Prevalence of naturally occurring natural enemies

Natural enemies have frequently been found to be associated with pests in a wide variety field studies on stored product insects and mites as shown by the following 40 studies and in a few cases, numbers of natural enemies were sufficient to reduce pest populations. Studies differed in combinations of geographic location, commodity, host species and natural enemy species.

Abdel-Rahman, H. A., N. F. Shaumar, Z. A. Soliman, and M. A. El-Agoze 1981. Survey and Taxonomy of Parasites and Predators of Stored Grain and Grain Products Insects. Bulletin de La Societe Entomologique d’Egypte 61: 53–74.

Arbogast, R.T., and S.R. Chini 2005. Abundance of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) and Cadra cautella (Walker) Infesting Maize Stored on South Carolina Farms: Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Variation. Journal of Stored Products Research 41(5): 528–543.

Arbogast, R. T., and Mullen, M. A. 1990. Interaction of maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in a small bulk of stored corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 83(6): 2462-2468.

Arthur, F.H., D.W. Hagstrum, P.W. Flinn, C.R. Reed, and T.W. Phillips 2006. Insect Populations in Grain Residues Associated with Commercial Kansas Grain Elevators. Journal of Stored Products Research 42(2): 226–239.

Awadallah, K. T., A. I. Afifi, and I. I. El-Sebaey 1990. Population Studies on Meat Meal Insect Pests and Their Associated Natural Enemies. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypte 69: 159–167.

Awadallah, K. T., M. F. S. Tawfik, and M. M. H. Abdella 1982. Population Studies on Four Insect Pests and their Natural Enemies at Four Localities of Egypt. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypte 64: 95–109.

Awadallah, K. T., M. F. S. Tawfik, and M. M. H. Abdella 1982. Seasonal Fluctuations of Insect Pests and their Associated Natural Enemies in Stored Barley and Sorghum at Fayoum Governorate. Egypt. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypt 14: 111–119.

Basheer, Hamze Bilal Abdulnabi Mohamed, and Alaa Turky Saleh 2011. Survey and Abundance of Common Parasitoid and Predatory Species of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma Serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Tobacco Storage Warehouses in Syria. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 21(2): 151–153.

Belda, C., and J. Riudavets 2010. Distribution of Insect Pests and their Natural Enemies in a Barley Pile. p. 741–745. In Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection

Belda, Consuelo, and Jordi Riudavets 2013. Natural Enemies Associated with Lepidopteran Pests in Food and Feed Processing Companies. Journal of Stored Products Research 53: 54–60.

Eliopoulos, P. A., C. G. Athanaaiou, and C. H. Buchelos 2002. Occurrence of Hymeopterous Parasitoids of Stored Product Pests in Greece. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 25(3): 127–139.

Eliopoulos, P. A., Athanassiou, C. G., Palyvos, N. E., Stathas, G. J., and Buchelos, C. T. 2003. Dominance and frequency of predatory mites in stored products in Greece. Pages 258-262 in: Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proc. 8th.Int. Work. Conf. on Stored Prod. Prot., York, UK.

Eliopoulos, P. A., and C. G. Athanassiou. 2004. Seasonal Occurrence of Dried Fig Pests and their Parasitoids in a Fig Warehouse in Greece. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 27(9): 159–171.

El-Shafie, H.A.F. 2012. List of Arthropod Pests and Their Natural Enemies Identified Worldwide on Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera L. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 3(12): 516–24.

Froggatt, W. W. 1912. Parasitic enemies of the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella, Zeller.). Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 23: 307–311.

Hagstrum D.W. 1987. Seasonal variation of stored wheat environment and insect populations. Environmental Entomology 16: 77–83.

Hagstrum, D. W., and Sharp, J. E. 1975. Population studies on Cadra cautella in a citrus pulp warehouse with particular reference to diapause. J. Econ. Entomol. 68: 11-14.

Harish, G., A. Naganagoud, A. G. Sreenivas, Sharangouda Hiregoudar, and B. Kisan 2018. Diversity and Distribution of Stored Grain Insect Pests of Pulses and their Natural Enemies. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 52 (2): 157–161.

Helbig, J. 1998. Ability of Naturally Occurring Parasitoids to Suppress the Introduced Pest Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) in Traditional Maize Stores in Togo. Journal of Stored Products Research 34(4): 287–295.

Hirabayashi, Jan Misa. 2004. Dynamics and Parasitism of Stored Product Pests in Traditionally Stored Maize in Rural Mexico. PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley

Johnson, J.A., K.A. Valero, M.M. Hannel, and R.F. Gill 2000. Seasonal Occurrence of Postharvest Dried Fruit Insects and their Parasitoids in a Culled Fig Warehouse. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(4): 1380–1390.

Kiruba, Solomon, Sarma Mohan, Sathiadas Sam Manohar Das, and Smaragdi Papadopoulou 2012. Experimental Confirmation of the Bruchidae Natural Parasitism Efficacy Using an Innovative Device, Friendly to the Environment (Parasitoid Facilitator Bin). Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 26(1): 2722–2725.

Lukáš, J., E. Žd’árková, M. Wakefield, and J. Hubert 2002. Parasitoids Occurring in Food-Processing Factories and Grain Stores. p. 83–86. In Eva Zdarkova, Mauren Wakefield, Jan Lukas, and Jan Hubert eds. Biological Control of pest insects and mites with special reference of entomophthorales. Proceedings of the second meeting of working group 4, COST Action 842,  Research Institute of Crop Production.

McNally, Alfred Gordon 1932. The biology of Lariophagus distinguendus Foerster a Hymenopterous parasite of the grain and rice weevils. MA thesis, University of Western Ontario, Canada

Pascual-Villalobos, M.J., R. Carreres, J. Riudavets, M. Aguilar, J.M. Bozal, M. C. García, and P. del Estal 2006. Plagas Del Arroz Almacenado y Sus Enemigos Naturales En Espana (Pests of Stored Rice and their Natural Enemies in Spain). Bol. San. Veg. Plagas 32: 225–231.

Pascual Villalobos, M. J., Baz, A. and Del Estal, P. 2005. Occurrence of psocids and natural predators on organic rice in Calasparra (Murcia, Spain). J. Stored Prod. Res. 41: 231-235.

Reed, C.R., D.W. Hagstrum, P.W. Flinn, and R.F. Allen 2003. Wheat in Bins and Discharge Spouts, and Grain Residues on Floors of Empty Bins in Concrete Grain Elevators as Habitats for Stored-Grain Beetles and their Natural Enemies. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(3): 996–1004.

Schneider, V., Beukeboom, L.W., Driessen, G., Lapchin, L., Bernstein, C. and Van Alphen, J.J.M. 2002. Geographical distribution and genetic relatedness of sympatrical thelytokous and arrhenotokous populations of the parasitoid Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15: 191–200.

Stejskal, V., J. Lukáš, E. Žd’árková, M. Wakefield, and J. Hubert 2002. Spatial Arrangement of Venturia canescens and Ephestia Kuehniella in the Extremely Infested Pasta-Producing Factory: A Case History. 116–117. In Biological Control of pest insects and mites with special reference of entomophthorales. Proceedings of the second meeting of working group 4, COST Action 842 , Research Institute of Crop Production.

Stejskal, V., P. Kosina, and L. Kanyomeka. 2006. Arthropod Pests and their Natural Enemies in Stored Crops in Northern Namibia. Journal of Pest Science 79 (1): 51–55.

Suma, P., Amante, M., Bella, S., La Pergola, A. and Russo, A. 2014. Stored-product insect natural enemies in wheat industry in Sicily. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98: 227–233.

Takahashi, K., T. Ohbayashi, and N. Sota 2000. Investigation of Stored-Product Insect Pests and their Natural Enemies in Chichijima Island, Ogasawara (Bonin), Japan [In Japanese with English Summary]. Jpn.J.Ent.(N.S.) 3: 97–103.

Takahashi, K., and M. V. Romero 2001. Investigation of Stored-Product Insect Pests and their Natural Enemies in Okinawa-Jima and Ishigaki-JimaIslands, Okinawa, Japan. Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series) 4(3): 91–97.

Tawfik, M. F., K. T. Awadallah, and M. M. H. Abdella 1984. Population Studies on Wheat Grain Insect Pests and their Natural Enemies at Four Localities in Egypt. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 2(1): 267–80.

Tawfik, M. F. S., M. T. Kira, and S. M. I. Metwally. 1974. On the Abundance of Major Pests and their Associated Predators in Corn Plantation. Bulletin de La Societe Entomologique d’Egypte 58: 168–177.

Tawfik, M. F. S., K. T. Awadallah, M. M. El-Husseini, and A. I. Afifi 1984. Survey on Stored Drug Insect Mite Pests and their Associated Natural Enemies in Egypt. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt 65: 267–274.

van Alebeek, F. A. N. 1996. Natural suppression of bruchid pests in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in West Africa. Int. J. Pest Manage. 42: 55-60.

Waller, J. B. 1982. A Record of Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7(3): 319.

Williams, R. N., Floyd, E. H. 1971: Effect of two parasites, Anisopteromalus calandrae and Choetospila elegans upon populations of the maize weevil under laboratory and natural conditions. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 1407-1408.

Zipagan, M. B., and E. P. Pacumbaba 1996. Insect Pests of Copra and Copra Meal in the Philippines and their Natural Enemies. Technical Reports Philippine Coconut Authority