Containerized Shipping and Pest Control

Containerized shipping began in the late 1960’s. Containerized shipping can reduce the movement of insects from the commodities in one shipping container to the commodities in another, but if not cleaned shipping containers can be a source of insect infestation of commodities during shipping. The shipping containers can be used as fumigation chambers. The following 71 papers are on management of stored product insect pests in shipping containers.

Agrafioti, Paraskevi, Efstathios Kaloudis, Sotiris Bantas, Vasilis Sotiroudas, and Christos G. Athanassiou. 2021. Phosphine distribution and insect mortality in commercial metal shipping containers using wireless sensors and CFD modeling. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 184, 106087.

Anonymous. 1973. Safe handling of fumigated freight containers. Ministry of Agriculture,, Fisheries and Food (MAFF).

Anonymous 2003. Sea Container Review. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) , Auckland, New Zealand Discussion Paper No. 35, 116 p.

Ball, S. and van S Graver, J. E. 1997. Pressure tests to determine need for sheeting loaded freight containers before fumigation. p. 353–358. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, (Donahaye, E. J., Navarro, S., Varnava, A. eds.), Printco Ltd., Nicosia, Cyprus.

Banks, H. J. 1988. Disinfestation of durable foodstuffs in ISO containers using carbon dioxide. In Transport of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables (Ferrar, P. ed.), ACIAR Proceedings No. 23, ACIAR, Canberra, pp 45–54.

Banks, H. J. and Annis, P. C. 1981. Treatment of bulk grain in freight containers with CO2 while in transit as an insect control measure: a commercial trial using bulk malt. CSIRO Division of Entomology Report No. 26.

Banks, H. J. and Alister K. Sharp 1979. Trial use of CO2 to control insects in exported, containerized wheat. CSIRO Australia Division of Entomology Report No. 15.

Banks, H. Jonathan and Alister K. Sharp 1986. Influence of transportation on gas loss from freight containers under fumigation. Part II: Descriptive Model. Pestic. Sci. 17: 221-229.

Banks, H. J., A. K. Sharp and A. R. Irving 1974. Gas interchange in freight containers. p. 519–531. In In Brady, E.U.; Brower, J.H.; Hunter, P.E.; Jay, E.G.; Lum, P.T.M.; Lund, H.O.; Mullen, M.A.; Davis, R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Working Conference on Stored-Product Entomology, 7-11 October 1974, Savannah, Georgia, USA.  Savannah, Georgia, USA, 1975.

Banks, H. J., A. K. Sharp and A. R. Irving. 1986. Influence of transport on gas loss from freight containers under fumigation. Part I: Experimental Investigation. Pestic. Sci. 17: 207-220.

Catley, A. 1980. Container infestation: the realities and the remedies. Cargo systems International 7: 71-73.

Childs, D. P., J. E. Overby, and D. Niffenegger. 1971. Phosphine fumigation of tobacco in freight containers (Part I & II). Tobacco Sci. 15: 1-6 , 33-38.

Childs, Dana P. 1972. Experiment: Tobacco consignment fumigated in containers while in transit. Container News 7: 26.

Coetzee, Eugene Marco 2020. Exploration of ethyl formate+ nitrogen as a fumigant for shipping containers and their in-transit fumigation. PhD diss., Murdoch University

Coetzee, Eugene M., Xin Du, Melissa L. Thomas, YongLin Ren, and Simon J. McKirdy. 2020, In-transit fumigation of shipping containers with ethyl formate+ nitrogen on road and continued journey on sea. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 55(9): 820-826.

Coetzee, E. Marco, Hamish McKirdy, Xin Du, Simon J. McKirdy, and YongLin Ren. 2021. Ethyl formate+ nitrogen fumigant: a new, safe, and environmentally friendly option for treating a 20 ft shipping container loaded with general freight. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 56(7): 650-657.

Coetzee, E. M.; Newman, J.; Coupland, G. T.; Thomas, M.; Van der Merwe, J.; Ren, Y.; McKirdy, S. J. 2019. Commercial Trials Evaluating the Novel Use of Ethyl Formate for in-Transit Fumigation of Shipping Containers. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part B. 54, 717–727.

Cogan, P. M. 1997. The use of traps to monitor insect infestations in cocoa container shipments. p. 649. In Donahaye, E. J., Navarro, S. and Varnava, A. eds. Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Nicosia, Cyprus, 21-26 April, 1996, Printco Ltd., Nicosia, Cyprus.

De Lima, C. P. F. and R. N. Emery 1994. Improved procedures for fumigation of oaten hay in shipping containers. p. 71–77. In E. Higley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks and B. R. Champ eds. Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 17-24 April 1994, Canberra, Australia. CAB International, Wallingford, UK

Freeman, J. A. 1961. Inherent vice and infestation of cargo. Journal of the Insurance Institute of London. 50:97-108.

Freeman, J. A. 1967. Implications for infestation control of the use of freight containers in international trade. Stored Prod. Conf. EPPO Publ.Ser.A. 46E

Freeman, J. A. 1967. Problems of Infestation of Commodities Carried out by Sea with Special Reference to Imports into Great Britain. Stored Prod.Conf. EPPO-Publ.Ser.A., Lisbon 46E, p.  15–30.

Freeman, J. A. 1968. Problems in the carriage of infested commodities in freight containers. p. 79-81. Proc. Internat. Container Symposium London Chamber of Commerce

Freeman, J. A. 1974. A review of changes in the pattern of infestation in international trade. EPPO Bull. 4: 251-273.

Graver, J. E. van Someren and H. J. Banks. 2008. Freight Containers – Are They Sufficiently Gastight for Quarantine & Pre-shipment Fumigation with Methyl Bromide in the 21ˢᵗ Century? p. 441-445. In Guo, D. L., S. Navarro, Y. Jian, T. Cheng, J. Zuxun, L. Yue, L. Yang and W. Haipeng (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Controlled Atmospheres and Fumigation in Stored Products, 21-26 Sept. 2008, Chengdu, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China.

Halliday, WR, NO Morgan and RL Kirkpatrick. 1987. Evaluation of Insecticides for Control of Stored-Product Pests in Transport Vehicles. Journal of Entomological Science 22(3): 224–236.

Harris, A. H. 1984. Phosphine fumigation of tobacco in freight containers. Tropical Stored Products Information 49: 19-25.

Hicks, P A. 1980. Ventilated box: one special solution. Cargo Systems International 7(2): 34-35, 37, 39, 41

Jamieson, L. E., S. K. Wimalaratne, B. L. Bycroft, C. W. van Epenhuijsen, B. B. C. Page, K. G. Somerfield, N. E. M. Page-Weir, A. Chhagan, D. W. Brash, and F. Zulhendri. 2009. Feasibility of ozone for treating sea containers. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) Biosecurity New Zealand Technical Paper No: 2010/01, Wellington, 69 p.

Jay, E., R. Davis and J. M. Zehner 1983. In-transit fumigation of truck-ship containers with hydrogen phosphide. USDA, ARS, Adv. Agric. Techn. AAT-S-28.

Jonfia-Essien, W., S. Varro and P. Villers. 2010. Hermetic storage: a novel approach to the protection of cocoa beans. African Crop Science Journal 18(2): 59-68

Kitagawa, M., M. Saeki, J. Fukamachi, Y. Hikosaka, E. Aihara, K. Matuoto, K. Ohto and I. Hosokawa. 1984. Trial assembly and performance test of a vehicle-installed inspection device for cereals stored in sea containers. Shokubutsu Boekijo chosa kenkyu hokoku. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 20: 47-53.

Low, A., Husing, U., Preisser, A. and Baur, X. 2003. Regulations and control of in-transit fumigated containers as well as of fumigated cargo ships. International Maritime Health, 54: 77–85.

Mabbett, T. 1995. Pheromone traps reduce insurance fumigation for cocoa bean pests. International Pest Control. 37: 73-74.

Marchioro, Matteo, Andrea Battisti and Massimo Faccoli 2020. Light Traps in Shipping Containers: A New Tool for the Early Detection of Insect Alien Species. Journal of Economic Entomology 113(4): 1718–1724. Cadra cautella, Sitophilus zeamais

Marchioro, Matteo and Massimo Faccoli 2021. Improved Light Traps for Early Detection of Insect Pests of Phytosanitary Concern in Shipping Containers. Journal of Economic Entomology 114(5): 2060–2068

Masters, R. 2003. Containers under fumigation – the hidden danger. Paper Presented in the Fumigation Revolution Seminar Organized by the Pest-Ex 2003. International Pest Control 45: 269–270, 272.

Navarro, S., N. Paster and Y. Carmi. 1988. Prevention of condensation damage to groundnuts in containers using calcium chloride. Crop Protection 7(3): 198-201.

Navarro, Shlomo, Hagit Navarro, and Tom de Bruin. 2020. Prevention of Condensation in Shipping Containers Containing Bagged Stored Products. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 148: 135–142.

Paini, D. R., and D. Yemshanov. 2012. Modelling the arrival of invasive organisms via the international marine shipping network: a Khapra beetle study 7(9): PloS one e44589.

Prickett, A. J., 1987: Maintaining insecticide susceptibility in stored grain pests. Donahaye, E.; Navarro, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Tel Aviv, Israel, 21-26 September 1986: 407-417 Maor-Wallach Press, Jerusalem, Israel (Table 3. Frequency of infestation of commodities imported in freight containers)

Rajendran, Somiahnadar. Fumigation of shipping or freight containers. Outlooks on Pest Management 15, no. 5 (2004): 222-228.

Richardson, H. H. 1974. Freight Container Fumigation and Wood Penetration with Phosphine ….  Pest Control 42(8): 20–22.

Richardson, H. 1975. Freight Container Fumigation. Pest Control 43(9): 20, 22, 23, 24–20, 22, 23, 24.

Rutter, I. 1978. Pesticide residues in food arising from transport in freight containers. Chemistry and Industry 531-532.

Schliesske, J. 1994. Zum Problem der Lagerhygiene als einem Aspekt des Vorratsschutzes im modemen Seehafenbetrieb. (On the problem of storage hygiene as an aspect of storage protection in modern seaport operation) p. 193. In Laux, Wolfrudolf (ed.), 49. Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung/ German Plant Protection Conference. In Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem 301, 26-29 September 1994, Heidelberg. Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin.

Schliesske, J. 1995. Zur gutachterlichen Feststellung des zeitpunkits eines Insekterbefalls an vegetabilen Importgutern aus Ubersee. (For the expert assessment of the timing of an insect infestation on vegetable imported goods from overseas) Mitteilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 10: 255-258.

Schliesske, J. 1996. Post-harvest problems connected with the import of plant products carried in containers from overseas countries to Europe, pp. 181-184. In Anonymous Stored product protection and post-harvest treatment of plant products, proceedings international forum, 7-8 November 1995, Strasbourg, France. Council of Europe Publishing

Schliesske, Joachim 1997. Phytosanitare Aspekte bei importiertem Rohkakao (Theobroma cacao L.) im Hamburger Hafen. (Phytosanitary aspects of imported raw cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in the Port of Hamburg) Der praktische Schädlingsbekämpfer (The practical pest control specialists) 49(9): 7-9.

Schliesske, Joachim 1997. Zum Spektrum und zur wirtschaflichen Bedeutung der mit Rohkakao und Rohkaffee importierten Insektenfauna auf den Lägern des Hamburger Hafens. (On the spectrum and the economic significance of the insect fauna imported with raw cocoa and green coffee on the warehouses of the Port of Hamburg) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 11: 227- 231.

Schliesske, J., Bartels, D. and Quelle, A. 1998. Zur Entwicklung von Vorratsschadlingen unter dem Einfluss transporttechnologischer Erschutterungen. (For the development of storage pests under the influence of transport technological shocks) Der praktische Schädlingsbekämpfer (The practical pest control specialists) 50(1): 27-28.

Schliesske, J. 1998. Zur Einschleppung von Insekten durch moderne Transportfazilitäten im Seegüterverkehr. (For the introduction of insects by modern transport facilities in freight transport). Verhandlungen der Westdeutschen Entomologentag 1997 57-65.

Schliesske, J. 1999. Phytosanitary aspects on imported raw cocoa. Hamburg harbour how to keep the cocoa supply safe. Zucker-und Suesswarenwirtschaft (Germany) 450-451.

Schliesske, J. 2000. Zur Gefahr der Einschleppung von Insekten mit importierten Vegetabilien durch den modernen Seegüterverkehr und die daraus resultierenden Konsequenzen für die Eingangskontrolle und die Lagerung im Binnenland (On the risk of insect introduction with vegetal products by modern sea transport, and the consequences for the phytosanitary inspections and the stores in the inland), pp. 296-297. In Anonymous 52. Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung/German Plant Protection. in Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem H. 376, 9.-12. Oktober 2000, Freising-Weihenstephan.

Schliesske, Joachim 2000. Zur Arthropodenfauna und ihrer phytosanitären Konsequenzen in Importsendungen von Rohkakao (Theobroma cacao L.) aus westafrikanischen Ländern. (On arthropod fauna and its phytosanitary consequences in import shipments of raw cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) from West African countries) Entomologica Basiliensia 22: 107-114.

Schliesske, Joachim. 2000. Zum Vorkommen mycetophager Kafer an vegetabilen Importgutern in Abhangigkeit von der Warenart iher Herkunft und der Transortweise. (On the occurrence of mycetophagus beetles on vegetable import goods depending on the type of goods of their origin and the mode of transort) Verhandlungen der Westdeutschen Entomologentag 1999, Lobbecke-Museum: 125-129.

Schliesske, Joachim 2001. Zum Wandel der Transportraum-Entomologie. (On the change of transport space entomology) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Angewandte Entomologie 13: 149-160.

Schliesske, Joachim 2004. Zum Einfluss des Seegüterumschlags auf die Artenzusammensetzung der Fauna synanthroper Käfer im Hamburger Hafen. (On the influence of maritime cargo handling on the species composition of the fauna synanthropic beetle in the Port of Hamburg) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie 14: 403-406.

Schliesske, Joachim. 2013. Vom Frachtsegler zum Containerriesen, vom Kornkäfer zur Insektendiversifikation. (From the Square Rigged Cargo Ship to Huge Container Vessels, from the Granary Weevil to Insect Diversification). Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 65 (5): 204–210

Schneider, B. M.; Williams, R. E.; Smith, M. S. 2001. Fumigant confinement and half-loss times in food industry structures and shipping containers. p. 471–476. In Donahaye, E. J., Navarro, S., Leesch, J. G. eds. Proceedings of International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Executive Printing Services, Clovis, California, USA.

Sharp, A. K., and H. J. Banks. 1979. Trial use of CO2 to control insects in exported, containerized wheat. CSIRO Food Res. Quarterly 39:10-16.

Sharp, A. K., and H. J. Banks. 1980. Disinfestation of stored durable foodstuffs in freight containers using carbon dioxide generated from dry ice., pp. 310-314. In Anonymous First Intern. Conf. on Technol. for Development, Canberra, 24-28 November.

Sharp, A. K.; Banks, H. J.; Irving, A. R. 1986. The effect of age on the gastightness of ISO freight containers. Journal of Food Process Engineering 8: 65–80.

Sharp, A. K.; Fenner, T. L.; Greve, J. E. van S. 1979. Prevention of condensation damage to cocoa beans shipped in containers. J. Stored Prod. Res. 15: 101-109.

Smith, K. G. 1974. Containerisation of cargo and its effects on the control of stored product insect pests in international trade. Tropical Stored Products Information 27:31-36.

Soderstrom, E. L., R. T. Hinsch, A. J. Bongers, D. G. Brandl and H. Hoogendorn. 1987. Detecting adult Phycitinae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestations in a raisin-marketing channel. J. Econ. Entomol. 80: 1229-1232.

Stanaway, M. A., Zalucki, M. P., Gillespie, P. S., Rodriquez, C. M., and Maynard, G. V. 2001. Pest risk assessment of insects in sea cargo containers. Aust. J. Entomol. 40:180-192.

Stejskal, Vaclav, Tomas Vendl, Vlastimil Kolar, Zhihong Li, and Radek Aulicky 2020. First population quantification of the infestation of legumes by stored-product bruchids imported in freight containers into Europe. Bulletin Insectology 73: 233-239.

Stokoe. G. 1974 Condensation in containers. Cargo Res 1: 21

Taylor, R. W. D. 1995. Fumigation of freight containers – a study in Jamaica. In Proceedings, Annual International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, San Diego, CA, USA

Villers, P., S. Navarro, and T. De Bruin. 2010. New Applications of Hermetic Storage for Grain Storage and Transport, pp. 446-451. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Weller, G. L. and van S Graver, J. E. 2002. Field trial of carbonyl sulfide fumigation of hay in 40 ft shipping containers. In Proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Research
Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, Orlando, Florida.