti, O. F. et al. 1948. Determination of fumigants. XIX. Sorption of methyl bromide by onion seed. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.(Great Britain) 67: 297-309.

Lubatti, O. F. et al. 1948. Determination of fumigants. XX. Sorption of methyl bromide in potatoes. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.(Great Britain) 67: 347-354.

Mitsuda, H., F. Kawai, M. Kuga, and A. Yamamoto. 1973. Mechanisms of carbon dioxide gas adsorption by grains and its application to skin packaging. Journal of Nutrition Science 19:71-83.

Muthu, M. et al. 1978. A simple method of determining the sorption affinity of foodstuffs to phosphine. Chemistry and Industry 129-131.

Noack, S. et al. 1982. Desorption von Phosphorwasserstoff nach Vorratsschutzbegasungen von Lebensmitteln. (Desorption of hydrogen phosphide fumigation of food after storage protection) Ernahrungs Umschau 29: 241.

O’Donnell, A. E. 1958. Effectiveness of certain grain fumigant formulations and the significance of sorption by wheat on their action. PhD Thesis, Kansas State University Department of Entomology

O’Donnell, A. E. 1965. Effectiveness of grain fumigant formulations. III. sorption studies. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 38:355-358.

Olomucki, E. et al. 1955. Problems connected with ethylene dibromide fumigation of cereals. I. Sorption of ethylene dibromide by grain. J. Sci. Food Agric. 6:592-600.

Paes, J. L. 2008. Difusao e sorcao do isotiocianato alilo e o seu efeito no controle de Sitophilus zeamais e na qualidade do milho. (Diffusion and sorption of allyl isothiocyanate and its effect on the control of Sitophilus zeamais and maize quality) Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa

Page, A. B. and R E. Blackith 1954. Fumigation of agricultural products. IX.-sorption of fumigants at reduced pressures. J. Sci. Food Agric. 5:373-376.

Park, S. W. et al. 1975. Sorption kinetics and equilibria of carbon tetrachloride on wheat. Cereal Chem. 52:611-619.

Pedersen, J., D. Wetzel, and M. Soltis. 1976. Migration and Sorption Studies of Fumigants in Stored Grain by use of Long Path Infrared Spectrophotometry. Cereal Foods World 21:440-440.

Pepper, J. H. et al. 1947. Mode of absorption of carbon tetrachloride by wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 40:64-73.

Plaut, M. et al. 1957. Ethylene dibromide as seed fumigant, and its absorption by oil seeds. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association.Comptes rendus de l’Association internationale d’essais de semences.Mitteilungen der Internationalen Vereinigung fur Saatgutprufung. 22: 1-8.

Pratt, S. 2003. A new measure of uptake: desorption of unreacted phosphine from susceptible and resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 39:507-520.

Rajendran, S., and M. Muthu. 1981. Sorption Affinity of various Stored Products Towards Acrylonitrile. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 18:234-236.

Rangaswamy, J. R. 1985. Phosphine residue and its desorption from cereals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 33: 1102-1106.

Rangaswamy, J. R. 1986. Desorption of phosphine from milled products of wheat. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Technologie 19:279-282.

Rangaswamy, J.R. and Sasikala, V.B. 1990. Comparative Behaviour of Cashew Kernel and Wheat to Phosphine Fumigation. Journal of Food Science and Technology 27(5): 284-289.

Rauscher, H.; Mayr, G. E. and Sullivan, J. B. 1972. Sorption and recovery of phosphine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20:331-333.

Reddy, Palvai Vanitha, Rajashekar Yellappa, Khamrunissa Begum, Bhadravathi Chandrappa Leelaja, and Somiahnadar Rajendran. 2007. The Relation between Phosphine Sorption and Terminal Gas Concentrations in Successful Fumigation of Food Commodities. Pest Management Science 63(1): 96-103.

Reed, Carl C. and Hongde Pan. 2000. Loss of Phosphine from Unsealed Bins of Wheat at Six Combinations of Grain Temperature and Moisture Content. Journal of Stored Products Research 36(3): 263-279.

Reif, H. 1974. Adsorption properties of phosphine at the fumigation of tobacco. (Das Adsorptive Verhalten von Phosphin bei der Tabakbegasung). Fachliche Mitteilungen 1-5.

Ren, Y., B. Lee, and B. Padovan. 2011. Penetration of methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, ethanedinitrile and phosphine into timber blocks and the sorption rate of the fumigants. J. Stored Prod. Res. 47:63-68.

Rogers, C. E. et al. 1960. Sorption, diffusion, and permeation of organic vapors in polyethylene. Journal of Polymer Science 45: 61-82.

Sato, K. et al. 1974. Adsorption of hydrogen phosphide to cereal products. Applied Entomology and Zoology Nihon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkai 9:127-132.

Sinclair, W. B. et al. 1964. Effects of temperature, reduced pressure, and moisture content on sorption and retention of ethylene dibromide by wheat and corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 57:470-475.

Somade, H. M. 1955. Fumigation of agricultural products. XII.-Sorption of methyl bromide on groundnuts. J. Sci. Food Agric. 6: 799-804.

Somay Y, Kishino H and Akagawa T, Sorption of phosphine in cereal grains and beans. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan 32:47–50 (1996

Vincent, L. E., and D. L. Lindgren. 1971. Comparison of the sorption of hydrogen phosphide, methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide, and hydrocyanic acid by wheat and corn of different moisture contents and load factors. J. Econ. Entomol. 64:122-123.

Weller, G. L. 2002. Sorption of carbonyl sulfide by stored products, pp. 493-497. In P. F. Credland, D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002, York, UK. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Wells, A. W. 1954. Sorption of carbon dioxide by nut meats. Science 120:188.

Winteringham, F. P. et al. 1946. Sorption of methyl bromide by wheat. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.(Great Britain) 65:140-149.

Yamamoto, A. et al. 1980. Characteristics of carbon dioxide gas adsorption by grain and its components. In Shejbal, J. ed. Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grains. Rome, Italy. May 1980. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Yee Yeo, C. et al. 1969. Adsorption of chlordane by wheat flour from chlordane-treated shelf paper. J. Stored Prod. Res. 5:325-336.

Zettler, J. L., P. L. Hartsell, D. B. Allen, J. S. Muhareb, J. M. Hurley, and R. F. Gill. 2002. Sorption and insect toxicity of propylene oxide in dried fruits and nuts, pp. 921-924. In P. F. Credland, D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002, York, UK. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Wind

Banks, H. J., R. A. Longstaff, M. R. Raupach and J. J. Finnigan. 1983. Wind-induced pressure distribution on a large grain storage shed: prediction of wind-driven ventilation rates. J. Stored Prod. Res. 19:181-188.

Chayaprasert, W., D. E. Maier, K. E. Ileleji, and J. Y. Murthy. 2009. Effects of weather conditions on sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide leakage during structural fumigation in a flour mill. J. Stored Prod. Res. 45:1-9.

Longstaff, R. A. et al. 1983. A wind-tunnel model study of forced convective heat-transfer from a horizontal grain storage shed. J. Stored Prod. Res. 19:81-87.

Mulhearn, P. J., H. J. Banks, J. J. Finnigan, and P. C. Annis. 1976. Wind forces and their influence on gas loss from grain storage structures. J. Stored Prod. Res. 12:129-142.

Ponsford, P. 1970 Some wind-pressure measurements on a model of a group of closely-spaced cylindrical silos. N.P.L Aero Note No. 1088

Leakage

Banks, H. J. 1990. Behaviour of gases in grain storages. p. 96-107. In Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain, Proceedings of International Conference, Singapore.

Banks, H. J. and P. C. Annis. 1984. The importance of processes of natural ventilation to fumigation and controlled atmosphere storage. p. 299-323. In Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages: Proceedings of an International Symposium.

Bibby, I. P., and S. T. Conyers. 1998. Numerical simulations of gas exchange in leaky grain silos, using measured boundary conditions. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 217-229.

Chayaprasert, W., D. E. Maier, K. E. Ileleji, and J. Y. Murthy. 2009. Effects of weather conditions on sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide leakage during structural fumigation in a flour mill. J. Stored Prod. Res. 45: 1-9.

Chayaprasert, W., D. E. Maier, B. Subramanyam, and M. Hartzer. 2012. Gas leakage and distribution characteristics of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride during fumigations in a pilot flour mill. J. Stored Prod. Res. 50:1-7.

Chayaprasert, W., K. Nukham, and A. Sukcharoen. 2015. Evaluation of the superposition method for predicting gas leakage rates during fumigations in empty model silo. J. Stored Product Res. 64:13-20.

Cryer, Steven A. 2008. Predicted gas loss of sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide during structural fumigation. Journal of Stored Products Research 44(1): 1-10.

Cryer, S. A. and D. E. Barnekow. 2006. Estimating Outside Air Concentrations Surrounding Fumigated Grain Mills. Biosystems Engineering 94(4): 557-572.

Isa, Zaiton Mat, T. W. Farrell, G. R. Fulford, and N. A. Kelson. 2016. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of phosphine flow during grain fumigation in leaky cylindrical silos. Journal of Stored Products Research 67: 28-40

Jayas, D., White, N., Peck, M. and Muir, W. 2001. Validation of models for controlled atmosphere gas loss from bolted-steel granaries. p. 497-506. In Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S. and Leesch J.G. (eds.) Proc. Int. Conf. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Fresno, CA. 29 Oct. – 3 Nov. 2000, Executive Printing Services, Clovis, CA, U.S.A.

Lawrence, J., Maier, D. E., Subramanyam, B. and Chayaprasert, W. 2012. Mill pressurization test quantifies fumigant leakage rates during sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide fumigation of commercial flour mills. p: 590-595. In Banks, H. J., Jayas, D. S., Bell, C. H., Noyes, R. T., Ferizli, A. G., Emekci, M., Isikber, A. A., and Alagusundaram K. (eds.) Proc 9th. Intern. Conf. on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Antalya, Turkey. 15 – 19 October 2012, ARBER Professional Congress Services, Turkey

Maier, D. E., B. Subramanyam, and W. Chayaprasert. 2010. Comparison of leakage rates of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride during structural fumigations, pp. 230-236. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Reed, Carl C. and Hongde Pan. 2000. Loss of Phosphine from Unsealed Bins of Wheat at Six Combinations of Grain Temperature and Moisture Content. Journal of Stored Products Research 36(3): 263-279.

Ripp, B. E. 1984. Leak detection in sealed grain stores. p. 293-297. In Ripp, B. E. et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Sealing and Pressure Test

Alexander, I. 1984. Polyurethane Foam for Sealing Grain Storages, p. 145-158. In B. E. Ripp et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Andrews, A. 1987. Silo sealing, fumigation and grain insect control: report on a technical tour and seminar. New South Wales Department of Agriculture.

Banks, H. J., and B. E. Ripp . 1984. Sealing of grain storages for use with fumigants and controlled atmospheres. p. 375-390. In R. B. Mills, V. F. Wright, J. R. Pedersen, W. H. McGaughey, R. W. Beeman, K. J. Kramer, R. D. Speirs and C. L. Storey (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Working Conference on Stored-Product Entomology, 23-28 October, 1983, Manhattan, Kansas. Kansas State University.

Barry, C. 1984. Western Australian studies of sealing horizontal storages in 1980-1982. p. 269-280. In Ripp, B. E. et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Casada, M. E. and R. T. Noyes. 2001. Future bulk grain bin design needs related to sealing for optimum pest management: a researcher’s view. p. 457-465. In Proceedings of the International Conference Controlled Atmosphere Fumigation of Stored Products. October 29 – November 3, 2000, Fresno, California, USA. Executive Printing Services, Clovis, CA.

Chantler, D. 1984. The Adoption of Silo Sealing by Western Australian Farmers, pp. 683-705. In B. E. Ripp (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Collings, H. 1960. Hermetic sealing of a stack of maize with bituminous roofing felt. Trop. Agric. 37:53-60.

Guenha, R., B. d. V. Salvador, J. Rickman, L. F. Goulao, I. M. Muocha, and M. O. Carvalho. 2014. Hermetic storage with plastic sealing to reduce insect infestation and secure paddy seed quality: A powerful strategy for rice farmers in Mozambique. J. Stored Prod. Res. 59: 275-281

Jonsson, M., J. H. Viljoen and J. J. Coetzer. 1990. Sealing and its effect on carbon dioxide fumigation of maize in a concrete silo bin. Phytophylactica Plantbeskermingswetenskappe en mikrobiologie (Plant protection sciences and microbiologie) 22(3): 317-322.

Lehane, L. 1982. Permanent sealing of existing grain storages. Rural research : a CSIRO quarterly 116: 7-11.

Lloyd, D. J. 1984. Properties of various sealing membranes and coatings used for controlled atmosphere grain stores. p. 211-227. In Ripp, B. E. et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Loschiavo, S. R., and N. D. G. White. 1987. The loss of a grain fumigant mixture of carbon tetrachloride and carbon bisulfide through sealing and various covering materials. Can. Entomol. 119: 595-597.

Mann, D., D. Jayas, N. White, and W. Muir. 1997. Sealing of welded-steel hopper bins for fumigation of stored grain with carbon dioxide. Can. Agric. Eng. 39: 91-97.

Navarro, S. 1999. Pressure tests for gaseous applications in sealed storages: Theory and practice. p. 385-390. In Jin, Z.; Liang, Q.; Liang, Y.; Tan, X.; Guan, L. (Eds.) Proceedings of 7th international working conference on stored-product protection. 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China

Navarro, S. and J. L. Zettler 2001. Critical limits of sealing for successful application of controlled atmosphere or fumigation. p. 507-520. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products. October 29 – November 3, 2000, Fresno, California, USA. Executive Printing Services, Clovis, CA.

Newman, C. J. E. 1990. Specification and design of enclosures for gas treatment. p. 108-130. In Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain. Singapore, 14-18 February 1989. Proceedings series No. 25. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra.

Newman, C.R. 2006. Application of sealing technology to permanent grain storage in Australia p. 1305-1315. In Lorini, I.; Bacaltchuk, B.; Beckel, H.; Deckers, D.; Sundfeld, E.; dos Santos, J.P.; Biagi, J.D.; Celaro, J.C.; Faroni, L.R.D’A.; Bortolini, L.de O.F.; Sartori, M.R.; Elias, M.C.; Guedes, R.N.C.; da Fonseca, R.G.; Scusse, V.M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 15-18 October 2006, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Post-harvest Association – ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil.

Noyes, Ronald T., Thomas W. Philips, Gerrit W. Cuperus and Edmond L. Bomjour. 1999. Guidelines for sealing steel grain bins for fumigation. p. 1565-1569. In Jin, Z.; Liang, Q.; Liang, Y.; Tan, X.; Guan, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China.

O’Neil, C. 1984. Construction and operational problems arising in sealing large capacity horizontal storages, pp. 229-236. In B. E. Ripp et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Roop, Q. W. 1949. Plastic sealing of tobacco storage warehouses. USDA Production and Marketing Administration Misc. Publ. 684.

Semple, R. L. Insect Pests of stored grain and their control. Vol. 5. Grain fumigation and sealing requirements. ASEAN Crops Post-Harvest Programme.

Sonelal, J., K. K. Arora, K. K. Shivshankar, and V. Kumar. 1993. Development of suitable sealing mechanism for fumigation covers in commercial godown in India. Bulletin of Grain Technology 31: 3-5.

Sutherland, E. R., and G. Thomas. 1984. Silo Sealing with Envelon. p. 181-209. In B. E. Ripp et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Williams, P., W. Minett, S. Navarro, and T. G. Amos. 1980. Sealing a farm silo for insect control by nitrogen swamping or fumigation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 20: 108-114.

Williams, P., and G. Murphy. 1981. Sealing farm silos for fumigation of insect pests. p. 4-8. In P. Williams and T. G. Amos (eds.) Proceedings First Australian Stored Grain Pest Control Conference, 18-22 May 1981, Melbourne, Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO).

Woodcock, W. 1984. The Practical Side of Silo Sealing, pp. 133-144. In B. E. Ripp et al. (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

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