Larval Mobility

Mobility of adult stored-product insects has been studied much more extensively than that of larvae. Larval mobility is important for their survival allowing them to find and utilize food and shelter. It also important in determining the extent and type of damage, exposure to insecticides and trap catch. Fundamentals of Stored-Product Entomology textbook deals very briefly with larval mobility of Cadra cautella (p. 42, 110), and Ephestia elutella and Trogoderma granarium (p. 55). Table 3 in Hagstrum, D. W. and Bh. Subramanyam. 2010. Immature insects: Ecological roles of mobility. (American Entomologist 56(4): 230-241) lists 13 additional species of stored-product insects that leave feeding sites to find pupation sites. Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites adds three species to this list and discusses how this dispersal results in insects from commodities suitable breeding moving to those not suitable for insect breeding (p. 199-200, cross infestation). Newly hatched larvae of Acanthoscelides obtectus, Sitotroga cerealella and Rhyzopertha dominica also must disperse from oviposition site to find and burrow into a seed. The following references also deal with the mobility of stored-product insect larvae.

Arbogast, R. T. and M. Carthon. 1970. Light, tactile and humidity responses of larvae of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).  Entomol. Exp. Appl. 13: 395-402

Arbogast, R., and M. Carthon. 1971. Humidity response of larvae of Oryzaephilus-Surinamensis (Coleoptera-Cucujidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 64:90-93.

Back, E. A. 1943. Dermestes lardarius L. larvae boring in boards. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 45: 27.

Baker, J. E. et al. 1973. Feeding behavior of larvae of Plodia interpunctella. Environ. Entomol. 2:627-632.

Baker, J., and C. Schwalbe. 1975. Food utilization by larvae of furniture carpet beetle, Anthrenus flavipes. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 18: 213-219.

Boles, H. P. et al. 1973. Resistance of woods to penetration by cadelle larvae Tenebroides mauritanicus (L.) (Coleoptera: Ostomidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 46: 23-31.

Bowditch, T. 1997. Penetration of polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene packaging films by Ephestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae, and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults. J. Econ. Entomol. 90:1028-1031.

Bry, R. E. 1975. Feeding studies of larvae of the black carpet beetle (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on wool/synthetic blend fabrics. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 10: 284-286.

Bry, R. E. et al. 1972. Pyrethrins for the protection of rayon thread from damage by cigarette beetle larvae. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 7: 218-220.

Bry, R. E. et al. 1974. Damage to cotton textile bag sewing thread by larvae of the cigarette beetle (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 9: 111-115.

Bry, R. E. et al. 1978. Mothproofing: candidate repellents against black carpet beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 13:63-66.

Bry, R. E. et al. 1981. Feeding by larvae of three species of fabric insects on wool/synthetic blend fabrics. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 17:280-282.

Burges, H. D. 1962. Studies on the dermestid beetle Trogoderma granarium everts. V. Reactions of diapause larvae to temperature. Bull. Entomol. Res. 53: 193-213.

Burges, H. D. 1959. Studies on the dermestid beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts. II. the occurrence of diapause larvae at a constant temperature, and their behaviour. Bull. Entomol. Res. 50: 407-422.

Chakravorty, S., and H. Das. 1980. Note on the effect of gravitational factors on migration of the last-instar larvae of Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera, Galleriidae). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 50:725-727.

Childs, D. P. et al. 1970. Low temperature effect upon third- and fourth-instar cigarette beetle larvae. J. Econ. Entomol. 63: 1860-1864.

Chippendale, G. M. and R A. Mann. 1972. Feeding behavior of Angoumois grain moth larvae.  J. Insect Physiol 18: 87-94

Chung, S. K., J. Y. Seo, J. H. Lim, H. H. Park, Y. T. Kim, K. H. Song, S. J. Park, S. S. Han, Y. S. Park, and H. J. Park. 2011. Barrier property and penetration traces in packaging films against Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) larvae and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults. J. Stored Prod. Res. 47: 101-105.

Cline, L. 1978. Clinging and Climbing Ability of Larvae of 11 Species of Stored-Product Insects on 9 Flexible Packaging Materials and Glass. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 689-691.

Cline, L. 1978. Penetration of 7 Common Flexible Packaging Materials by Larvae and Adults of 11 Species of Stored-Product Insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 726-729.

Dowd, P. F. 1990. Response of Carpophilus hemipterus larvae and adults to selected secondary metabolites of maize.  Entomol. Exp. Appl. 54: 29-36.

Evans, A. C., and E. R. Goodliffe. 1939. The utilization of food by the larvae of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleop.). Proc.Roy.Ent.Soc., London (A) 14:57-61.

Finger, A., D. Heller, and A. Shulov. 1965. Olfactory response of the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium-Everts) larva to factors from larvae of the same species. Ecology 46: 542-544.

Fletcher, L. W., W. Knulle, D. P. Childs, R. R. Spadafora, J. S. Long, and C. D. Delamar. 1973. Responses of cigarette beetle larvae to temperature and humidity. Agricultural Rsearch Service, Southern Region, No.AARS-S-22. U.S. Department of Agriculture

Freeland, G. N. et al. 1972. Studies on textile insectproofing. Part I: the effect of chelating agents on the feeding of clothes-moth larvae. Journal of the Textile Institute 63: 643-649.

Garthe, W. and A. Muka. 1968. Feeding responses in larvae of Anthrenus flavipes. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 61: 1210-1212.

Giebultowicz, J., B. Cymborowski and J. Delbecque. 1984. Environmental-control of larval behavior and its consequences for ecdysteroid content and pupation in Ephestia-kuehniella. Physiol. Entomol. 9: 409-416.

Hagstrum, D. W. and J. E. Sharp. 1975. Locomotor behavior of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Cadra cautella (walker) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). p. 618-622 In Proc. 1st Intern. Working Conf. on Stored-Product Entomol.

Harris, M. K. 1976. Pecan weevil adult emergence, onset of oviposition and larval emergence from the nut as affected by the phenology of the pecan. J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 167-170.

Hollis, J. H. 1963. Inhibition of burrowing response in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 66: 131-135.

Hsia, W. T. et al. 1987. Relationship between hardness of rice kernel and boring depth of maize weevil larvae. Chin. J. Entomol. 7: 113-118.

Husted, S. R. and R B. Mills. 1969. Intraspecific kernel-entry behavior and competition among larvae of the Angoumois grain moth.  Trans Kansas Acad. Sci. 72: 252-258

Ignatowicz, S. 2018. Unusual cases of product contamination by ‘wandering’ larvae of the Indian mealmoth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), pp. 183-189. In C. S. Adler, G. Opit, B. Fürstenau, C. Müller-Blenkle, P. Kern, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, R. Bartosik, J. Campbell, M. O. Carvalho, W. Chayaprasert, P. Fields, Z. Li, D. Maier, M. Nayak, E. Nukenine, D. Obeng-Ofori, T. Phillips, J. Riudavets, J. Throne, M. Schöller, V. Stejskal, H. Talwana, B. Timlick and P. Trematerra (eds.), Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP), October 7-11, 2018, Berlin, Germany.

Joshi, G. 1976. Studies on the spinning of the exit cover in the last instar larva of angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (olivier). Zoologische Beitrage 22: 511-515.

Joshi, G. 1976. Studies on the larvae of rice moth, corcyra cephalonica (stainton) in some of their characteristic attitudes. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie 63: 451-456.

Joshi, G. 1975. Ephestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting a new host, red hand-ground dry chillies, Capsicum frutescens in India with some notes on the habits of its larvae. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie 62: 243-248.

Kao, S. S., F. V. Dunkel, and P. K. Harein. 1984. Behavioral response of the larger black flour beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to olfactory cues from food sources. J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 110-112.

Karnavar, G. 1979. Spectral Sensitivity and behavioral-response of diapause larvae of Trogoderma granarium. Entomon 4: 209-211.

Kashyap, R. K. :. Campbell, W. V. 1990. Ovipositional preference and larval establishment of the Indian Meal Moth and almond moth on selected peanut genotypes.  Peanut Science 17: 12-15

Khan, A., and M. Hassan. 1990. Influence of Lathyrus sativus flour on the feeding-behavior of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Entomon 15: 123-126.

Khan, M. 1983. Investigation on the invasion of egg-larvae of stored product insects through different sizes of pores of the packaging material. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 56: 65-67.

Kunast, C. 1978. Feeding of dermestid larvae (Dermestes Castelnau) in different building-materials. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 51: 134-136.

Kurup, A., and D. P. Parkhe. 1962. Some observations on the biology of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne F.). Indian J. Entomol. 23: 274-278. Unfed larvae that were 4-5 d old can travel up to 195 cm.

Kuwana, Z. et al. 1962. Feeding habit of Attagenus piceus (Olivier) larvae on the woolen fabrics, as a basis of the insect-proofness evaluation (Dermestidae, Coleoptera). Japanese Journal of Zoology 13: 441-473.

Kuwana, Z. et al. 1963. Injury patterns on unevenly proofed woolen fabrics by the larvae of the black carpet beetle, Attagenus piceus (Olivier). Japanese Journal of Zoology 8: 487-496.

Kuwana, Z. et al. 1963. Attack of Attagenus-larvae against silk and chemical fibers (Dermestidae, Coleoptera). Japanese Journal of Zoology 8: 475-485.

Kuwana, Z. et al. 1963. Studies in mothproofing. Part II. feeding damage to several kinds of fibers by the larvae of two species of clothes moth, with a note on their life histories. Text. Res. J. 33: 649-660.

Lefkovitch, L. P. 1967. Larval movement of Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in a plane. Researches on Population Ecology 9: 45-52.

Loschiavo, S. 1959. Observations on Food Preferences of 5 Species of Stored-Product Insects. Cereal Chem. 36:299-307.

Mallis, A. et. al. 1962. Attraction of salts and other nutrients to the larvae of fabric insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 351-355.

Mano, H., and Y. Toquenaga. 2008. Wall-making behavior as a proximate mechanism to generate variation in larval competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). Evol. Ecol. 22: 177-191.

Mbata, G. 1990. Studies on the intraspecific larval interaction in a laboratory culture of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on 2 food media. Insect Sci. Appl. 11: 245-251.

McGovern, T. P. et al. 1984. Insect repellents as mothproofing agent n-alkyl carboxamides of heterocyclic amines against black carpet beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 19: 56-61.

Mayes, P., and D. Englert. 1984. Interstrain Differences for Larval Dispersal and Egg Cannibalism in the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 26: 420-424.

Mills, R. B. 1965. Early germ feeding and larval development of the Angoumois grain moth. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 220-223.

Miyanoshita, A., T. Imamura, and S. Morimoto. 2004. Invasion of paper cups in heat-shrunk packaging by larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 48: 33-38.

Mondal, K. A. M. S. H. 1983. Response of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae to the differenct components of conditioned medium. Tribolium Information Bulletin 23: 104-111.

Mondal, K. A. M. S. H. 1984. Repellant effect of primiphos-methyl to larval Tribolium castaneum Herbst. International Pest Control 26: 98-99.

Mondal, K. A. 1985. Response of T. castaneum larvae to aggregation pheromone and quinones produced by adult conspecifics. International Pest Control 27: 64-66.

Mondal, K. A. et al. 1983. Response of Tribolium castaneum Herbst larvae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to light. Lab. Pract. 32: 80

Mondal, K. A. et al. 1984. Repellent effect of synthetic methylquinone on larvae of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. International Pest Control 26: 68-71.

Mondal, K. A. M. S. H. and G. R. Port. 1984. Response of Tribolium castaneum larvae to synthetic aggregation pheromone.  Entomol. Exp. Appl. 36: 43-46.

Murata, M., T. Imamura, and A. Miyanoshita. 2006. Invasion of the cup-packaged instant noodles by the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae), and development of the larvae on the instant noodles. Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 50:131-136.

Nara, J., and W. Burkholder. 1983. Influence of the molting cycle on the aggregation response of Trogoderma glabrum (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) larvae to wheat-germ oil. Environ. Entomol. 12:703-706.

Nara, J., R. Lindsay, and W. Burkholder. 1981. Analysis of volatile compounds in wheat-germ oil responsible for an aggregation response in Trogoderma glabrum Larvae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29:68-72.

Naylor, A. 1965. Dispersal responses of female flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, to presence of larvae. Ecology 46: 341-343.

Osuji, F. 1975. Distribution of Larvae of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in a Radial Temperature-Gradient. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 18: 313-320.

Osuji, F. N. 1982. Development of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, in maize kernels as affected by site of larval entry. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 31: 391-394.

Perttunen, V., and M. Lahermaa. 1962. Humidity reactions of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Col., Tenebrionidae) and the effect of cannibalism on these reactions. Annales Entomologici Fennici 28: 71-80.

Perttunen, V. et. al. 1963. Light reactions of the larvae and adults of Tenebrio molitor L. (Col., Tenebrionidae) and their interference with the humidity reactions. Annales Entomologici Fennici Suomen hyonteistieteellinen aikakauskirja 29: 83-106.

Perttunen, V. et. al. 1963. Effect of temperature and light intensity on the light reactions of the larvae and adults of Tenebrio molitor L. (Col., Tenebrionidae). Annales Entomologici Fennici Suomen hyonteistieteellinen aikakauskirja 29: 171-184.

Reedy, D. B. 1953. Effect of short exposures to low temperatures on the third larval instar of the rice weevil. Indian J. Entomol. 15: 180-182.

Rietdorf, K., and J. Steidle. 2002. Was Hopkins right? Influence of larval and early adult experience on the olfactory response in the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Physiol. Entomol. 27: 223-227.

Rutter, R., and S. M. Ferkovich. 1973. Rapid separation of larvae of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera Pyralidae) from rearing medium. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66: 919-920.

Schmidt, H. 1979. Resistance of packaging foils against the lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica F.), the drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum Hbst.), the rust-red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hbst.) and larvae of the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella Hbn. Material Und Organismen 14: 241-258.

Shazali, M. E. 1987. Effect of site of entry on larval development of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) in sorghum grain. Bulletin of Grain Technology 25: 214-217.

Shazali, M. E. 1987. Interspecific competition between larvae of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) inside sorghum grains. Alexandria J. Agric. Res. 32: 431-440.

Sheimann, I., S. Khutzian, and G. Ignatovitch. 1980. Periodicity in the behavior of grain beetle larvae. Dev. Psychobiol. 13: 585-590.

Soderstrom, E. L. 1968. Phototactic response of adults of confused flour beetle and red flour beetle and larvae of black carpet beetle to flashes of blue-white light. J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 973-97.

Sohi, G. S. 1966. Response of the larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Dermestidae: Coleoptera) to different types of light. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University 3: 166-173.

Spangler, H. G. 1965. Reactions of the larvae of the khapra beetle and Trogoderma parabile to certain food substances and organic compounds. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 212-218.

Stanic, V., and A. Shulov. 1972. Migratory behavior of diapausing larvae of Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) in relation to odors produced in their culture medium. J. Stored Prod. Res. 8:95-.

Stewart-Jones, A., R. J. Hodges, D. I. Farman, and D. R. Hall. 2007. Prey-specific contact kairomones exploited by adult and larval Teretrius nigrescens: A behavioural comparison across different stored-product pests and different pest substrates. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43:265-275.

Szentesi, A. 1981. Pheromone-like substances affecting host-related behavior of larvae and adults in the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 30: 219-226.

Takahashi, F. 1961. The effect of population density on the power of the reproduction of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella.  VIII.- the movement of the larvae within a container.  Jap. J. Ecol. 11: 186-191

Takahashi, F. 1955. On the relation between the population density of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella, and the emigration of its larvae.  Jap J. Ecol. 5: 82-87.

Thanthianga, C., and R. Mitchell. 1987. Vibrations mediate prudent resource exploitation by competing larvae of the bruchid bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 44: 15-21.

Thiery, D. 1984. Hardness of some fabaceous seed coats in relation to larval penetration by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 20: 177-181.

Thiery, D. 1982. Influence of water-content and hardness of the testa of Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds on the frequency of penetration of neonate larvae of Acanthoscelides obtectus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 32: 141-145.

Thiery, D. 1982. Consequence of stress factors on neonate larvae of Acanthoscelides obtectus on penetration frequency in stored bean-seeds. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 32: 195-197.

Thiery, D., and M. Jarry. 1985. Hatching rhythm in the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus and larval penetration of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. Insect Sci. Appl. 6: 33-35.

Trematerra, P. 1988. Arthropod antagonists of Pyralis farinalis (L) (Lep, Pyralidae) and visitors of its larva shelters. Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie 105: 525-528.

Umeya, K. and T. Kato. 1970. Studies on the comparative ecology of bean weevils.  V.  Distribution of eggs and larvae of Acanthoscelides obtectus in relation to its oviposition and boring behaviour. Res Popul. Ecol. 12: 35-50

Utida, S. 1967. Collective oviposition and larval aggregation in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Coleoptera, bruchidae) J. Stored Prod. Res. 2: 315-322. 

Watson, E., G. Barson, D. B. Pinniger, G. Roberts and A. R. Ludlow. 1997.Evaluation of the behavioural responses of Anthrenus verbasci adults and larvae to permethrin (EC) using a computerized tracking system. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33: 335-346.

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Yinon, U. et al. 1965. reactions of larvae of the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts to spectral regions of different wave length. Riv. Parassitol. 26: 169-173.

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