Combining Pest Control Methods

Understanding the general characteristics of some commonly used insect pest management methods can be helpful in deciding which control method or combination of control methods to use. Residual insecticides and insect resistant packaging can provide long-term protection. Biological control, fumigation, and heat treatments can penetrate areas where insects are concealed. Aeration, heat treatments, ionizing radiation, impact mortality, and pest removal may require long-term planning because they require expensive equipment and increase operating costs. By reducing the number of insect hiding places and the level of insect infestation, sanitation and pest exclusion can increase the effectiveness of aeration, biological control, fumigation, heat treatments, insect-resistant packaging, and residual insecticides.

Combinations of more than one insect pest management method can be advantageous when together they are more effective than either method alone. A disadvantage may be that two methods may be more expensive and complex to use than a single method. The most important justification for combining more than one method is to improve pest management. Often different methods provide more than one type of stress or use a second method to prevent re-infestation when the first method does not provide long-term protection. Combinations may be justified when methods are most effective at different times, at different insect densities, or for different insect species. Combinations also may be justified as part of a resistance-management program to replace multiple applications of a single method.

The following 181 references provide examples of combining more than one pest management methods and include references for the examples in Hagstrum and Subramayam 2006 and Hagstrum et al. 2013. These studies were done on 34 stored product insect species, but 85% of the 63 combinations of 24 pest control methods were tested with 13 species, i.e., Tribolium castaneum (50), Rhyzopertha dominica (30), Sitophilus oryzae (26), Tribolium confusum (20), Plodia interpunctella (16), Callosobruchus maculatus (13), Sitophilus zeamais (13), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (10), Sitophilus granarius (10), Cryptolestes ferrugienus (9), Ephestia kuhniella (7), Acanthoscelides obtectus (5) and Cadra cautella (5). Forty three percent (77/179) of these studies were with the most frequently investigated pathogen-dust (15), insecticide-botanical (9), sanitation-insecticide (9), low risk insecticide-dust (8), radiation-extreme temperature (8), pathogen-insecticide (7), varietal resistance-botanical (6), insecticide-dust (5), parasitoid-insecticide (5) and pathogen-parasitoid (5) combinations (see Combination freqency chart). Studies by Johnson et al. 1998, Lazzari et al. 2011 and Mueller 1994 combined 3 pest management methods. Studies on using some of these combinations of pest control methods have been reviewed by Scholler 1998 and Tilton and Brower 1985, 1987. At the end of the reference list, there are references for an additional 24 studies listed.

Abd-El-Salam, K., M. Eldeeb, and A. El-Fishawi. 1992. The Role of Gamma-Irradiation in Tolerance of the Confused Flour Beetle, Tribolium-Confusum (Duv) to some Insecticides. Insect Sci. Appl. 13: 105-111.

Abd-El-Salam, K. A. and Naklah, J. M. 1986. Combined effect of gamma radiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, Duv. Isotope and Radiation Research 18: 69-76.

Abd-El-Salam, K. A. and Nakhlah, J. M. 1987. Effect of combination treatments of gamma radiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum Duv. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 8(1): 103-106.

Adarkwah, C., D. Obeng-Ofori, C. Adler, C. Buettner, C. Reichmuth and M. Schoeller. 2011. Integration of CalneemA (R) oil and parasitoids to control Cadra cautella and Corcyra cephalonica in stored grain cereals. Phytoparasitica 39: 223-233.

Adem, E., & Watters, F. L. 1985. Response of malathion-susceptible and resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to a combination of< sup> 60 Co gamma irradiation and malathion. Journal of Stored Products Research, 21(2), 59-63.

Ahmad, T. 1936. The influence of ecological factors on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella and its parasite, Nemeritis canescens. J. Anim. Ecol. 5: 67-93.

Ahmadi, M., Abdalla, A. M. M. and Moharramipour, S. 2013. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 78, 16-20.

Ahmed, M. S. H., Al-Hakkak, Z. S., Al-Maliky, S. K., Kadhum, A. A. and Lamooza, S. B. 1981. Irradiation disinfestation of dry dates and the possibility of using combination treatments. p. 217-228. In Combination processes in food irradiation, IAEA, Vienna, Austria (Oryzaephilus surinamensis)

Akinkurolere, R. O., and H. Zhang. 2010. Combination of Bacillus thuringiensis and Habrobracon hebetor for the biological control of Plodia interpunctella, pp. 772-773. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Al-Taweel, A. A. 2014. Using the parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens in date palm orchards alone and with pheromone traps in date warehouses to control Ephestia spp. in three provinces in Iraq. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98:13.

Al-Taweel, A. A., A. Muhsen, B. S. Hamad and E. A. Mahmood. 2014. The combination of the parasitoid Bracon hebetor Say and gamma radiation as an IPM efficient strategy for controlling Ephestia cautella (Walker). IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98:12.

Armitage, D.M. Cogan, P.M. and Wilkin, D.R. 1994. Integrated pest management in stored grain: combining surface insecticide treatments with aeration. Journal of Stored Products Research 30: 303–319. (Acarus siro, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Glycphagus destructor, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Sitophilus granarius)

Arthur, F. H. 1998. Effects of a food source on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) survival after exposure on concrete treated with cyfluthrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 773-778.

Arthur, F. H. 2000. Impact of accumulated food on survival of Tribolium castaneum on concrete treated with cyfluthrin wettable powder. J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 15-23.

Arthur, F. H. 2000. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 1347-1356.

Arthur, F. H. 2002. Efficacy of ethiprole applied alone and in combination with conventional insecticides for protection of stored wheat and stored corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 95:1314-1318. (Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum)

Arthur, F. H. 2004. Evaluation of methoprene alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth to control Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on stored wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 40: 485-498.

Arthur, F.H. 2013. Dosage rate, temperature, and food source provisioning affect susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum to chlorfenapyr. J. Pest Sci. 86: 507-513.

Arthur, Frank H. 2015. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin + methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill. J. Stored Prod. Res 64: 42-44

Arthur, Frank H. 2015. Food source effect and residual efficacy of chlorfenapyr as a surface treatment on sealed and unsealed concrete. J. Stored Prod. Res. 64: 65-71.

Arthur, F. H. and E. Fontenot. 2012. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom (R)). J. Pest Sci. 85(2): 277-282. (Tribolium castaneum, Tribolium confusum)

Arthur, F. H., Starkus, L. A. and Mckay, T. 2015. Effects of Flour and Milling Debris on Efficacy of Beta-Cyfluthrin for Control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 108(2): 811-825

Arthur, F. H., and J. E. Throne. 1994. Pirimiphos-methyl degradation and insect population growth in aerated and unaerated corn stored in southeast Georgia – small bin tests. J. Econ. Entomol. 87:810-816. (Plodia interpunctella, Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum)

Ashamo, M. O. 2005. Integration of varietal resistance and nutmeg, Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) oil in protecting post-harvest infestation by Sitophilus oryzae (L.) in rice. J. Entomol. Res. 29(4): 259-263. added Refw

Athanassiou, C. 2006. Toxicity of beta cyfluthrin applied alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum DuVal (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) on stored wheat. Crop Protection 25:788-794.

Athanassiou, C. G., N. G. Kavallieratos, and C. M. Meletsis. 2007. Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations, applied alone or in combination, against three stored-product beetle species on wheat and maize. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43:330-334.(Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum)

Athanassiou, C. G., Z. Korunic, and B. J. Vayias. 2009. Diatomaceous earths enhance the insecticidal effect of bitterbarkomycin against stored-grain insects. Crop Protection 28:123-127. (Sitophilus zeamais Tribolium castaneum, Cryptolestes ferrugineus)

Athanassiou, C. G., and T. Steenberg. 2007. Insecticidal effect of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota : Hypocreales) in combination with three diatomaceous earth formulations against Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae). Biological Control 40:411-416.

Athanassiou, C. G., and T. Steenberg. 2007. Insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth applied alone or in combination with Beauveria bassiana and beta cyfluthrin against Sitophilus granarius on stored wheat. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 30:25-36.

Athanassiou, C. G., F. H. Arthur, N. G. Kavallieratos and J. E. Throne. 2011. Efficacy of spinosad and methoprene, applied alone or in combination, against six stored-product insect species. J. Pest Sci. 84(1): 61-67.

Athanassiou, C. G., Kavallieratos, N. G., Arthur, F. H., & Throne, J. E. 2013. Efficacy of a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid and beta-cyfluthrin alone for control of stored-product insects on concrete. Journal of economic entomology, 106(2), 1064-1070. (Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Dermestes maculatus, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis paeta, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, Tribolium confusum)

Athanassiou, C. G., C. I. Rumbos, M. K. Sakka, B. J. Vayias, V. K. Stephou and C. T. Nakas. 2016. Insecticidal effect of the combined application of spinosad, Beauveria bassiana and diatomaceous earth for the control of Tribolium confusum. Biocontrol Science and Technology 26(6): 809-819.

Babarinde, S.A., M.A. Adebayo and K. Oduyemi, 2008. Integrating varietal resistance with Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard seed extract for the management of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in stored maize. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7: 1187-1191.

Bajracharya, N. S., G. P. Opit, J. Talley, and C. L. Jones. 2013. Efficacies of Spinosad and a Combination of Chlorpyrifos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Against Phosphine-Resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 106:2208-2215.

Baker, J. 1994. Sensitivities of Laboratory and Field Strains of the Parasitoid Anisopteromalus-Calandrae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) and its Host, Sitophilus- oryzae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), to Deltamethrin and Cyfluthrin. J. Entomol. Sci. 29:100-109.

Baker, J. E. and R. T. Arbogast. 1995. Malathion resistance in field strains of the warehouse pirate bug (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) and a prey species Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 88: 241-245. (Xylocoris flavipes)

Baker, J. E. and Throne, J. E. 1995. Evaluation of a resistant parasitoid for biological control of weevils in insecticide-treated wheat. Journal of economic entomology, 88(6), 1570-1579. (Sitophilus oryzae)

Baker, J. and D. Weaver. 1993. Resistance In-Field Strains of the Parasitoid Anisopteromalus-Calandrae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) and its Host, Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), to Malathion, Chlorpyrifos-Methyl, and Pirimiphos-Methyl. Biological Control 3:233-242.

Baker, J., D. Weaver, J. Throne and J. Zettler. 1995. Resistance to Protectant Insecticides in 2 Field Strains of the Stored-Product Insect Parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 88:512-519.

Baskaran, P. and P. Sekar. 1976. Studies on Dipel (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) with certain synthetic insecticides. The Madras Agricultural Journal 63: 565-566.

Batta, Y. A. 2008. Control of main stored-grain insects with new formulations of entomopathogenic fungi in diatomaceous earth dusts. International J. Food Engineering 4: 1. (Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum)

Begum, M., Parween, S. and Faruki, S.I. 2007. Combined effect of UV-radiation and triflumuron on the progeny of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panger) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) at different storage period. Univ. J. Zool. Rajshahi Univ. 26:45-48.

Bergvinson, D. J. and S. Garcia-Lara. 2011. Synergistic effects of insect-resistant maize and Teretrius nigrescens on the reduction of grain losses caused by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). J. Stored Prod. Res. 47(2): 95-100.

Boeke, S.J.; Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Almeida, R.P. de; Boer, P.W.M. de; Jeong, G.; Kossou, D.K.; Loon, J.J.A. van. 2003. Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 108: 43–51.

Brijwani, Monika, Bhadriraju Subramanyam and Paul W. Flinn. 2012. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill. Journal of Economic Entomology 105(2): 703-708.

Brijwani M, Subramanyam B., Flinn PW, Langemeier, MR, Hartzer M, Hulasare R. 2012. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: Influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs. J. Econ. Entomol. 105:709-717.

Bughio, F. M. and R. M. Wilkins. 2004. Influence of malathion resistance status on survival and growth of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), when fed on flour from insect-resistant and susceptible grain rice cultivars. J. Stored Prod. Res. 40(1): 65-75.

Calderon, M. and J. M. Desmarchelier. 1979. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults to some organophosphate compounds after pre-exposure to carbon monoxide. J. Stored Prod. Res. 15(1): 33-36.

Calderon, M. & Leesch, J.G. 1983. Effect of reduced pressure and CO2 on the toxicity of methyl bromide on two species of stored-product insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 76, 1125–1128. (Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum)

Casaco, Ocante, António Barbosa and António Mexia. 2002. Potential of combining silica aerogels with IGRs as protectants of stored rice (paddy) against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Integrated Protection of Stored Products IOBC Bulletin Vol. 25 (3) 243-246. (diflubenzuron and fenoxycarb)

Chanbang, Y. 2005. Evaluation of diatomaceaous earth, methoprene, and varietal resistance to control the Lesser Grain Borer in stored rice, PhD Thesis ed. Kansas State University Department of Entomology.

Chanbang, Y., F. H. Arthur, G. E. Wilde, and J. E. Throne. 2008. Control of Rhyzopertha dominica in stored rough rice through a combination of diatomaceous earth and varietal resistance. Insect Science 15:455-460.

Chanbang, Y., F.H. Arthur, G.E. Wilde and J.E. Throne. 2007. Efficacy of diatomaceous earth and methoprene, alone and in combination, against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in rough rice. Journal of Stored Products Research 43: 396–401.

Chervin, C., S. Kulkarni, S. Kreidl, F. Birrell, and D. Glenn. 1997. A high temperature/low oxygen pulse improves cold storage disinfestation. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 10: 239-245. (Cydia pomonella)

Chintzoglou, G., C. G. Athanassiou, and F. H. Arthur. 2008. Insecticidal effect of spinosad dust, in combination with diatomaceous earth, against two stored-grain beetle species. J. Stored Prod. Res. 44:347-353. (Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium confusum)

Chintzoglou, G., C. G. Athanassiou, F. H. Arthur, N. G. Kavallieratos, and A. N. Markoglou. 2011. Insecticidal effect of spinosad dust against three stored-grain insect species: effect of strain, commodity and combination with diatomaceous earth. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 69:385-386.

Cline, L. D., and J. W. Press. 1990. Reduction in almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestations using commercial packaging of foods in combination with the parasitic wasp, Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1110-1113.

Cockfield, S. 1992. Groundnut Oil Application and Varietal Resistance for Control of Callosobruchus-Maculatus (F) in Cowpea Grain in the Gambia. Tropical Pest Management 38:268-270

Cogburn, R., J. Brower, and E. Tilton. 1971. Combination of Gamma and Infrared Radiation for Control of Angoumois Grain Moth in Wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 64:923-925.

Cogburn, Robert R., and Hagen B. Gillenwater. 1972. Interaction of gamma radiation and fumigation on confused flour beetles. Journal of economic entomology 65(1): 245-248.

Cogburn, R. R., Tilton, E. W., and Brower, J. H. 1972. Bulk-grain gamma irradiation for control of insects infesting wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:818-821. (Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae)

Conceição, C., A. Barbosa, and A. Mexia. 2002. Effect of time of exposure on the effectiveness of silica dusts and mixtures with IGRs against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). IOBC/wprs Bulletin 25:247-252. (diflubenzuron and fenoxycarb)

Dal Bello, G., S. Padin, C. L. Lastra and M. Fabrizio. 2001. Laboratory evaluation of chemical-biological control of the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) in stored grain. J. Stored Prod. Res. 37(1): 77-84.

Dal Bello, G. S. Padan, P. Juairez, N. Pedrini and M. DeGiusto. 2006. Biocontrol of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Sitophilus oryzae with diatomaceous earth and Beauveria bassiana on stored grains. Biocontrol Sci Technol. 16(2): 215-220.

Dal Bello, G., C. Fuse, P. Juarez, N. Pedrini, A. Imaz, and S. Padin. 2011. Insecticidal effect of fenitrothion, diatomaceous earth and Beauveria bassiana against Coleopteran pests of stored grain. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 69:175-180. (Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum)

Donahaye E, Navarro S 1989. Sensitivity of two dried fruit pests to methyl bromide alone, and in combination with carbon dioxide or under pressure. J. Tropical. Sci. 29: 9-14. (Carpophilus hemipterus, Carpophilus mutilatus)

Doumma, A., O. Salissou, and B. Mtoufique. 2010. Potential of combining the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with varietal resistance for the control of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4:1808-1815.

Dowdy, A. K. 1999. Mortality of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to high temperature and diatomaceous earth combinations. J. Stored Prod. Res. 35: 175-182.

El-Lakwah, F. A., A. E. Abd El-Aziz, and I. H. El-Kashlan. 2000. Joint action and effectiveness of black pepper seeds extract with modified atmospheres against some stored product insects. Ann. Agric. Sci. , Moshtohor 38:2529-2542. (more toxic to Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica than to Tribolium castaneum)

El-Naggar, S. M., & Mikhaiel, A. A. 2011. Disinfestation of stored wheat grain and flour using gamma rays and microwave heating. Journal of stored products research 47(3): 191-196. (Tribolium confusum, Lasioderma serricorne, Corcyra cephalonica, Rhyzopertha dominica)

Facknath, S. 2006. Combination of neem and physical disturbance for the control of four insect pests of stored products. International J. Tropical Insect Science 26(1): 16-27. (Acanthoscelides obtectus, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Sitophilus oryzae)

Faruki, S., and A. Khan. 2001. The pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp kurstaki to gamma-irradiated Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera : Phycitidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 77:92-98.

Fawki, Shams, Abdel Fattah, H. M., Hussein, M. A., Ibrahim, M. M., Soliman, A. K. and Salem, D. A. M. 2014. The use of solar energy and citrus peel powder to control cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). 11th International Working Conference of Stored-Product Protection, 24-28 Nov. 2014, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Flinn, P. W. 1998. Temperature effects on efficacy of Choetospila elegans (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to suppress Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 91:320-323.

Flinn, P., K. Kramer, J. Throne, and T. Morgan. 2006. Protection of stored maize from insect pests using a two-component biological control method consisting of a hymenopteran parasitoid, Theocolax elegans, and transgenic avidin maize powder. J. Stored Prod. Res. 42:218-225. (Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum)

Glitho, I. A. 2011. Etude de l’activité reproductrice de Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) sur dix variétés de niébé, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. en présence ou non de son parasitoïde, Dinarmus basalis R.(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). (Study of the reproductive activity of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) over ten varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. with or without its parasitoid, R. Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)) Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 11(2), 1398-1408.

Habib, M. E. M., & Fagundes, G. G. 1996. Sensitivity of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879)(Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and its natural ectoparasite, Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836)(Hymenoptera, Braconidae) to microwaves (2450 Mhz). p. 581. In Proc. 20th Intl. Congress Entomol., Florence, Italy.

Hagstrum, D. W., J. R. McLaughlin, B. J. Smittle, and J. A. Coffelt. 1978. Sterile males in a sex pheromone permeated atmosphere to reduce reproduction of Ephestia cautella. Environ. Entomol. 7: 759 762.

Hansen, L. S. and T. Steenberg. 2007. Combining larval parasitoids and an entomopathogenic fungus for biological control of Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in stored grain. Biological Control 40(2): 237-242.

Hasaballa, Z. A. 1991. Interactive effects of radiation and temperature on mortality of two stored product insects. p. 1193-1197. In Fleurat-Lessard, F.; Ducom, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc, Bordeaux, France (Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae)

Hou X, Fields P, Taylor W (2004a) Combination of protein-rich pea flour and pea extract with insecticides and enzyme inhibitors for control of stored-product beetles. Can Entomol 136:581–590. (Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum)

Hou X, Fields P, Flinn P, Perez-Mendoza J, Baker J (2004b) Control of stored-product beetles with combinations of protein-rich pea flour and parasitoids. Environ Entomol 33:671–680. (Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum)

Idoko, J. E., & Adebayo, R. A. 2011. Effect of Dennettia Tripetala Powder and Reduced Rates of Pirimiphos-Methyl Singly and Combined in Management of Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.)[Coleoptera: Bruchidae]. International Journal of Biology, 3(2):174-178.

Idoko, J. E.; R. A. Adebayo 2011 Efficacy of Single and Combined Leaf Powder of Nicotiana Tabacum L. [Solanales: Solanaceae] with Reduced Rates of Pirimiphos-Methyl in Management of Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] Journal of Agricultural Science 3(1): 276-280.

Ibrahim, Ahmed, Abraham Tadesse and Ferdu Azerefegne. 2008. Effects of malathion dust and Mexican tea powder (Chenopodium ambrosoides) combinations on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Col.: Curculionidae) on maize. Pest Mgmt. J. Ethiopia 12: 37-48.

Ibrahim Yuya, Ahmed, Abraham Tadesse, Ferdu Azerefegne and Tadele Tefera. 2009. Efficacy of combining Niger seed oil with malathion 5% dust formulation on maize against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 45(1): 67-70.

Isikber, A. A. 2010. Fumigant toxicity of garlic essential oil in combination with carbon dioxide (CO2) against stored-product insects, pp. 371-376. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany. (Ephestia kuhniella, Tribolium confusum)

Islam, M. S., M. M. Hasan, C. Lei, T. Mucha-Pelzer, I. Mewis, and C. Ulrichs. 2010. Direct and admixture toxicity of diatomaceous earth and monoterpenoids against the storage pests Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Journal of Pest Science 83:105-112.

Islam, W., Parween, S., & Ferdous, J. 2010. Suppression of population of Tribolum castaneum by IGRS in presence of a predator, Xylocoris flavipes. Tropical Agricultural Research & Extension 13(2): 25-28.

Jahromi, Mojtaba Ghane, Ali Asgar Pourmirza and Mohammad Hasan Safaralizadeh 2011. Evaluation of the mortality of two stored-product insects by garlic emulsion (Sirinol) in combination with low air pressure. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(84): 19650-19657.(Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum)

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Zidan, N. E. H. A. 2014. Insecticidal efficacy of spinosad, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in combination with diatomaceous earth, for controlling Sitophilus oryza (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting stored wheat. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 49:117-127.

Recent additions not included in tabulation.

Ahmadi, Mehrdad, Saeid Moharramipour and Adly Abd Alla. 2015. Antifeedant effect of gamma radiation and Perovskia atriplicifolia essential oil combination against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Crop Protection 4(4): 463-475.

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