Fitness costs of stored-product insect resistance have been studied by: 1) selection experiments, 2) measuring fitness components while controlling for genetic background (same strain before and after selection for resistance), and 3) measuring fitness components without controlling for genetic background. The fitness cost investigated included life histories (developmental time, fecundity, fertility and population growth), metabolism (respiration, fat body morphology and body weight) and behavior (walking, flying, mating and feeding). Studies have been done with 12 species of stored-product insect and more than 14 pesticides and pathogens. The majority of research (30 out of 39) has been done in Australia, Brazil, England and the US and since 1990 (32 out of 39).
Fitness costs were detected less frequently when studies controlled for genetic background. Jagadeesan et al. (2012) with Tribolium castaneum, Nguyen (2016) with Sitophilus oryzae and White and Bell (1990) with Cryptolestes ferrugineus concluded that fitness costs are either too minor to resolve or are not consistent enough for strategies, such as temporal rotation of chemicals or the use of refuges, to be effective in reducing resistance. Two studies (Lloyd and Parkin 1963, Tewari and Pandey 1978) concluded that resistant strains are more tolerant than susceptible strains to stresses such as starvation, heat, cold and desiccation. Research on the fitness costs of resistance for other species are reviewed by Coustau et al. (2011), Gassmann et al. (2009) and Kliot and Ghanim (2012).
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