Rearing Stored-Products Insects

Howe (1991) and Fundamentals of Stored-Product Entomology book describe the precautions necessary to rear healthy insects. At one time, the USDA Laboratory at Savannah, Georgia reared 26 species of stored-product insects (Miller et al 1969 Rearing Manual) and the laboratory at Slough, UK was rearing 101 species (Anonymous 1971). The following list gives 131 papers describing rearing methods. There are more than 2000 records in the Atlas and SPIRes books on the suitability of different commodities for insect development and reproduction. Also, see the Suitability of Foods page on this website for additional records.

Abraham, Y., D. Moore and G. Godwin. 1990. Rearing and Aspects of Biology of Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) Parasitoids of the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 80: 121-128.

Adashkevich, B. P., and Z. K. Saidova. 1984. Rearing of Habrobracon. Zashch. Rast. 5: 20-21.

Akinneye, J.O. and M.O. Ashamo, 2009. Evaluation of different diets for rearing cocoa moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Nig. J. Ent. 26: 29-33.

Alrubeai, Hussain F. 1987. Growth and development of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under laboratory mass-rearing conditions. J. Stored Prod. Res. 23(3): 133-135.

Al-Taweel, A. A., M. S. H. Ahmed, M. J. Nasser and M. A. Shawkit. 1995. Reuse of the larval diet in mass rearing the fig moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 31(3): 249-251.

Anonymous 1971. Insect list and rearing media at Slough Tribolium Information Bulletin 14: 43-48. (Laboratory at Slough, England at one time reared the following 101 stored-product insect species on one of 40 culture media listed in the paper. Howe (1991) lists the species reared on wheatfeed.)

Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)

Achroia grisella (Fabricius)

Ahasverus advena (Waltl)

Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer)

Alphitobius laevigatus (Fabricius)

Alphitobius viator Mulsant and Godart

Alphitophagus bifasciatus (Say)

Anthrenocerus australis (Hope)

Anthrenus flavipes LeConte

Anthrenus olgae Kalik

Anthrenus sarnicus Mroczkowski

Anthrenus verbasci (Linnaeus)

Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer)

Attagenus pellio (Linnaeus)

Attagenus unicolor (Brahm)

Cadra calidella (Guenée)

Cadra cautella (Walker)

Cadra figulilella (Gregson)

Callosobruchus analis (Fabricius)

Callosobruchus chinensis (Linnaeus)

Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius)

Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic)

Carpophilus dimidiatus (Fabricius)

Carpophilus hemipterus (Linnaeus)

Carpophilus marginellus Motschulsky

Caryedon serratus (Olivier)

Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin-Méneville)

Cryptolestes capensis (Waltl)

Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens)

Cryptolestes pusilloides (Steel and Howe)

Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr)

Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle)

Cryptolestes ugandae Steel and Howe

Dermestes ater DeGeer

Dermestes frischii Kugelann

Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Küster

Dermestes lardarius Linnaeus

Dermestes maculatus Degeer

Dermestes peruvianus La Porte de Castelnau

Ephestia elutella (Hübner)

Ephestia kuehniella Zeller

Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus)

Gibbium psylloides (de Czenpinski)

Gnatocerus cornutus (Fabricius)

Gnatocerus maxillosus (Fabricius)

Habrobracon hebetor Say*

Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)

Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse

Lophocateres pusillus (Klug)

Mezium affine Boieldieu

Mezium americanum (LaPorte de Castelnau)

Murmidius ovalis (Beck)

Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius)

Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer)

Niditinea fuscella (Linnaeus)

Niptus hololeucus (Faldermann)

Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel)

Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus)

Palorus laesicollis (Fairmaire)

Palorus ratzeburgii (Wissmann)

Palorus subdepressus (Wollaston)

Paralipsa gularis (Zeller)

Pharaxonotha kirschii Reitter

Pseudeurostus hilleri (Reitter)

Ptinus latro Fabricius

Ptinus ocellus W. J.Brown (tectus)

Ptinus pusillus Sturm

Ptinus sexpunctatus Panzer

Pyralis farinalis (Linnaeus)

Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius)

Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus)

Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus)

Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus)

Stethomezium squamonus Hinton

Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus)

Tenebrio obscurus (Fabricius)

Tenebroides mauritanicus (Linnaeus)

Tinea columbariella Wocke

Tinea pellionella (Linnaeus)

Tineola bisselliella (Hummel)

Tipnus unicolor (Piller and Mitterpacher)

Tribolium anaphe Hinton

Tribolium brevicornis (LeConte)

Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val

Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart

Tribolium madens (Charpentier)

Trigonogenius globosus Solier

Trigonogenius particularis Pic

Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst)

Trogoderma granarium Everts

Trogoderma grassmani Beal

Trogoderma inclusum LeConte

Trogoderma irroratus Reitt.

Trogoderma simplex Jayne

Trogoderma sternale Jayne

Trogoderma variabile Ballion

Typhaea stercorea (Linnaeus)

Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman)

Appanna, M. 1952. Microbracon hebetor Say:  possibilities of its mass-production and large-scale utilization against insect pests of field crops.  Indian J. Entomol. 14: 263-267.

Applebaum, S., A. Konijn and B. Menco. 1971. Growth and Biochemical Adaptation of Larvae of Beetle Dermestes maculatus to Carbohydrate-Free Diets. Insect Biochemistry 1:1-13.

Apt, A. C. 1950. Method of rearing the flat grain beetle and the grain mite. J. Econ. Entomol. 43: 735-735.

Baker, J. E. and R. E. Bry. 1987. Nutritional ecology of wool- and fur-feeding insects. p. 971-992. In Frank Slansky Jr. and J. G. Rodriguez (eds.) Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites, Spiders, and Related Invertebrates. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Baker, J. E. and S. R. Loschiavo. 1987. Nutritional ecology of stored-product insects. p. 321-344. In Frank Slansky Jr. and J. G. Rodriguez (eds.) Nutritional Ecology of Insects, Mites, Spiders, and Related Invertebrates. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Ballal, C. R., S. P. Singh, J. Poorani and T. Gupta. 2003. Biology and rearing requirement of an anthocorid predator Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius (Heteroptera: Anthcoridae). J. Biol. Control 17: 29-33.

Bare, Clarence Owen, Joseph Nesbitt Tenhet, and Ross W. Brubacker. 1947. Improved techniques for mass rearing of the cigarette beetle and the tobacco moth. USDA ET-247.

Beck, S. 1971. Growth and Retrogression in Larvae of Trogoderma glabrum (Coleoptera-Dermestidae) .1. Characteristics Under Feeding and Starvation Conditions. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 64:149-155.

Beckel, H. d. S., I. Lorini and S. M. N. Lazzari. 2007. Rearing method of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera, Silvanidae) on various wheat grain granulometry. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 51: 501-505.

Bernardi, E. B., M. L. Haddad, and J. R. P. Parra. 2000. Comparison of artificial diets for rearing Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lep., Pyralidae) for Trichogramma mass production. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 60(1): 45-52.

Blankenship, J. W. and G. J. Miller. 1971. In vivo syntheses of phosphatidyl choline and ethanolamine in larvae of the dried-fruit moth. Journal of insect physiology 17(11): 2061-2067.

Boczek, J. 1964. Artificial medium for rearing some stored products mites. Acarologia 6: 392-398. supplement

Boles, H. P., and F. O. Marzke. 1966. Lepidoptera infesting stored products, p. 259-70. In Carroll N. Smith [ed.] Insect Colonization and Mass Production. Academic Press, New York and London.

Bond, E. J. and H. A. U. Monro. 1954. Rearing the cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus (L.) (Coleoptera: Ostomidae), as a test insect for insecticidal research. Can. Entomol. 86: 402-408.

Bronskill, J. 1961. A cage to simplify the rearing of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae). J. Lep. Soc 15(2): 102-104.

Bry, R. E. and R. Davis. 1985. Tribolium confusum and Tribolium castaneum. pp. 291-293. In P. Singh and R. F. Moore (ed.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, vol. 1. Elsevier, New York.

Bry, R. E. and R. Davis. 1985. Tineola bisselliella., pp. 483-485. In P. Singh and R. F. Moore (eds.), Handbook of Insect Rearing, vol. 2. Elsevier, New York.

Cerutti, F., Bigler, F., Eden, G. and Bosshart, S. 1992. Optimal larval density and quality control aspects in mass rearing of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zell. (Lepidoptera, Phycitidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 114: 353-361.

Chi, H. and W. M. Getz. 1988. Mass rearing and harvesting based on an age-stage, two-sex life table: a Potato Tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) case study. Environ. Entomol. 17: 18-25.

Chippendale, G. M. 1970. Development of artificial diets for rearing the Angoumois grain moth. J. Econ. Entomol. 63: 844-848.

Chippendale, G. M. 1971. Growth and development of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella in an aritificial diet. J. Insect Physiol. 17:109-115.

Chippendale, G. M. 1971. Observations on the physical and chemical composition of diets for the Angoumois grain moth. J. Insect Physiol. 17:1257-1266.

Chippendale, G. M. 1971. Lipid requirements of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella. J. Insect Physiol. 17:2169-2177.

Chippendale, G. M. 1972. Dietary carbohydrates: Role in survival of the adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. J. Insect Physiol. 18:949-957.

Chiu, S. P., Y. C. Tien, W. Y. Chou, C. C. Yu, C. H. Wang and C. K. Wang. 1980. Improved technique for mass rearing rice moth.” Chih wu pao hu hsueh pao.= Acta phytophylacica sinica 7: 153-158.

Cline, L. D. 1972. Rearing the lesser grain borer on ground dog biscuits to obtain mature larvae and pupae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 66: 551-552.

Cross, D. and R. Crabtree. 1978. Artificial Medium for Rearing Anobium punctatum (De Geer). Journal of the Institute of Wood Science 8: 34-37.

Davis, G. R. 1971. Protein nutrition of Tenebrio molitor L. XV. amino acid mixtures as replacements for protein of the artificial diet. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 79:11-17.

Davis, G. R. 1972. Quantitative requirements of the saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, for dietary glycine and l-threonine. J. Insect Physiol. 18:1287-1294.

Davis, R. and R. E. Bry. 1985. Cadra cautella. pp. 207-210. In P. Singh and R. F. Moore (eds.) Handbook of Insect Rearing, vol. 2. Elsevier, New York.

Davis, R. and R. E. Bry. 1985. Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais., pp. 287-289. In P. Singh and R. F. Moore (ed.), Handbook of Insect Rearing vol. 1. Elsevier, New York.

Dowd, P. F. e. a. 1991. Labor-saving method for rearing a corn sap beetle, Carpophilus freemani Dbson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), on pinto bean-based diet. J. Agric. Entomol. 8:149-153.

Eischen, F., and A. Dietz. 1990. Improved culture techniques for mass rearing Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Entomol. News 101:123-128.

Fakharzadeh, A. R. 2002. Rearing of pomegranate neckworm (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) on artificial diet and investigation some stimulus factors on oviposition. Master of science thesis, Tehran University, Iran.

Finney, G. and D. Brinkman. 1967. Rearing the navel orangeworm in the laboratory. J. Entomol. Soc. Am. 60: 1109–1111.

Fletcher, F. W. and E. E. Kenaga. 1942. Rearing fabric pests. Soap and Sanitary Chemicals 18: 92-101.

Foott, W. H. and P. R. Timmins. 1979. The rearing and biology of Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in the laboratory. Can. Entomol. 111: 1337-1344.

Franek, Marian. 1975. Studies on the optimum conditions in laboratory cultures of the granary weevil – Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Col.: Curculionidae) for testing insecticides. III. Determination of the best rearing method of testing insects. Bull.Entomol.Pol. 45: 653-622.

Germanov, A. 1982. Development and behavior of larvae of Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. under conditions of mass rearing. Rasteniev dni Naeuki 19: 87-95.

Ghavami, S. 2006. Effects of three artificial diets on biological characteristics of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lep.: Pyralidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 25:63-76.

Ghimire, M. N. and T. W. Phillips. 2010. Mass rearing of Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effects of host density, parasitoid density, and rearing containers. J. Stored Prod. Res. 46: 214-220.

Gonen, M. et al. 1973. Improved technique for rearing the tropical warehouse moth Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). Israel J. Entomol. 8: 179-181.

Gothilf, S. 1968. The biology of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. in Israel. part 1. Mass culture on artificial diet. Israel J. Entomol. 3:109-118.

Gray, H. E. 1943. Stored food insects, p. 54-56. In F. L. Campbdl and F. R. Moulton [ed.] Laboratory procedures in studies of the chemical control of insects. Pub. no. 20, Amer. Ass. Advance. Sci., Washington, D.C.

Hall, R., J. Smilanick, and L. Ehler. 1978. Laboratory Rearing and Field Observations on Carpophilus mutilatus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 71: 408-410.

Harein, P. K. and E. L. Soderstrom. 1966. Coleoptera infesting stored products. in C. N. Smith (ed.) Insect Colonization and Mass Production. Academic Press, N.Y.

Hasan, Md M. and T. W. Phillips. 2010. Mass-rearing of the redlegged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes DeGeer (Coleoptera: Cleridae) for laboratory research. J. Stored Prod. Res. 46(1): 38-42.

Haydak, M. H. 1947. Rearing Clothes Moth and Black Carpet Beetle in the Laboratory. J. Econ. Entomol. 40: 279-280.

Hickin, N. E. 1941. methods used in rearing small insects infesting stored food products. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 16: 35-38.

Hill, S. T. 1965. Axenic culture of the foreign grain beetle, Ahasverus advena (Walt.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and the role of fungi in its nutrition.  Bull. Entomol. Res. 55: 681-90.

Hill, S. T. 1978. Development of Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera, Silvanidae) on the seven species of Aspergillus and on food moulded by two of these.  J Stored Prod. Res. 14: 227-231

Hogan, G. 1972. Development of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera – Tenebrionidae) in Media Supplemented with Pyrimidines and Purines. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 65:631-636.

Howe, R. W. 1991. Principles of rearing stored-product insects and of insectary management. p. 535-544. In J. R. Gorham (ed.) Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

Howe, R. W. and B. D. Hole. 1967. The yield of cultures of Sitophilus granarius at 25oC and 70% relative humidity with some observations on rates of oviposition and development. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2(4): 257-272.

Islam, W. 1998. Rearing and release of the pulse weevil parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension 1: 131-135.

Iwata, R. and K. Nishimoto. 1985. Studies on the autecology of Lyctus brunneus (Stephens) (Coleoptera, Lyctidae). VI. Larval development and instars with special reference to an individual rearing method. Wood Res. 71: 32-45.

Jacob, A., Das, N.M. and Nair, M.R.G.K. 1966. Studies on the feeding media for mass rearing of Corcyra cephalonica Staint. Agric. Res. J. Kerala 4: 82-85.

Jagadeesan, R., M. K. Nayak, K. Dawson, V. Byrne and P. J. Collins. 2013. Dietary media for mass rearing of rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and flat grain beetle, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schonherr) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 55: 68-72.

Klein, J. and S. Beck. 1979. Meridic Diet for Trogoderma glabrum and Other Dermestid Beetles. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72: 398-404.

Krantz, G. W. et al. 1961. Biology and ecology of granary mites of the pacific northwest. II. Itechniques for laboratory observation and rearing. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 54: 512-518.

Kumar, P. and S. Kumar. 2002. Evaluation of different rearing media for Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). J. Biol. Control 16: 117-120.

Kuriwada, T., N. Kumano, K. Shiromoto and D. Haraguchi. 2010. Effect of mass rearing on life history traits and inbreeding depression in the sweetpotato weevil (coleoptera: brentidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 1144-1148.

Kuriwada, T., N. Kumano, K. Shiromoto and D. Haraguchi. 2014. Mass-rearing conditions do not affect responsiveness to sex pheromone and flight activity in sweetpotato weevils. J. Appl. Entomol. 138: 254-259.

Lambkin, T. A. and N. Khatoon. 1990. Culture methods for Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) and Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Cleridae and Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 26: 59-60.

Laudani, H. 1948. A simplified technique for rearing carpet beetles. Soap and Sanitary Chemicals 24: 139

Leong, E. C. W. and S. H. Ho. 1990. Techniques in the culturing and handling of Liposcelis entomophilus (Enderlein) (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 26: 57-70.

Levinson, H. Z. and S. Gothilf 1965. A semi-synthetic diet for axenic growth of the carob moth Ectomye1osis ceratoniae (Zel1.). Riv. Parassit. 26: 19-26.

Lima-Filho, M., Favero, S. and de Lima, J.O.G., 2001. Production of the Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on an artificial diet containing corn meal. Neotropical Entomol. 30: 37-42. added Refw

Livingstone, E. M., W. D. Reed and A. W. Morrill. 1936. Rearing the cigarette beetle for experimental use. USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 1-10.

Magro, S. R. and J. R. P. Parra. 2004. Comparison of artificial diets for rearing Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Control 29: 341-347.

Mallis, A., A. C. Miller, and R. C. Hill 1958. Feeding of four species of fabric pests on natural and synthetic textiles. J. econ. Ent. 51: 248-249.

Marston, Norman, and Barbara Campbell. Comparison of nine diets for rearing Galleria mellonella. Annals of the Entomological society of America 66, no. 1 (1973): 132-136.

Marston, Norman, and Barbara Brown. 1974. Constituents in Diets for Galleria mellonella. Journal of Economic Entomology 67(4): 497-500.

Mathlein, R. 1971. Rearing experiments with Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. AND Cryptolestes ferrugineus Steph. on grain. (Uppfoedningsfoersoek Med Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. Och Cryptolestes ferrugineus Steph. I Spannmal.). Statens Vaxtskyddsanstalt Meddelanden 15: 191-203.

Maurya, K., P. Jain, Z. Jamil, R. Saxena, O. Shukla, K. Saxena and B. Dev. 1982. Mass Rearing of the Mite Caloglyphus berlesei (Michael). Indian. J. Exp. Biol. 20: 637-638.

Mehendale, S. K., M. B. Patel, and C. U. Shinde. 2014. Evaluation of different rearing media for Corcyra cephalonica (stainton) under laboratory condition. The Bioscan 9,(1): 259-264.

Miller, Alice, Renie Phillips and L. D. Cline. 1969. Rearing manual for stored-product insects used by USDA Stored-Product Insects Research and Development Laboratory, Savannah, GA. Last revised May 1969.

Morrison, Richard K. and J. D. Hoffman. 1976. Improved method for rearing the Angoumois grain moth. USDA, ARS-S-104

Mukherjee, A. B. and A. K. S. Choudhury. 1972. Artificial diets for rearing of Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter), a predator on some pests of stored cereals. Indian journal of entomology 33: 356-358.

Navarro, S. and M. Gonen. 1970. Some techniques for laboratory rearing and experimentation with Ephestia cautella (Wlk) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 6(2): 187-189.

Nair, K. S. S. and G. Mathew. 1984. Dried tapioca tuber for laboratory rearing of the bamboo borer, Dinoderus minutus Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Mater. Organ. 19: 49-54.

Nakahara, Y. and K. Iwabuchi. 2000. In vitro rearing of the larval endoparasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae) IV. Effects of osmotic pressure and pH on larval development. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 35:381-388.

Nakahara, Y., K. Iwabuchi and J. Mitsuhashi. 1997. In vitro rearing of the larval endoparasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) .3. Growth promoting ability of extract of Galleria mellonella pupae. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 32:91-99.

Nasirian, R., B. Naseri, and J. Razmjou. 2014. Feeding performance and some biological parameters of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on artificial diets containing bran of different wheat cultivars. Journal of Crop Protection 3:295-304.

Naton, E. 1960. Über die Entwicklung des schwarzbraunen Mehlkäfers, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. Teil I. Die Aufzucht von Tribolium destructor in natürlicher Diät  (On the development of T. destructor. Part I. The rearing of T. destructor on a natural diet.). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 46(3): 233-244.

Nayak, M. K. and P. J. Collins. 2001. An improved method for mass rearing of three liposcelid psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) infesting stored commodities. J. Stored Prod. Res. 37: 323-328.

Neuffer, G. 1971. Zur technik in der massenzucht der getreidemotte Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. im insektarium. (Technique for mass-rearing the cereal moth Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. in the insectary) Anzeiger fuer Schaedlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Unweltschutz 44: 19-21.

Niedermayer, S. and J. L. M. Steidle. 2008. Development of a mass rearing device for the use of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster) against Sitophilus granarius L. in grain. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 40:165-169.

Ohbayashi, T., K. Iwabuchi and J. Mitsuhashi. 1994. In-vitro rearing of a larval endoparasitoid, Venturia-canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) .1. Embryonic-development. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 29: 123-126.

Ojo, J. A., and A. A. Omoloye. 2012. Rearing the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, on an artificial maize—cassava diet. Journal of Insect Science 12, article 69.

Olszak, R., and G. Bakowski. 1976. Mass rearing of the Angoumois grain moth – Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 46: 187-200.

Pence, R. J. 1958. A technique for rapid rearing of clothes moth eggs. J. Econ. Entomol. 51(6): 919-921.

Rodriguez, J. G. and A. M. Lasheen. 1971. Axenic culture of Tyrophagus putrescentiae in a chemically deffined diet and determination of essential amino acids. Journal of Insect Physiology 17(6): 979-985.

Russell, M. 1961. A Simple Rearing Medium for Indian-Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 812-813.

Safa, M., M. Yazdanian, and M. H. Sarailoo. 2014. Larval feeding from some artificial diets and its effects on biological parameters of the Mediterranean flour moth. Munis Entomology and Zoology 9:678-686.

Sanjeeva Rao, P., A. Perraju, and B. H. Krishnamurthy Rao. 1980. Effect of fortification of natural rearing media with casein, cholesterol and glucose on Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton): I. Larval growth. Indian Journal of Entomology 42(2): 218-222.

Sanjeeva Rao, P., Perraju, A. and Krishnamurthy Rao, B.H., 1980. Effect of fortification of natural rearing media with casein, cholesterol and glucose on Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). II. Developmental period and fecundity. Indian journal of entomology. 42(3): 444-447.

Sanjeeva Rao, P., A. Perraju, and B. H. Krishnamurthy Rao. 1980 Effect of fortification of natural rearing media with casein, cholesterol and glucose on Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). III. Numerical index for larval growth. Indian J. Entomol. 42: 448-452.

Sathpathy, S., N. De and S. Rai. 2003. Suitable rearing medium for rice grain moth (Corcyra cephalonica) (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 73: 331-333.

Shepard, H. H. 1943. Rearing insects that attack stored products. p. 36-51. In F. L. Campbell and F. R. Moulton (eds.) Laboratory Procedures in Studies of the Chemical Control of insects. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D. C.

Shiromany, P.A. 1961. A simple method of maintaining mass culture of Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (Dermestidae: Coleoptera). Indian J. Ent. 23: 62-65.

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