The introduction of larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, into Tanzania in East Africa during the late 1970s and Togo in West Africa during the early 1980s, and the spread to at least 14 other African countries are mentioned in Fundamentals of Stored Product Entomology. The release of predator, Teretrius nigrescens, in Togo in 1991 and later Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia are also mentioned, as well as the increased enforcement of phytosanitary measures. The following references document the spread of larger grain borer and introduction of histerid predator in Africa, including an additional 5 countries and the history of phytosanitary measures in Africa. Hodges et al. 1999 argue that Prostephanus truncatus is poorly adapted to stored products.
Adda, C., Borgemeister, C., Meikle, W.G., Markham, R.H., Olaleye, I., Abdou, K.S. and Zakari, M.O. 1996. First record of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in Republic of Niger. Bulletin of Entomological Research 86: 83-85
Al-Sousi, A.J., El-Haidari, H. and Al-Ani, J.N. 1970. Outbreaks and new records. Iraq. Larger grain borer on maize. FAO Plant Protection Bull. 18, 92–93. Prostephanus truncatus introduced in Iraq with maize under World Food programme. Owing to 3 months transit and 3 months storage could not say where the infestation originated.
Aman, O.B., Schulthess, F., Masiga, D. and Van den Berg, J. 2007. On the diversity of Teretrius nigrescens, predator of the larger grain borer. 17ème Conférence de l’Association des Entomologistes Africains et de la Société Entomologique du Sénégal, 11-15 June 2007. Dakar, Senegal.
Anonymous, 1986. Further distribution of the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) in West Africa. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 34:213-214
Bonzi, S.M. and Ntambabazi, C. 1993. Primier cas de grand capuchin du maïs (Prostephanus truncatus) signalé au Rwanda. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 41:204-205.
Borgemeister, C., Djossou, F., Adda, C., Schneider, H., Djomamou, B., Azoma, K., and Markham, R. H. 1997. Establishment, spread and impact of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae), an exotic predator of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in southwestern Benin. Environ. Entomol. 26:1405-1415.
Bosque-Perez, N.A., Traore, S., Markham, R.H. and Fajemisin, J.M. 1991. Occurrence of larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), in Burkina Faso. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 39:182-183.
Calderon, M. and Donahaye, E. 1962. Outbreaks and Records. Israel. First record of Prostephanus truncatus in stored grain. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 10: 43–44. Not found at import inspection of maize but found after 6 months of storage in Israel.
Chittenden, F.H. (1911) Papers on insects affecting stored products: The lesser grain borer, the larger grain borer. Bull. Bureau Entomol. US Dept. Agriculture 96: 29–52.
Cross, Michael 1985. Boring into Africa’s grain: A new insect from Central America is suddenly devastating maize stores in Tanzania. NewScientist 106: 10–11. 16 May 1985. Theory is that Prostephanus truncatus was introduced into Tanzania in seed maize given as aid to foreign refugees in Tabora, but in the highly political world of international aid, no one is saying who was responsible.
Cugala, D., A. Sidumo, L. Santos, B. Mariquele, V. Cumba and M. Bulha. 2007. Assessment of status, distribution and weight lost due to Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Mozambique. p. 975-979. In Ahmed, K. Z. ed. 8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007, African Crop Science Society
Dick, K. M. and Rees, D.P. 1989. Occurrence of larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), in Ghana. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 37:132.
Dunkel, F. V. 1992. The Stored Grain Ecosystem A Global Perspective. J. Stored Prod. Res. 28:73-87. Prostephanus truncatus brought into Burma, Tanzania and Togo with emergency food shipment.
Dunstan, W.R and Magazini, I.A. 1981. Outbreaks and new records, United Republic of Tanzania. The larger grain borer on stored products. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 29:80-81.
Farrell, G., M. G. Hill, F. L. O. Nang’Ayo, and A. Stabrawa. 1996. A review of investigations to improve pest management of stored maize in smallholder farms in Kenya. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 1(4): 251-263.
Farrell, G. 2000. Dispersal, phenology and predicted abundance of the larger grain borer in different environments. Afr. Crop Sci. J. 8: 337–343.
Farrell, G., and G. G. M. Schulten. 2002. Larger grain borer in Africa; a history of efforts to limit its impact. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7(2): 67-84.
Giles, P. H., Hill, M. G., Nang’ayo, F. L. O., Farrell, G., and Kibata, G. N. 1996. Release and establishment of the predator Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis for the biological control of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in Kenya. Afr. Crop Sci. J. 4:325-337.
Gilimonee, J.H. 2011. Recent establishment of many alien insects in South Africa – A cause of concern. African Crop Science Journal 19:151-155.
Gilman, G. A. 1985. Occurrence and economic importance of Prostephanus truncatus and supra-regional efforts to hinder further spread in Africa. p. 66-72. In Control of infestation by Trogoderma granarium and Prostephanus truncatus to stored products. (An International Seminar. Lome: Togo, 10-15 Dec. 1984). Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany
Golob, P. 1988. Current Status of the Larger Grain Borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in Africa. Insect Sci. Appl. 9: 737-745.
Gueye, M.T., Goergen, G., Badiane, D., Hell, K. and Lamboni, L. 2008. First report of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) occurrence in Senegal. African Entomology 16: 309-311.
Harnisch, R. and Krall, S. 1984. Further distribution of the larger grain borer in Africa. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 32:113-114.
Hill, M. G., Nang’ayo, F. L. O., and Wright, D. J. 2003. Biological control of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Kenya using a predatory beetle Teretrius nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 93:299-306.
Hodges, R. J., L. A. Birkinshaw, and R. H. Smith. 1999. Host selection or mate selection? Lessons from Prostephanus truncatus, a pest poorly adapted to stored products, pp. 1788-1794. In Z. Jin, Q. Liang, Y. Liang, X. Tan and L. Guan (eds.), Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China.
Hodges, R.J., Farrell, G. and Golob, P. 1996. Review of the Larger Grain Borer outbreak in East Africa – rate of spread and pest status. In G. Farrell, A.H. Greathead, M.G. Hill and G.N. Kibata (eds) Management of Farm Storage Pests in East and Central Africa. Proc. East Central Africa Storage Pest Management Workshop, 14–19 April 1996, Naivasha, Kenya. Ascot: International Institute of Biological Control.
Hodges, R.J., Wright, M. and Hamilton-Peach, J. 1995. Larger grain borer – a threat to the grain trade and food security of West Africa. Report for the Commission of European Communities DGVIII. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute. 156 p.
Kalivogui, K. and Müch, O. 1989. Larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus, in Guinea. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 39:43.
Kega, V.K. and Warui, C.W. 1983. Prostephanus truncatus in Coast Province Kenya. Tropical Stored Product Information 46:2.
Krall, S. 1984. A new threat to farm level maize storage in West Africa: Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coloeptera; Bostrichidae). Trop. Stored Prod. Inf. 50, 26–31.
Larsen, A. 1998. Namibian crop pests. http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/103/pests. Accessed: 23 September 2013.
Markham, R.H., Wright, V.F. and Rios Ibarra, R.M. 1991. A selective review of research on Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera Bostrichidae) with an annotated and updated bibliography. Ceiba 32:1–90. https://revistas.zamorano.edu/index.php/CEIBA/article/viewFile/1006/950
Pheromone traps have revealed that Prostephanus truncatus is more widely and continuously distributed than suggested by sampling commodities. For example, it was found in 131 out 139 20 km squares in Togo. A record from Thailand was a misidentification. More recently Prostephanus truncatus was intercepted on imported exhibit and dried flower blossoms from China, imports from Hong Kong into US and new host from India. Reported outbreak in Guinea may represent a third introduction.
Muatinte, Bernardo Lázaro, J. Van den Berg, and L. A. Santos. 2014. Prostephanus truncatus in Africa: A review of biological trends and perspectives on future pest management strategies. African Crop Science Journal 22(3): 237-256.
The Larger grain borer damages maize and dry cassava chips as well as wheat, rice, chickpea, sweet potatoes, sorghum, several other legume crops and stored timber. Dispersal by flight and transport by traded commodities have resulted in the spread and establishment in nine countries in West Africa in approximately 23 years, five countries of Eastern and Central Africa in 16 years and six countries of Southern Africa in 14 years. Infestation from Tanzania (1981) spread to Kenya (1983) then Burundi (1984), Rwanda (1993) and Uganda (1997). Infestation from Togo (1984) spread to Benin (1986) then Guinea Conakri (1988), Guinea Bissau (1988), Ghana (1989), Burkina Faso (1991), Nigeria (1992), Niger (1994) and Senegal (2007). Infestation Malawi (1991) spread to Zambia (1993), Namibia (1996), Mozambique (1999), South Africa (1999) and Zimbabwe (2005).
McFarlane, J. A. 1988. Pest management strategies for Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)(Coleoptera; Bostrichidae) as a pest of stored maize grain: Present status and prospects. International Journal of Pest Management 34(2): 121-132.
Milimo, J.M. and Munene, V. 1993. Technical Report of larger grain borer monitoring survey, Northern Province, Zambia, 16-29 September 1993. Tour Report, Mt. Makulu Research Station, Zambia. Mudsprings Geographers, 2001. AWhere-ACT 3.5. Mudsprings Geographers, Inc. USAID/CIMMYT.
Muhihu, S. K. and Kibata, G. N. 1985. Developing a control programme to combat an outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera) in Kenya. Tropical Science 25: 239-48.
In 1983, an outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus was detected in south-western Kenya over an area of 200 km2. The pest was found to be causing about 35% weight loss in maize stored for 6 months. An immediate control programme was initiated involving quarantine measures to regulate grain movement, shelling of maize cobs and admixing the grain with malathion or pirimiphos-methyl dusts at 10.0 and 2.5 p.p.m., respectively.
Munthali, S.C.M. 1992. The larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus in Malawi. Current status. Plant Protection Workshop, Lilongwe, Malawi. 1-5 June 1992.
Nyagwaya, L.D.M., Mvumi, B.M. and Saunyama, I.G.M., 2010. Occurrence and distribution of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 30(4): 221-231.
OAU 1988. Inter-African Plant Phytosanitary and Plant Quarantine Regulations. OAU Scientific and Technical Research 1 (1). Yaounde´ : Commission of the Inter-African Phytosanitary Council.
Opolot, O. and Odong, M. 1999. Overview of phytosanitary and quarantine services in Uganda. p. 24-29. In Nahdy, S. M. and Agona, J. A. eds. Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Stored–Product Insects Pests. Kampala, Uganda, 29th November-1st December, 1999.
Pike, V., Akinnabagbe, J.J.A. and Bosque-Perez, N.A. 1992. Nigeria-Larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) outbreak in Western Nigeria. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 40:170-173.
Richter, J., Biliwa, A., Helbig, J., and Henning-Helbig, S. 1998. First release of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col.: Histeridae), the predator of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae), and follow-up investigations in southern Togo. J. Appl. Entomol. 122: 383-387.
Roux, P.W.J. 1999. Larger grain borer: further developments. Plant Protection News (South Africa). Plant Protection Research Institute No. 55, Winter. pp. 3-4.
Schulten, G.G.M. 1987. Le grand capucin des grain Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) en Afrique et les mesures de lutte enterprises. pp. 393-420. En: Séminaire sur les maladies et les ravageurs des principles cultures vivirières d’Afrique central, Bujumbura, Burundi, Février 1987. CTA/AGCD No. 15.
Semple, R. Lindsay, and Geoffrey I. Kirenga. 1994. Facilitating regional trade of agricultural commodities in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: phytosanitary standards to restrict the further rapid spread of the Larger Grain Borer (LGB) in the region. Dar es Salaam Univ. Press.
Sukprakam, C. 1976. Insect pests of stored products found in Thaíland. Journal of Agricultural Science 1: 501-504.] [in Thai][not verified as Prostephanus truncatus]
Suma, P. and A. Russo. 2005. On the presence of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera Bostrychidae) in Italy. Boll. Zool. Agrar. Bachic. 37: 135-139.
Swart, Christelle. 2004. The story of the larger grain borer: Communicating Science to Rural Communities. Communicatio 30(2): 114-138.
Tyler, P., Golob, P., Compton, J. and Bickersteth, S. 1990. Study on Phytosanitary Requirements to Protect Maize Trade in Eastern and Southern African Countries from the Larger Grain Borer. Report for the Commission of the European Communities
Tyler, P. S., and R. J. Hodges. 2002. Phytosanitary measures against the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in international trade. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7(2): 279-289.
Establishment of Prostephanus truncatus in Africa was a failure of phytosanitary measures. Spread of larger grain borer in Africa by large grain shipments can be reduced by stringent phytosanitary inspection. However, much of grain movement within a country and across borders is by illicit, commercial movement of multiple truckloads of grain, or legally by individuals carrying headloads via bush paths or small parcels on public transport. Inspecting the small lots to prevention of further spread in Africa will be difficult.
A table shows which African countries have national phytosanitary legislation and whether Prostephanus truncatus is specified, country has inspection capability at ports or on frontier and has pest control at ports. Malawi also has phytosanitary legislation regulating Lasioderma serricorne and Ephestia elutella in imports.
Verma, B.R. and B. Lal. 1987. Record of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) from India with upon of a new host. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 35(3): 100. Found in new host jowar seed.
Verma, B.R., B. Lal and S.R. Wadhi. 1988. A quarantine note on Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) – a pest that needs to be watched. Current Science 57(15): 863-864. Intercepted in maize, rice and wheat, and a new host jowar seed
Verstraeten, C. and E. Haubruge. 1986. Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleóptera), nouveau ravageur inquiétant des produits entreposés en Afrique Subsaharienne [Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleóptera), a disquieting new pest of stored products in subsanaran África], Quatriéme congrés sur la protection de la santé humaine et des cultures en milieu tropical, Marseille, 2-4 juillet, 1986. pp.67-71.
Wong-Corral, F. J., M. Ramírez-Martínez, M. O. Cortez-Rocha, J. Borboa-Flores, and J. Leos-Martínez. 2001. Presence of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Sonora, Mexico, first report. Southwestern Entomologist 26(2): 151-158.
Zimmerman, M.L. 1990. Coleóptera found in imported stored-food products enteríng southem California and Arizona between December 1984 through December 1987. The Coleopterists Bulletin 44(2): 235-240. Prostephanus truncatus in imports from Hong Kong