Chemical Combinations

In addition to combining different pest management methods, mixtures of two or more botanicals, two or more fumigants, two or more residual insecticides or residual insecticides and botanicals have been considered for managing stored product insect pests. Carbon tetrachloride was added to the liquid fumigants carbon disulfide or ethylene dichloride to reduce their flammability. More recently, a cylinderized mixture of 2% phosphine with carbon dioxide has been used to reduce the flammability of this fumigant. Carbon dioxide has been added to fumigants to increase insect respiration, the intake of the fumigant by insects and thus the effectiveness of the fumigant. Also, carbon dioxide is heavier than air and can help distribute the fumigants. Residual insecticides have been combined to deal with innate differences in the susceptibility of different stored product insect species and to combat insecticide resistance. Recently, combinations of botanicals have been investigated to improve their effectiveness.

Botanicals – Combinations (n=23)

Abdullahi, N. 2011. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Mixed Leaf Powders of Vittallaria paradoxa and Cassia occidentalis against Callosobruchus maculates (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Stored Cowpea Seeds. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 4(1), 94-97.

Abolusoro, S.A. 2000. Inhibitory effect of some plant materials on the egg-laying ability and adult emergence of cowpea bruchids, Callosobruchus maculatus. Plant Sci. Res. Commun. 1(1): 1-6. (Piper guineense and Xylopia aethiopica)

Akunne, C. E., Ononye, B. U., & Mogbo, T. C. 2014. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mixed Leaf Powders of Vernonia amygdalina (L.) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) Against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering, 1(2): 86-95.

Asawalam, E. F., Emosairue, S. O., & Hassanali, A. 2008. Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(16): 2957-2962.

Bekele, J.; Hassanali, A. 2001. Blend effects in the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum kenyense (Labiateae) on two post-harvest insect pests. Phytochemistry 57(3): 385-391 (Sitophilus zeamais and Rhyzopertha dominica)

Brisibe, E. A., Adugbo, S. E., Ekanem, U., Brisibe, F. and Figueira, G. M. (2011). Controlling Bruchid Pests of Stored Cowpea Seeds with Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua and Two Other Common Botanicals. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(47): 9586-9592. (Artemisia annua, Azadirachta indica and Ocimum gratissimum)

Dawodu, E. O. and T. I. Ofuya. 2000. Effects of mixing fruit powders of Piper guineense Schum and Thonn. and Dennetia tripetala Baker on oviposition and adult emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Applied Tropical Agriculture 5: 158-162.

Emeasor, K.C., R.O. Ogbuji and S.O. Emosairue, 2005. Insecticidal activity of some seed powders against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 112(1): 80-87. (mixture of the seed powders of Piper guineense and Thevetia peruviana in different proportions significantly achieved adult mortality and reduced oviposition and adult emergence of C. maculatus)

Emeasor, K. C., Emosairue, S. O. and Ogbuji, R. O. 2007. Preliminary Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mixed Seed and Powders of Piper guineense (Schum and Thonn) and Thevetia peruviana (Persoon) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Nigerian Journal of Entomology 24: 114-118

Erler, F., T. Erdemir, F. O. Ceylan, and C. Toker. 2009. Fumigant toxicity of three essential oils and their binary and tertiary mixtures against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Fresenius Environ. Bull. 18:975-981.

Govindan, K., and S. J. Nelson. 2008. Effect of mixtures of plant powder against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Plant Protection Environment 5:52-55. (Annona squamosa and Anamirta cocculus, Alpinia officinarum and Celosia argenta, Canarium strictum and Coccinia indica, Cratacva magna and Terminalia chebula, Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica, Gloriosa superba and Asparagus racemosus, Helicteres isora and Nicotiana tabacum, Nelumbium speciosum and Terminalia arjuna, Paspalum scrobiculatum and Canarium strictum and Tagetes erecta and Strychnos nuxvomica)

Kumair, P. and Kumar, D. 1998 Effect of mixture of tobacco leaves and neem seed powder on Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) infesting pulse grains. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Enviromental Monitoring 8(4): 229-232.

Khanna, S. C. 1995. Efficacy of black pepper in combination with mustard oil in protecting green gram against infestation by Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) and Callosobruchus analis (F.) Ann. Plant Protect. Sci. 3:164-190.

Mishra, B. K., P. R. Mishra and H. K. Mohapatra. 1992. Studies on some plant product mixtures against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) infesting wheat seeds. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 20: 178-182.

Musa, A. K., Oyerinde, A. A., & Owolabi, F. O. 2009. Evaluation of the efficacy of mixed leaf powders of Vernonia amygdalina L. and Ocimum gratissimum Del. against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Academic journal of Entomology 2(2): 85-87.

Ojianwuna, C. C., and P. A. Umoru. 2010. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) and Ocimum suave (wild basil) applied as mixed and individual powders on the eggs laid and emergence of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea bruchids). African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(20): 2837-2840.

Ojianwuna, C. C., and P. A. Umoru. 2012. The use of two indigenous medicinal plant leaf powders (Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum suave) applied as mixed and individual powders to evaluate the reproductive fitness of F1 generation (eggs laid and F2 adult) of Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea bruchid). Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 3:14-18.

Ofuya, T.I., 1990. Oviposition deterrence and ovicidal properties of some plant powders against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 115(3): 343-345. (Nicotiana tabacum and Erthrophleum suaveolense)

Oparaeke AM, Dike MC, Onu I 2002. Control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F) on stored cowpea with African curry (Ocimum gratissimum L) and African Bush Tea (Hyptis suaveolens Poit) Leaf powders. Niger. J. Entomol., 19: 99-108. (reduced progeny development in cowpea treated with Ocimum gratissimum (African curry) and Hyptis suaveolens (African bush tea)).

Rouf, F. M. A., Sardar, M. A., Ahmed, K. S. 1996. Individual and combined effects of some plant materials for protection of lentil seeds against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology 6(1/2): 13-21. (Azadirachta indica, Vitex negundo, Polygonum hydropiper)

Tatsadjieu, N. L., A. Yaouba, E. N. Nukenine, M. B. Ngassoum and C. M. F. Mbofung. Comparative study of the simultaneous action of three essential oils on Apergilus flavus and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Food Control 21(2): 186-190.

Lu, Jianhua;Yuan, Liangyue; Wu, Shuhui; Xie, Chunhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Han, Xiaoyin 2007 The control of Chinese herbal powders and their mixtures on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults. Grain Storage 36(5): 7-10.

Fumigant – Combinations (n=46)

Back, E. A., and R. T. Cotton. 1925. Newly recommended fumigant, ethyl acetate in combination with carbon tetrachloride. J. Econ. Entomol. 18:302-307.

Bare, C. O. and J. N. Tenhet 1950. Tests with acrylonitrile-carbon tetrachloride and hydrogen cyanide as fumigants for insects in cigarette tobaccos. USDA-ARA-BEPQ-E-794.

Bond, E. J., and C. T. Buckland. 1976. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: Toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 69:725-727.

Carlson, S. D. 1966. Fumigation of Tribolium confusum adults with 80:20 (CCL-4:CS-2) during carbon dioxide- or nitrogen-induced respiration elevation or depression. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:870-872.

Ciesla, Y., R. Rouzes, J. Fritsch, and P. Ducom. 2008. Efficacy of a new grain fumigant: ethyl formate/allyl isothiocyanate for the control of two stored grain beetles, the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. and the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius L. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 40:325-334.

Colman, W. 1936. Comparison of tetrahydronaphthalene and ethylene dichloride-carbon tetrachloride mixture as fumigants against clothes moth larvae. J. Econ. Entomol. 29:629-630.

Cotton, R. T., and R. C. Roark. 1927. Ethylene dichloride-carbon tetrachloride mixture; a new non-burnable non-explosive fumigant. J. Econ. Entomol. 20:636-639.

Cotton, R. T., and H. A. Young. 1929. Use of carbon dioxide to increase the insecticidal efficacy of fumigants. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 31: 97-102. (carbon dioxide reduces the dosage and length of time for the fumigants ethylene dichloride methyl chloroacetate, carbon disulfide, chloropicrin and ethylene oxide)

Cotton, R. T. 1930. Carbon dioxide as an aid in the fumigation of certain highly adsorbtive commodities. J. Econ. Entomol. 23: 231-233.

Cotton, R. T., and H. D. Young. 1943. Acrylonitrile and trichloroacetonitrile in admixture with carbon tetrachloride as possible fumigants for stored grain. J. Econ. Entomol. 36:116-117.

Damcevski, K. A., G. Dojchinov, J. D. Woodman, and V. S. Haritos. 2010. Efficacy of vaporised ethyl formate/carbon dioxide formulation against stored-grain insects: effect of fumigant concentration, exposure time and two grain temperatures. Pest Manag. Sci. 66:432-438.

Dennis, N. M. 1952. Effect on fumigation of adding sulfur dioxide to a carbon tetrachloride-carbon disulfide mixture. J. Econ. Entomol. 44:1022.

Dojchinov, G., K. A. Damcevski, J. D. Woodman, and V. S. Haritos. 2010. Field evaluation of vaporised ethyl formate and carbon dioxide for fumigation of stored wheat. Pest Manag. Sci. 66:417-424.

Fatu, V., A. Chiriloaie, M. Ciobanu, S. Drosu, and F. Oancea. 2012. Dynamic studies on mixture of ethyl formate and carbon dioxide for disinfestation of grain. Romanian Journal of Plant Protection 5:16-21.

Harein, P. K. 1961. Effect of dockage on the efficiency of 80:20 (carbon tetrachloride: carbon disulfide by volume) as a fumigant for adult rice weevil, Sitophilus sasakii in wheat. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 34:195-197.

Haritos, V. S., K. Damcevski, and G. Dojchinov. 2006. Improved efficacy of ethyl formate against stored grain insects by combination with carbon dioxide in a ‘dynamic’ application. Pest Manag. Sci. 62:325-333.

Herrick, G. W., and G. H. Griswold. 1932. Fumigation of the immature stages of clothes moths and carpet beetles with a mixture of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride. J. Econ. Entomol. 25:243-248.

Hoyt, L. F. 1928. Some fumigation tests with ethylene dichloride-carbon tetrachloride mixture. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development 20:1-4.

Hoyt, L. F. 1928. Further fumigation tests with ethylene dichloride – carbon tetrachloride mixture. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development 20:931-932.

Jones, R. M. 1938. Toxicity of fumigant-carbon dioxide mixtures to the red flour beetle. J. Econ. Entomol. 31:298-309.

Jones, R. M. 1935. Toxicity of carbon dioxide-methyl formate mixtures to the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duv.). J. Econ. Entomol. 28:475-485.

Kashi, K., and E. Bond. 1975. Toxic Action of Phosphine – Role of Carbon-Dioxide on Toxicity of Phosphine to Sitophilus granarius (L) and Tribolium confusum Duval. J. Stored Prod. Res. 11: 9-15.

Kazmaier, H. E., and R. G. Fuller. 1959. Ethylene dibromide: methyl bromide mixtures as fumigants against the confused flour beetle. J. Econ. Entomol. 52:1081-1085.

Kenaga, E. E. 1956. Evaluation of the use of sulfur dioxide in fumigant mixtures for grain treatment. J. Econ. Entomol. 49:723-729.

Krishnaiah, K. 1976. Studies on Influence of Temperature on Efficacy of Ethylene Dichloride and Carbon tetrachloride Mixture in Controlling Tribolium castaneum Herbst and Trogoderma granarium Everts. Bulletin of Grain Technology 14:42-44.

Kunike, G. 1933. Eine Mischung von Aethylenoxyd und Kohlensaure zur Schadlingsbekampfung in lagernden Getreide (Referat). (A mixture of ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide to control pests in stored grain (abstract)). Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Vorratsschutz 9:7-8.

Mohan-Rao, H. N., Wagle, N. G., Ramesh, A. N., Kulkarni, S., & Rao, M. S. 1974. Use of ethylene oxide and carbon tetrachloride mixture in the warehouses. Bulletin of Grain Technology 12:235-237.

Muthu, M. and Pingale, S. V. 1956. Extent of variation caused by certain factors in the toxicity of ethylene dichloride-carbon tetrachloride mixture to insects. Indian J. Entomol. 17:193-200.

Navarro, S. 1986. Gaseous fumigant mixtures, with special reference to mixtures of carbon dioxide with phosphine or methyl bromide. p. 150-158. In Anonymous GASGA Seminar on fumigation in developing countries, 18-21 MAR 1986, Slough, United Kingdom.

Quinlan, J. K. and McGaughey, W. H. 1983. Fumigation of empty grain drying bins with chloropicrin, phosphine, and liquid fumigant mixtures. J. Econ. Entomol. 76:184-187. (carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide did not produce 100% insect mortality; liquid fumigant containing ethylene dichloride, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylene dibromide did not kill all insects at 3.79 liters, but produced 100% mortality at 7.57 liters per bin)

Pedersen, J. R. 1959. Effectiveness of an 80:20 formulation of carbon tetrachloride-methylallyl chloride as a fumigant for rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) in wheat. MS Thesis, Kansas State University Department of Entomology, .

Pedersen, J. R. 1959. Effectiveness of an 80:20 formulation of carbon tetrachloride-methylallyl chloride as a fumigant for rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) in wheat. MS Thesis, Kansas State University Department of Entomology.

Rajendran, S., and M. Muthu. 1977. Toxicity of Acrylonitrile-Ethylene Dibromide Mixtures to Tribolium castaneum-Herbst and Sitophilus oryzae (L) Adults. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 14:219-221.

Rajendran, S., and M. Muthu. 1981. Post-Fumigation Productivity of Sitophilus oryzae (L) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) Exposed to Acrylonitrile, Adjuvants of Acrylonitrile, Acrylonitrile-Adjuvant Mixtures and Other Modern Fumigants. Bull. Entomol. Res. 71:163-169.

Rajendran, S., M. Muthu, and S. Majumder. 1982. Toxicity of ethylene dibromide and methyl bromide Mixture to Sitophilus oryzae (L) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 19:34-35.

Ren, Y., B. Lee, D. Mahon, N. Xin, M. Head, and R. Reid. 2008. Fumigation of wheat using liquid ethyl formate plus methyl isothiocyanate in 50-tonne farm bins. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:623-630.

Ren, Y., B. Lee, B. Padovan, and L. Cai. 2012. Ethyl formate plus methyl isothiocyanate — a potential liquid fumigant for stored grains. Pest Manag. Sci. 68:194-201.

Ruppel, R. F., Bravo, G. and Hatheway, W. H. 1960. Effectiveness of mixtures of acrylonitrile and carbon tetrachloride against three pests of stored grain. J. Econ. Entomol. 53:238-242.

Sonica, Drosu, M. Ciobanu, F. Oancea, C. Chireceanu, and M. Lixandru. 2011. Preliminary studies on efficacy of vaporised ethyl formate and carbon dioxide formulations against stored-grain insects. Research Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry (RJPP) 3:35-37.

Storey, C. L. et al. 1973. Relative toxicity of chloropicrin, phosphine, ethyline dichloride-carbon tetrachloride, and carbon tetrachloride-carbon disulfide to various life stages of the Indian meal moth. USDA, ARS-NC-6.

Storey, C. L., C. R. Martin, and D. R. Sukkestad. 1981. Concentrations of 80:20 Grain Fumigant (CCl4–CS2) in Handling Equipment During Transfers of Fumigated Wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 74:188-190.

Viljoen, J. H. et al. 1981. Fumigation trials with a mixture of methyl bromide and carbon dioxide in larger type silo bins storage pests. Phytophylactica Plantbeskermingswetenskappe en mikrobiologie (Plant protection sciences and microbiologie) 13: 127-137.

Wainman, H. E. Chakrabarti, B.and Warre, P. R. 1983. Use of a methyl bromide/carbon dioxide mixture as a space fumigant. International Pest Control 25: 174-175.

Williams, P. et al. 1984. Commercial potential of methyl bromide and carbon dioxide mixtures for disinfesting grain. In Ripp, B.E. Ed. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Zhao-Zhen, N. 1984. Fumigation Trials with Carbon Disulphide: Carbon Tetrachloride (20:80) in Silo Bins, pp. 657-662. In B. E. e. a. Ripp (ed.), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, 11-22 Apr 1983, Perth, Australia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Insecticide – Combinations (n=34)

Ali, N. S., M. Munir, S. S. Ali, and A. R. Shakoori. 2007. Efficacy of mixtures of an organophosphate malathion and a synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin against lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica. Pak. J. Zool. 39:179-184.

Ardley, J., and J. Desmarchelier. 1978. Field trials of bioresmethrin and fenitrothion combinations as potential grain protectants [Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium castaneum]. J. Stored Prod. Res. 14:65-67.

Arthur, F. 1992. Residual Efficacy of Chlorpyrifos-Methyl + Bioresmethrin and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl + Resmethrin for Controlling Lesser Grain Borers (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae), Rice Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), and Red Flour Beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in Stored Wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 85:570-575.

Arthur, F. H. 1994. Cyfluthrin applied with and without piperonyl butoxide and piperonyl butoxide plus chlorpyrifos-methyl for protection of stored wheat. Journal of economic entomology, 87(6): 1707-1713.

Arthur, F. H. 1994. Efficacy of unsynergised deltamethrin and deltamethrin+ chlorpyrifos-methyl combinations as protectants of stored wheat and stored corn (maize). Journal of Stored Products Research, 30(1): 87-94.

Bengston, M., Connell, M., Davies, R. A., Desmarchelier, J. M., Elder, W. B., Hart, R. J.; Phillips, M. P.; Ridley, E.; Ripp, B. E.; Snelson, J.; Sticka, R. 1980. Chlorpyrifos‐methyl plus bioresmethrin; Methacrifos; Pirimiphos‐methyl plus bioresmethrin; and synergised bioresmethrin as grain protectants for wheat. Pesticide Science, 11(1): 61-76.

Bengston, M., Connell, M., Davies, R.A.H., Desmarcheler, J.M., Phillips, M.P., Snelson, J.T., Sticka, R., 1980. Fenitrothion plus 1R-phenothrin, and pirimiphos-methyl plus carbaryl, as grain protectant combinations for wheat. Pesticide Science 11: 471–482.

Bitran, E. A., T. B. Campos, L. F. C. Kastrup, T. Ishizaki, and D. A. Oliveira. 1982. Evaluation of the efficiency of malathion and dichlorvos mixture for the protection of sacked maize (Avaliacao da eficiencia da mistura malathion dichlorvos na protecao de milho ensacado). Biologico (Sao Paulo) 48:239-249.

Correa, A. S., E. J. G. Pereira, E. M. G. Cordeiro, L. S. Braga, and R. N. C. Guedes. 2011. Insecticide resistance, mixture potentiation and fitness in populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais). Crop Protection 30:1655-1666.

Daglish, G. J., Eelkema, M., & Harrison, L. M. 1995. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus either methoprene or synergized phenothrin for control of Coleoptera in maize in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Stored Products Research, 31(3), 235-241.

Daglish, G. J., B. E. Wallbank, and M. K. Nayak. 2003. Synergized bifenthrin plus chlorpyrifos-methyl for control of beetles and psocids in sorghum in Australia. J. Econ. Entomol. 96:525-532.

Daglish, G. J., and B. E. Wallbank. 2005. Efficacy of diflubenzuron plus methoprene against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica in stored sorghum. J. Stored Prod. Res. 41: 353-360.

Davies, R., and J. Desmarchelier. 1981. Combinations of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Carbaryl for Stored Grain Protection. Pestic. Sci. 12:669-677.

Desmarchelier, J. M. 1977. Selective treatments, including combinations of pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides. For control of stored product Coleoptera at two temperatures. Journal of Stored Products Research, 13(3): 129-137.

Desmarchelier, J., M. Bengston, M. Connell, R. Henning, E. Ridley, E. Ripp, C. Sierakowski, R. Sticka, J. Snelson, and A. Wilson. 1981. Extensive pilot use of the grain protectant combinations, fenitrothion plus bioresmethrin and pirimiphos-methyl plus bioresmethrin. Pesticide-Science 12:365-374.

Desmarchelier, James; Bengston, Mervyn; Davies, Richard; Elder, Brian; Hart, Richard;
Henning, Ronald; Murray, William; Ridley, Edward; Ripp, Eric; Sierakowski, Charles; Sticka, Rex; Snelson, Jack; Wallbank, Barry and Wilson, Arnold. 1987. Assessment of the grain protectants chlorpyrifos‐methyl plus bioresmethrin, fenitrothion plus (1R)‐phenothrin, methacrifos and pirimiphos‐methyl plus carbaryl under practical conditions in Australia. Pesticide science, 20(4), 271-288.

Elms, K. D., J. D. Kerr, and B. R. Champ. 1972. Breakdown of malathion and dichlorvos mixtures applied to wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 8:55-63.

Ferguson, A. J., and J. B. Waller. 1982. Laboratory evaluation of pirimiphos methyl and difluron admixed with wheat against the granary weevil. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 25:113-117.

Graham, W. M., and S. P. L. Kockum. 1961. Admixture of malathion and lindane with bagged maize. Bull. Entomol. Res. 52:727-739.

Gouhar, K. A., M. W. Guirgis, and M. M. Mansour. 1974. Toxicity and joint action of certain insecticides to Rhizopertha dominica F. Agricultural Research Review 52:31-39.

Harein, P., and J. SchesseR. 1975. Gardona-vapona mixture for control of stored-product insects in railway boxcars. J. Econ. Entomol. 68:113-118.

Hasnat H. 2003. Combined Action of Dimilin and Deltamethrin on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Unpublished Ph D Thesis, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. 273 pp.

Jenson, E. A., F. H. Arthur, and J. R. Nechols. 2010. Efficacy of an esfenvalerate plus methoprene aerosol for the control of eggs and fifth instars of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Insect Science 17:21-28.

Kamaruzzaman A.H.M. 2000. Effects of cyromazine and pirimiphos-methyl on Tribolium castaenum Herbst and Tribolium confusum Duval. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. 302 pp.

Kockum, S. 1965. Crib storage of maize. a trial with pyrethrin and lindane formulations. East african Agricultural and Forestry Journal 31:8-10.

McGaughey, W. H. 1973. Angoumois Grain Moth Control in Rough Rice with a Gardona-Dichlorvos Mixture. J. Econ. Entomol. 66:1353-1353.

McGaughey, W. H. and R. R. Cogburn. 1971. Current stored product insect research. Rough rice. DDVP-Gardona used in combination. Rice J. 74: 50.

Nayak, M. K., & Daglish, G. J. 2007. Combined treatments of spinosad and chlorpyrifos‐methyl for management of resistant psocid pests (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) of stored grain. Pest management science, 63(1): 104-109.

Sayaboc, P. D., A. J. C. Gibe, M. A. Acda, R. R. Villaneuva, and A. D. Prudente. 1998. The efficacy of insecticide mixtures for the protection of maize in storage. Asia Life Sciences 7:149-156.

Sehgal, B., B. Subramanyam, F. H. Arthur, and B. S. Gill. 2014. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on wheat. Pest Manage. Sci. 70:576-587.

Sehgal, B., B. Subramanyam, F. H. Arthur, and B. S. Gill. 2013. Variation in susceptibility of field three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 106:1911-1919.

Sehgal, B., and B. Subramanyam. 2014. Efficacy of β-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces against field strains of three stored-grain insect species. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98:345-354.

Sutton, A. E., F. H. Arthur, K. Y. Zhu, J. F. Campbell, and L. W. Murray. 2011. Residual efficacy of synergized pyrethrin plus methoprene aerosol against larvae of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 47:399-406.

Teotia, T. P., and K. Dhari. 1968. Some observations on the joint action of insecticides against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. Labdev. J. Sci. Techn. 6-B:169-174.

Insecticide – Botanical Combinations (n=5)

Islam, R. Khatun W., and K. A. M. S. H. Mondal. 2010. Effects of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and nimbicidine on population of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Journal of Bio-Science 18: 84-87.

Kassis, S. R. and Shemais, S. A. 2002. Chemical and biological studies on wheat grains treated with plant oils and plant oil malathion mixture against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica during storage. Egyptian J. Agric. Res. 80(4): 1551-1561.

Khalequzzaman, M. and M. Khanom. 2006. Effects of cypermethrin alone and in combination with leaf and seed extracts of neem against adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University 25: 45-49.

Khanom, N.P. 2004. Effect of neem plant extracts and insect growth regulators on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. 339 pp. added Refw ChemCombo

Silva, G. S., M. G. Michels, S. B. Toma, F. E. Terra, V. E. Soares and A. J. Costa. 2007. Effectiveness of the compound chlorpyrifos plus cypermethrin plus citronellal against Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory analysis and residue determination in carcasses. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 9: 157-160.