Emergence of Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart 1934 as pest

Tribolium destructor was first found in Sweden in 1934, 50 infestation records were reported between 1934 and 1943 and there was concern that it may become widely distributed in Sweden (Mathlein 1943, https://www.pestium.uk/food-pests/where-do-pests-come-from/history-of-the-dark-flour-beetle/). Prior to 1934, T. destructor was identified as T. madens (Zacher 1935). Wide host range (64 commodities, Table Infestation Record) and colonization of natural habitats (Gren 2003, Linsley 1944) facilitate establishment (Ikin et al. 1999). As the species does not appear to fly (Mathlein 1943), long distance spread dependents human transport in grain (Ikin et al. 1999) or from stores, mills and bakeries to homes (https://sisatilojentuholaiset.fi/en/food-pests/destructive-flour-beetle/). Image of Tribolium destructor adult at https://www.scienceimage.csiro.au/library/insects/i/11080/tribolium-destructor-false-black-flour-beetle/

Tribolium destructor probably originated in Africa (Angelini and Jockusch 2008, Bousquet 1990, Halstead 1975, Sinha and Waters 1985) and has been found in 5 countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, 25 in Europe, 2 in North America and 1 in South America (Table Geographic Distribution). Locally in Alberta, Canada, T. destructor can be as economically important as other serious pests, such as T. confusum and T. castaneum (Bousquet 1990). Angelini and Jockusch (2008), Löbl and Smetana (2008) and Sinha and Watters (1985) indicated that distribution is cosmopolatan. Tribolium destructor has been found at apartments (Bunalski et al 2011), bakeries and dwellings (Bousquet 1990), butcheries and stores (Prins 1984), flour mills (Bousquet 1990, Coşkuncu 2004, Pulkki 1964), granaries and elevators (Serednyak and Fedorenko, 2016), kitchens and larders (Halstead 1975), large sea-going passenger vessel (McKirdy et al 2019), railway warehouse (Hayhurst and Britten 1942), seed dealerships (Zacher 1935) and seedman warehouse (Gray 1946). Canada includes T. destructor, large flour beetle, on their extension website, https://grainscanada.gc.ca/en/grain-quality/manage/identify-an-insect/primary-insect-pests/large-flour-beetle.html. Tribolium destructor declared prohibited pest for part or all of Western Australia (https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/organisms/87783). Mathlein (1943) reported that Tribolium destuctor has been present for several years in Sweden despite repeated eradication campaigns. Measures were taken to eradicate Tribolium destructor at premises in United Kingdom (Brett 1973). McKirdy et al. (2019) describe effort to eradicate T. destructor on a large sea-going passenger vessel to prevent its introduction into Australia. Literature on T. destructor has grown steadily by 11 to 24 papers per decade over the last 70 years.

Identification (Bousquet 1990, Calmont 2008, Ferrer 1995, Good 1936, Havelka and Winkler. 1952, Hinton 1948, Ho 1967, 1969, Korschefsky1943, Krizkova-Kudlikova and Hubert 2008, Mound 1989, Potter 1939, Rees 2004, Scholz 1934, Uyttenboogaart 1934, Van Emden 1947, Zhang et al 2014, 2016, Zhang and Zhou 2002)

Geographic distribution ( Angelini and Jockusch. 2008, Al-Houty 1997, 2004, Blaisdell 1942, Bousquet 1990, Bousquet et al. 2018, Bunalski et al. 2011, Calderon and Donahaye 1964, Calmont and Soldati 2008, Campbell 1989, Chao 1965, Cornes 1973, Coşkuncu 2004, Cotton and Good 1937, Delobel and Tran 1993, Ferrer 1995, Fogliazza and Pagani 1993, Franck 1935, Freeman 1974, García 2009, Good 1936, Gorham 1991, Gray 1946, Grimm 2008, Haines 1981, Halstead 1967, 1975, Haile and Ali 1985, Havelka and Winkler 1952, Hayhurst and Britten 1942, Hinton 1948, Imura 2003, Kaminski and Block. 1968, Kaminski and Buderecka-Niechwiejczyk 1972, Korschefsky1943, Linsley 1944, Linsley and Michelbacher 1943, Löbl and Smetana 2008, Kemner 1936, Majka et al. 2008, Mathlein 1943, Mito and Uesugi. 2004, Mound 1989, Oliveira et al. 1999, Pacavira et al. 2006, Panjković et al. 2021, Potter 1939, Prins 1984, Pulkki 1964, Scholz 1934, Šefrová and Laštůvka. 2005, Serednyak and Fedorenko, 2016, Sinha and Watters 1985, Sliwinski 1960, Spencer 1957, Strong and Okumura 1958, Timuş 2015, Tomov and Trencheva 2013, Van Emden 1935, 1947, Wofková 2014, Wright 1989, Zacher 1935, Zhang and Zhou 2002)

Infestation Records (Blaisdell 1942, Bousquet 1990, Brown 1950, Calderon and Donahaye 1964, Campbell 1989, Cornes 1973, Coşkuncu 2004, Cotton 1941-1963, Cotton and Good 1937, Delobel and Tran 1993, Fogliazza and Pagani 1993, Franck 1935, García 2009, Good 1936, Gorham 1991, Gray 1946, Haile and Ali 1985, Haines 1981, Halstead 1975, Hayhurst and Britten 1942, Imura 2003, Kaminski and Block. 1968, Kaminski and Buderecka-Niechwiejczyk 1972, Kemner 1936, Kunike 1941, Landin 1979), Linsley 1944, Linsley and Michelbacher 1943, Mathlein 1943, McKirdy et al. 2019, Oliveira et al. 1999, Potter 1939, Scholz 1934, Serednyak and Fedorenko, 2016, Spencer 1957, Sinha and Watters 1985, Strong 1970, Strong and Okumura 1958, Tomov and Trencheva 2013, Uyttenboogaart 1933, 1934, Weidner 1963, Zacher 1935, Zhang and Zhou 2002)

Behavior (Listov 1975, Mathlein 1943, Sokoloff 1974, Waterhouse et al. 1971)

Ecology (Alabi et al. 2008, Arnaud et al. 2002, Brett 1973, Gren 2003, Imura 1987, McKirdy et al. 2019, Sokoloff et al. 1966, Trematerra and Lozzia 1985)

Chemical ecology (Alabi et al. 2011, Hebanowska et al. 1989, 1990, Howard 1987, Markaria et al. 1978, Palm 1946, Szafranek et al. 1994)

Genetics ( Alvarez-Fuster et al. 1991, Angelini et al. 2008, Bremner et al. 1983, Butler and Leone 1967, Carrillo and Sokoloff 1991, Ming et al. 2015, Rozek and Jordan 1981, Wool 1982)

Life History (Butler 1949, Cherkovskaya and Anoskina 1973, 1974, Gray 1946, Hasan and Selman 1993, Kunike 1941, Laubmann 1958, 1961, Lefkovitch 1964, 1965, Mathlein 1943, Naton 1958-1967, Reynolds 1943-1945, Sinha and Waters 1985, Sokoloff 1974, Solomon and Adamson 1955, Strümpel, H. 1963)

Morphology (Bilinski et al. 1985, Havelka and Winkler 1950, 1952, Roth and Willis 1951, Trencheva 2019)

Nutrition (Magis 1954a, b)

Pest management (Ahmed et al. 2015, Biosecurity Plant Division 2020, Ikin et al. 1999, Liu and Gu 2010, Zuranska 1978)

Biological control (Awater-Salendo et al. 2020, Fornal and Ciepielewska 1995, Lipa 1966, Mathlein 1943, Schreurs and Janovy 2008, Zadernowski et al. 1992)

Chemical control (Cherkovskaya and Anoskina 1973, Mathlein 1943, Parkin 1953, Tuovinen et al. 1981)

Physical control (Brower 1975, Bhambani 1966, Hasan 1998, 1999a,b, 2001, Pulkki 1964, Silvo 1949)

Eradication (Brett 1973, Mathlein 1943, McKirdy et al. 2019)

References

Ahmed, Hamiz Uddin, Md. Abdul Latif, Md. Fazlul Huq, Abu Taher Mia, Shaker Ahmed and Kbd. Md. Rabiul Awal 2015. Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) of Wheat in Bangladesh, Final Report. Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh (Tribolium destructor quarantine pest Bangladesh)

Alabi, Taoffic, Jennifer Dean, Jean-Pierre Michaud, François Verheggen, Georges Lognay, and Eric Haubruge 2011. Does Tribolium brevicornis cuticular chemistry deter cannibalism and predation of pupae? Journal of Insect Science 11(1), 115. (T. anaphe, T. audax, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. freemani, and T. madens)

Alabi, T., Michaud, J.P., Arnaud, L. and Haubruge, E. 2008. A comparative study of cannibalism and predation in seven species of flour beetles. Ecological Entomology 33: 716-726. (T. anaphe, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. freemani and T. madens)

Al-Houty, Wasmia 1997. Checklist of the insect fauna of Kuwait. Kuwait journal of science and Engineering 24: 145-162. (Tribolium destructor present Kuwait)

Al-Houty, W. 2004. A Faunistic Account of Beetles (Coleoptera) of the State of Kuwait. Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering 31: 59–76. (Tribolium destructor present Kuwait)

Alvarez-Fuster, Asunción, Carlos Juan, and Eduard Petitpierre. 1991. Genome size in Tribolium flour-beetles: inter-and intraspecific variation. Genetics Research 58(1): 1-5. (Comparison genome size Tribolium audax, T. anaphe, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. freeman and T. madens)

Angelini, David R. and Elizabeth L. Jockusch. 2008. Relationships among pest flour beetles of the genus Tribolium (Tenebrionidae) inferred from multiple molecular markers. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 46(1): 127-141. (The confusum group contains 14 species from Africa, including Tribolium destructor which is now cosmopolitan)

Arnaud, Ludovic, Georges Lognay, Marjolaine Verscheure, Lionel Leenaers, Charles Gaspar, and Eric Haubruge. 2002. Is dimethyldecanal a common aggregation pheromone of Tribolium flour beetles? Journal of chemical ecology 28(3): 523-532. . (T. audax, T. brevicornis, T. destructor, T. freemani, and T. madens)

Awater-Salendo, Sarah, Hartwig Schulz, Monika Hilker, and Benjamin Fürstenau. 2020. The importance of methyl-branched cuticular hydrocarbons for successful host recognition by the larval ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis. Journal of chemical ecology 46(11): 1032-1046. (Tribolium destructor not host)

Banga, KM Sheetal, Sunil Kumar, Nachiket Kotwaliwale, and Debabandya Mohapatra. 2020. Major insects of stored food grains. International Journal of Chemical Studies 8(1): 2380-2384. (Tribolium destructor listed as major food pest)

Bhambani, H. J. 1966. Control of Tribolium confusum Jaq. Du Val. and Tribolium destructor Uyttemb. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) by Vacuum Treatment. Indian Journal of Entomology 28(2): 171–175.

Bilinski, SM, WJ Hage and JG Bluemink. 1985. Gap-Junctions between the Follicle Cells and the Oocyte during Oogenesis in an Insect, Tribolium destructor Coleoptera. Wilhelm Rouxs Archives of Developmental Biology 194(5): 296–300.

Biosecurity Plant Division 2020. Assessment of bulk wheat from Canada Part A: Pathway analysis (Tribolium destructor of biosecurity interest to Australia)

Blaisdell, Frank E. 1942. Miscellaneous studies in the Coleoptera, no. 6 (Melyridae and Tenebrionidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 68(3): 129-149. (Reported Tribolium destructor infesting sunflower seed bought at local store in Hayward, Alameda County, California for use as parrot food. Larvae thrived when reared on alfalfa meal and rolled oats, without water.)

Boas. H. 1952. A case of universal exanthem produced by the rice flour beetle Tribolium destructor. Ugeskrift Laeger 114: 1641-1642. (Patch test with powder of crushed T. destructor was positive in the patient with exanthem rash, but negative in 4 control subjects. Similar cases have not previously been published.)

Bousquet, Y. 1990 Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp. (Found flour mills, bakeries, and dwellings coast to coast across Canada. Locally in Alberta, Canada, T. destructor can be as economically important as other serious pests, such as T. confusum and T. castaneum (L.B. Smith, personal communication) Originated in Africa and found in Asia, Europe, and North America.)

Bousquet, Y., Thomas, D.B., Bouchard, P., Smith AD, Aalbu, R.L., Johnston, A.M. and Steiner Jr, W.E. 2018. Catalogue of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera) of North America. ZooKeys 728: 1–455. (Tribolium destructor found Greenland, California, Washington, Wisconsin and 11 out of 13 Canadian provinces.)

Bremner, T. A., M. D. Anderson, G. J. Pope, and R. M. Anderson. 1983. Genetic polymorphism of amylase in three species of Tribolium (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 74(4): 755-758. (Tribolium confusum and also in Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium destructor)

Brett, G. A. 1973 The dark flour beetle, a potential pest in the United Kingdom. Pest Infestation Control: Combining the Report of the Infestation Control Laboratory 1968-70 and Pest Infestation Research 1970. HMSO, London p. 15-16. (Tribolium destructor found in granaries and households in many European countries. Tribolium destructor infests a manufacturer of animal food in UK associated with similar firm in Germany from which T. destructor may have been introduced to UK. Tribolium destructor was spread to several premises in UK in oatmeal rodent baits. Measures were taken to eradicate T. destructor where this rodent bait was used. Infestation built up in tick bean.)

Brower, JH. 1975. Radiosensitivity of Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart (Coleoptera-Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 11(3–4): 223–27.

Brown, W. J. 1950. The extralimital distribution of some species of Coleoptera. Canadian Entomologist 82: 197-205. (Tribolium destructor taken since 1945 at Edmonton, Calgary, Hussar, Alberta and Toronto, Ontario)

Bunalski, M., S. Konwerski, M. Przewoźny, and R. Ruta. 2011. New records of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Part 3: Tenebrioninae. Wiadomości Entomologiczne 30(4): 211-222. (Ten records of Tribolium destructor found in Poland between 1995 to 2007 in several University Departments and apartments.)

Butler, John E. and Charles A. Leone. 1967. Immunotaxonomic investigations of the Coleoptera. Systematic zoology 16(1): 56-63. (Tribolium madens Tribolium castaneum Tribolium destructor Latheticus oryzae, Palorus ratzeburgii Cynaeus angustus)

Butler, P. M. 1949. Observations on the biology of Palorus ratzeburgi Wissman, with comparative notes on Tenebrionidae in general (Coleoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 100 (10): 249-273. (Egg stage Tribolium destructor could develop down to a temperature of 11oC) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 84.

Calderon, M. and E. Donahaye. 1964. Records on the occurrence and hosts of stored product insects in Israel. Riv. Parassitol. 25: 55-68. (wheat bran (pollard), wheat flour)

Calmont, Benjamin, and Fabien Soldati. 2008. Découverte de Tribolium madens (Charpentier, 1825) dans le département du Puy-de-Dôme (France); clé de détermination et distribution des espèces du genre Tribolium en France (Discovery of Tribolium madens (Charpentier, 1825) in the department of Puy-de-Dôme (France); key to the determination and distribution of species of the genus Tribolium in France). Revue de L’Association Roussillonnaise D’Entomologie (R.A.R.E.) 17(2): 1 – 7. (Tribolium destructor is still limited to areas of France and occasionally imported)

Campbell, J. M. 1989. Canadian beetles (Coleoptera) injurious to crops, ornamentals, stored products and buildings. Agric. Can. Publ. 1826, Ottawa, Ontario. (animal product, oat, rolled, seed, wheat flour, wheat meal)

Carrillo, Lori and A. Sokoloff 1991. New mutants and teratologies in Tribolium freemani Hinton. TIB 31: 55-61. (p. 61 tiny, a condition repeatedly found in T. brevicornis, T. confusum, T. destructor.)

Chao, C. C. 1965 Chung-Kuo Ching chy K’un ch’ung chih 4. Ch’iao ch’ih mu. Ni pu hsing ch’ung K’o. (A record of Chinese economic insects 4 Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) Peking Science Press 423 p. (Tribolium destructor an economic pest in China.) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 8.

Cherkovskaya, A. Y. and N. L. Anoskina. 1973. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Fecundity of the Dark Flour Beetle, (Tribolium destructor Uyatt., Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Entomological Review 2(2) (2): 186-89. Translated from Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 52 (2): 267-272.

Cherkovskaya, H. Ya., And N.I. Anoskina. 1974. Influence of temperature on the vital functions of the small black beetle (Tribolium destructor Uytt.) (Черковская, Х. Я., and Н. И. Аноскина. Влияние температуры на жизнедеятельность малого черного хрущака (Tribolium destructor Uytt.). Proceedings of VNIIZ 80: 98-103.

Cherkovskaya, H. Ya., And N.I. Anoskina. 1974. Use of fumigant insecticides to control the small black beetle Tribolium destructor Uytt. (Черковская, Х. Я., and Н. И. Аноскина. (Использование фумигантных инсектицидов в борьбе с малым черным хрущаком Tribolium destructor Uytt.) Proceedings of VNIIZ 79: 119-122.

Cornes, M. A. 1973. A check list of the insects associated with stored products in Nigeria. Tech. Rep. Nigeria.Stored Prod. Res. Inst. 11: 73-98. (sorghum (broomcorn))

Coşkuncu, Kıymet Senan 2004. Bursa ili un fabrika ve değirmenlerinde zararlı böcek türleri (Harmful insect species in flour factories and mills in Bursa). Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 18(1): 33-44. (Gibbium psylloides and Tribolium destructor were detected for the first time in Bursa province.)

Cotton, R. T. 1941-1963. Pests of Stored Grain and Grain Products. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Tribolium destructor recorded from western United States and Canada.)

Cotton, R. T. and N. E. Good. 1937. Annotated list of the insects and mites associated with stored grains and cereal products, and of their arthropod parasites and predators. USDA Misc. Publ. 258. (Found seed houses, warehouses, flour mills in Germany and Netherlands. Destructive locally in Germany to seeds. Infests animal product, seed, wheat flour and wheat meal.)

Delobel, A. and M. Tran. 1993. Les Coleopteres des denrees ali­mentaires entreposes dans les regions chaudes. Faune Trop. 32: 1-425. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), Paris, France. (Infests almond, animal feed, dried fruit, hazel nut, peanut, potato flake, wheat flour Found in Europe, especially northern and middle, North America, Israel, Saudi Arabia, India and China.)

Ebeling, Walter 1978. Urban Entomology. Chapter 7 Pests Of Stored Food Products. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California. (Tribolium destructor has been recorded only from seeds and other stored products. In California, it is found in flour, grains, and mixed feeds. Tribolium destructor resembles T. confusum, but is slightly larger, and is black.)

Ferrer, Julio 1995. A key to the Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay in Sweden Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with distributional notes. Entomologisk Tidskrift 116(3): 123-126. (Tribolium madens (Charpentier), T. destructor Uyttenboogaart, T castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum Jacquelin du Val)

Fogliazza, D. and M. Pagani 1993. Insect pests in stored foodstuffs in Italy. Part 1: Coleoptera. Tecnica Molitoria 44(11): 937-951. (malt)

Fornal, Łucja, and Dolores Ciepielewska. 1995. Observations on natural factors influencing resistance of faba bean seeds to storage insect pests. Food/Nahrung 39(4): 295-301. (Phenolic compounds contained in the seed hull of faba bean may be one of the factors of the mechanism of natural resistance to infestation by Tribolium destructor and Tribolilum confusum)

Franck, P. 1935. Tribolium destructor Uytt. in Hamburg. Entomologische Blätter 31: 211.(Found in peanuts fed to pigeons in Hamburg, Germany park. Also mentions that Weber had found T. destructor in an apartment in the Hamm district and that the species has been found in Erfurt and Pomerania)

Freeman, J. A. 1974. Infestation of stored food in temperate countries with special reference to Great Britain. Outlook on agriculture 8(1): 34-41. (In Scandinavia, the dark flour beetle , Tribolium destructor is becoming increasingly common in centralIy heated buildings, but it has been reported only sporadically in Great Britain)  

García, R. 2009. Nuevos datos de distribución de coleópteros en el archipiélago canario (New data on the distribution of coleopterans in the Canary archipelago). Revista de Estudios Generales de la Isla de La Palma 4: 145-152. (Tribolium destructor found in wheat flour and packaged cookies in Canary Islands.)

Gebien, H. 1941. Tribolium destructor Uytt. (Col. Tenebr.). Bombus 1(18): 73-74. (Lytta menetriesi Faldermann 1832 from Southern Russia sent to Hamburg, Germany in 1939 for determination of the cantharidin content were infested with Tribolium destructor. Tribolium destructor feeding on these Lytta menetriesi with highly toxic catharidin lived for nearly 2 years.)

Good, N. E. 1936. Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium. USDA Technical Bulletin 498. (Tribolium destructor is pest seed and cereal products in Germany and Netherlands. Type locality Erfurt, Germany)

Goodacre, Sara L., Claudia Fricke, and Oliver Y. Martin. 2015. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species. Insect science 22(2): 165-177. (Tribolium destructor from CSL)

Gorham, J. R. 1991. Insect and Mite Pests in Food: An Illustrated Key. Vol. 1 and 2. USDA Agric. Handbook. 655. (alfalfa meal, animal product, cotton, rolled oats, wheat bran (pollard), wheat flour, wheat semolina, wool)

Gray, Harold Ellacott. 1946. A Comparison of Certain Phases of the Biology of the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst., confusum Duv., and destructor Uytt. PhD diss., University of Minnesota. (First record of T. destructor in North America was on poultry feed in a seedman warehouse in Montreal, Canada in November 1937. These insects may have been imported in a seed shipment from Holland. In 1944, flour and dog meal in Calgary, Alberta department store warehouse were infested with T. destructor.) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 490-491.

Gray, H. E. 1948. The biology of flour beetles. N. West Miller 235: 3a, 14a, 18a. (Tribolium destructor is an important pest of seeds in northern Europe and has been introduced into America several times.) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 490-491.

Gren, C. 2003. Chrzaszcze odłowione w gniazdach ptaków na Slasku (Coleoptera) (Beetles caught in bird nests in Silesia (Coleoptera)). Acta Entomologica Silesiana 9/10: 35-40.

Grimm, Roland. 2008. A new species of Tribolium Macleay from Namibia (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Triboliini). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde A, Neue Serie 1: 371–374. (Tribolium destructor present Africa, Europe, North America)

Haile, Adugna, and Kemal Ali. 1985. A review of research on the control of insect pests of small cereals in Ethiopia. p. 57-75. In A review of crop protection research in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the first Ethiopian Crop Protection Symposium. (Tribolium destructor infest stored barley and wheat in Ethiopia)

Haines, C. P. 1981. Insects and arachnids from stored products: a report on specimens received by the Tropical Stored Product Centre 1973-1977. Report of the Tropical Products Institute L54. (cereal (cereal product), residue, sorghum (broomcorn))

Halstead, D. G. H. 1967. Notes on the systematics and distribution of some Tribolium species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of stored Products Research 3(3): 269-272. (Although it may occur there, all specimens of Tribolium anaphe from Kenya which the author has seen were T. destructor Uytt.)

Halstead, D. G. H. 1975. Changes in the status of insect pests in storage and domestic habitats. p. 142-153. In Proceedings 1st International Conference on Stored Product Entomology. Savannah USA (Tribolium destructor is indigenous to Africa. It survives in heated premises in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. First found in Denmark in 1943, 13 years later started to spread, by 1964 was widespread household pest mainly in kitchens and larders, and Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory enquires stabilized at 100 per annum. A large T. destructor infestation in an apartment was reported on bird seed that had fallen into floor cracks, spread to adjoining flats, 50 beetles/day were collected in the flat below and infested Danish wholesale bird-seed dealer may well have assisted in spread of pest in Denmark. In Britain, T destructor was rarely found in storage habitat but between 1962 and 1965 was associated with rodent baits in several premises in London. At the time, T. destructor was not found at companies supplying oatmeal for baits, but residual infestation was found there 7 years later. Tribolium destructor occasionally found in mills and stores in USSR and domestic situation in Canada and Germany.)

Hasan, Mahbub. 1998. Effect of Ageing on Mating Competitiveness of Gamma-Sterilised Tribolium Spp. Males. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 18(4): 349-355. (The highest competitiveness was found in irradiated T.freemani and the lowest in T. destructor.)

Hasan, Md Mahbub. 1999a. Mating competitiveness of adult males of Tribolium spp (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) developing from irradiated pupae. Journal of stored products research 35(3): 307-316. (Competitiveness was highest in T. freemani and lowest in T. destructor.)

Hasan, Mahbub 2001. Time-course mortality and radiosensitivity indices in gamma-irradiated Tribolium spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 21(3): 213-218. (Tribolium anaphe, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T destructor, T. freeman)

Hasan, Md Mahbub. 1999b. Time-course mortality and radiosensitivity indices in Tribolium spp. developing from irradiated pupae. Journal of nuclear agriculture and biology 28(1): 1-8. (Radiosensitivity of Tribolium anaphe, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T. destructor and T. freeman pupae. Tribolium destructor was markedly more radioresistant than the other species at all dose levels and had a longer life expectancy.)

Hasan, Mahbub and B J Selman 1993. A Preliminary Note on the Biology of Some Tribolium Species (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae). Tribolium Information Bulletin (TIB) 33: 70-78. (Maximum 10 day larval weight of 0.41 mg was found in Tribolium destructor followed by T. anaphe > T. brevicornis > T. freemani > T. castaneum. Order changed in the mature stage where the maximum larval weight was recorded in T. brevicornis followed by T. destructor > T. freemani > T. anaphe > T. castaneum. Maximum larval period of 45.08 days was recorded in T. freemani followed by T. brevicornis > T. destructor > T. anaphe > T. castaneum. Maximum pupal period recorded was 11.45 days in T. brevicornis followed by T. destructor > T. freemani > T. castaneum > T. anaphe. Maximum reproductive potential of 8.60 eggs / female / day was found in T. anaphe followed by T. freemani > T. brevicornis > T. destructor > T. castaneum. Longest egg was T. brevicornis followed by T. destructor > T. freemani > T. castaneum > T. anaphe. Diets were wheat feed : fishmeal : yeast 8 : 4 : 1 for T. anaphe, rolled oats : wheatfeed : fishmeal : yeast 20 : 20 : 1 : 1 for T. brevicornis, whole meal : yeast 19 : 1 for T. castaneum, wheatfeed : yeast 12 : 1 for T. destructor, whole meal flour : yeast 11 : 1 for T. freeman.)

Havelka J. and Winkler J. 1950. Popis kukly skudce Tribolium destructor Uyttenb, (Description of the pest pupa of Tribolium destructor Uyttenb.) Entomologické listy/ Folia entomologica 13: 721-725.

Havelka, J. and J. Winkler. 1952. Studie o skudci Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. (Studies on pest Tribolium destructor Uyttenb.) Zoologické a entomologické listy 1: 230-237. (Tribolium destructor found in Czech Republic. Morphological description and key for larvae of Tribolium destructor and other Tribolium species. Also adult key.)

Hayhurst, H. and H. Britten. 1942. Insect pests in stored products. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, U.K. (cereal (cereal product) Scottish railway warehouse)

Hebanowska, E., E. Malinski, E. Dubis, K. Pihlaja, P. Oksman, K. Wiinamaki, J. Nawrot, and J. Szafranek. 1989. The Composition of Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the Tribolium destructor. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 93(2): 437–442.

Hebanowska, E., E. Malinski, A. Latowska, E. Dubis, K. Pihlaja, P. Oksman, J. Nawrot, and J. Szafranek. 1990. A Comparison of Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Larvae and Beetles of the Tribolium destructor. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 96(4): 815–819.

Herger, Peter 2000. Heimliche Untermieter. Rückblick auf 25 Jahre Ungezieferbestimmungsdienst im Natur-Museurr (Secret lodgers. Review of 25 years of vermin identification service in the nature museum). Entomologische Berichte Luzern 43: 1-10. (Tribolium destructor from 3 location in Germany are in collection)

Hinton, H. E. 1948. A synopsis of the genus Tribolium MacLeay, with some remarks on the evolution of its species-groups. Bull. Ent. Res. 39: 13–55. (Africa, Europe, North America, Ethiopian origin, 1863 Abyssinia specimen in British Museum and 1850 in Paris Museum)

Ho, Frank K. 1967. Identification of Tribolium larvae by their setal characteristics (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60(4): 729-732. (Tribolium castaneum, T. madens, T. confusum, T. anaphe, T. destructor)

Ho, Frank K. 1969. Identification of pupae of six species of Tribolium (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Annals of the entomological Society of America 62(6): 1232-1237. (Tribolium castaneum, T. madens, T. conjusum, T. anaphe, T. destructor, T. brevicornis)

Howard, Ralph W. 1987. Chemosystematic studies of the Triboliini (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): phylogenetic inferences from the defensive chemicals of eight Tribolium spp., Palorus ratzeburgi (Wissmann), and Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 80(3): 398-405.

Howe, R. W., and Freeman, J. A. 1955. Insect infestation of West African produce imported into Britian. Bull. Entomol. Res. 46:643-668. (Tribolium destructor was found in fewer than 10 of 3632 cargos imported into England from West Africa. Probably unable to live in West Africa.)

Ikin, Bob, Alison Roach, David Rees and Jonathan Banks 1999. Pest risk analysis of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize (zea mays) from the USA. Arthropod technical working group, AQIS and CSIRO Entomology, Canberra. (Tribolium destructor milled cereals, oilseeds, pulses, dried fruit, poultry feed)

Imura, Osamu. 1987. Demographic Attributes of Tribolium freemani Hinton: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Applied Entomology and Zoology 22(4): 449-455. (Tribolium freeman lives much longer than T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. madens and T. destructor.)

Imura, O. 2003. Insect pests of stored products in East Asia (Japan and Korea). p. 201-216. In: A. Prakash, J. Rao, D. S. Jayas and J. Allotey (eds.). Insect Pests of Stored Products: A Global Scenario. Applied Zoologists Research Association (AZRA), Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. (Tribolium destructor, wheat flour, Korea)

Kaminski, E., and H. Block. 1968. Choroby, szkodniki i chwasty zarejestrowane na towarach pochodzenia roślinnego przy wwożeniu ich do Polski w latach 1945-1958 (Diseases, pests and weeds registered on plant products imported into Poland during 1945-1958). Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roślin 38: 57-94. (Tribolium destructor found in grain from USSR in 1946.)

Kaminski, E. and Buderecka-Niechwiejczyk, M. 1972. Choroby, szkodniki i chwasty zarejestrowane na towarach pochodzenia roslinnego przy wwozeniu ich do Polski w latach 1964-1966 (Diseases, pests and weeds registered on commodities of plant origin when imported to Poland in 1964-1966). Biuletyn Inst. Ochrony Roslin 53: 5-28. (Tribolium destructor on peanuts from Guinea 1965)

Kemner, N. 1936. Tvåa Nya Skadedjur Inomhus, Tribolium Destructor Uyttenb. Och Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. (Two New Indoor Pests, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. and Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.). Opuscula Entomologica 1: 56–58. (bird seed in Malmo, Sweden with maize from Germany)

Korschefsky, R. 1943. Bestimmungstabelle der bekanntesten deutschen Tenebrioniden-und Alleculiden-Larven (Determination table of the best-known German tenebrionid and alleculid larvae). Arbeiten überphysiologishe und angewandte Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem 10: 56-68. (Key Tribolium destructor, T. madens, T. castaneum and T. confusum larvae found in Germany)

Krizkova-Kudlikova, Iva  and Jan Hubert 2008. Development of Polyclonal Antibodies for the Detection of Tribolium castaneum Contamination in Wheat Grain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56(17): 8035–8040. (high reactivity to T. destructor, T. confusum, and partly to Tenebrio molitor)

Kunike , G. 1941. Zur Lebensweise des schwarzbraunen Reismehlkafers, Tribolium destructorUytt. (For the life of the black-brown rice beetle, Tribolium destructor Uytt.) Nachrichtenblatt fur den deutschen Pftanzenschutzdienst, 21(7): 49-50. (Tribolium destructor has a diverse diet, i. e., oilseeds, sweet lupins, Lathyrus and Vicia species, mold, nuts, wheat, rye, barley and oats, corn, rice, green kernels and buckwheat, potato flakes, tapioca, cocoa beans, pastries, long-life baked goods, raisins, prunes and animal carcass meal. Insect collections were also destroyed.)

Landin, B.-O. 1970. Fdltfauna. Insekter. Natur och Kultur/Nature and culture, Stockholm 2: 1 (Tribolium destructor destroys entomological collections)

Lefkovitch, L. P. 1964. A re-evaluation of Reynolds’ study of the inheritance of food effects in Tribolium destructor. Tribolium Information Bulletin (TIB) 7: 66-69. (Reynolds’ conclusions that rate of development and mortality of offspring is affected by their parents’ food is unjustified by his data.)

Lefkovitch, L. P. 1965. A re-evaluation of Reynolds’ study of the inheritance of food effects in Tribolium destructor, pp. 272-273. In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress Entomology, London, 8-16 July 1964. Royal Entomological Society of London. (Reynolds’ conclusions that rate of development and mortality of offspring is affected by their parents’ food is unjustified by his data.)

Linsley, E. G., and A. E. Michelbacher. 1943. Insects affecting stored food products. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 676 (Tribolium destructor infest dog, cat and rabbit feeds, flour, cereals)

Linsley, E. G. 1944 Natural sources, habitats and reservoirs of insects associated with stored food products. Hilgardia 16:187-224. (Tribolium destructor found nests of solitary bees of genus Osmia and Anthophora and under bark in central California. Found infesting dog biscuits, rabbit food, and various cereal products.)

Lipa Jr, E. 1966. Tribolium destructor Uytt (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) Nouvel Hôte de La Grégarine Didymophyes Minuta (Ishii) Watson (Gregarinidae Didymophyidae) (Tribolium destructor Uytt (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) New host of the Gregarine Didymophyes minuta (Ishii) Watson (Gregarinidae Didymophyidae)). Zool. Zh. SSSR 45: 1130–1133.

Listov, M. V. 1975. Food selectivity and choice of substratum for egg laying by Tribolium destructor Uytt. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 54 (3): 515–518.

Listov, M. V. 1975. Food Preference and the Choice of an Egg-Laying Substrate by Tribolium destructor Uytt. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Entomological Review 54: 23–25.

Liu, H. and Gu, C. L. 2010. Quarantine measures and prevention and control countermeasure for preventing the spread of Tribolium destructor with international ships. Jilin Agriculture 5: 111. (in Chinese).

Löbl, I. and A. Smetana 2008. Catalogue of palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 5. Tenebrionoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark. (Tribolium destructor found Belgium, Belarus, Canary Island, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxenburg, Netherlands, Norway, Mongolia, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Yemen)

Magis, N. 1954a. Nutrition comparee des Tribolium. I. Elevage des Tribolium (Tribolium confusum Duval, T. castaneum Herbst, T. destructor Uyttenboogaart) dans seize especes de cereals (Comparative nutrition of Tribolium. I. Breeding of Tribolium (Tribolium confusum Duval, T. castaneum Herbst, T. destructor Uyttenboogaart) in sixteen species of cereals). Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège 23: 402-420. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 491

Magis, N. 1954b. Nutrition Comparee Des Tribolium .2. Importance Du Cholesterol et Des Facteurs De La Levure Dans La Nutrition Des Larves De Tribolium confusum Duv, T. castaneum Herbst et T. destructor Uytt (Insectes, Coleopteres) (Nutrition Comparison Tribolium. 2. Importance of Cholesterol and Yeast Factors in the Nutrition of Larvae of Tribolium confusum Duv, T. castaneum Herbst and T. destructor Uytt (Insects, Coleoptera)). Bulletin de La Societe de Chimie Biologique 36 (4–5): 681–690. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 491

Markaria, H., Florentine, G.J., and Pratt, J.J., Jr. 1978. Quinone production of some species of Tribolium. Journal Insect Physiology 24:785-790. (quinone secretions of Tribolium audax, T. castaneum, T. madens, T. brevicornis, T. destructor, T. confusum)

Majka, Christopher G., Patrice Bouchard, and Yves Bousquet. 2008. Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime provinces of Canada. The Canadian Entomologist 140(6): 690-713.

Mathlein, Rolf 1943. Undersökningar rörande förrådsskadedjur. III. Svartbruna mjölbaggen, Tribolium destructor Uytt. Ett nytt, ekonomiskt viktigt skadedjur (Investigation of Pests of Stored Products III. The Dark Brown Flour Beetle, Tribolium destructor, a New Economically Important Pest). Meddelande Vaxtskyddsanstalt 41, Stockholm (RAE 31: 438-440, 1943 – Tribolium destructor was first found in Sweden in 1934, 50 infestation records were reported between 1934 and 1943 and there was concern that it may become widely distributed there. Tribolium destuctor has been present in Sweden for several years despite repeated eradication campaigns. Adults have wings but have not been observed to fly. Cheyletus eruditus attacks eggs and young larvae in cultures. ) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 61, 85, 215.

McKirdy, Simon J., Simon O’Connor, Melissa L. Thomas, Kristin L. Horton, Angus Williams, Darryl Hardie, Grey T. Coupland, and Johann van der Merwe. 2019. Biosecurity risks posed by a large sea-going passenger vessel: challenges of terrestrial arthropod species detection and eradication. Scientific reports 9(1): 1-14. Detection of Tribolium destructor Uytt., a high-risk non-indigenous species to Australia, triggered an eradication effort on the vessel.

Ming, Qinglei, Jiafei Shen, Chao Cheng, and Zhaojun Feng. 2015. Genetic relationships between Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 47(5): 1405-1412. (Phylogeny incorporating two other Tribolium flour beetle species revealed that, the two species pairs, T. castaneum and T. freemani, and T. confusum and T. destructor, were more closely related than T. castaneum and T. confusum, which was not completely consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from morphological data.Tribolium destructor is much darker than T. castaneum and T. confusum.)

Mito, T. and T. Uesugi. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environ. Res. 8: 171-191. (Tribolium destructor is invasive alien species in Japan)

Mound, L. 1989). Common Insect Pests of Stored Food Products – A Guide to Their Identification, 7th Edition. British Museum (Natural History) : London, 68 pp. (seed, cereal products)

Naton, E. 1958. Über Die Entwicklung Des Schwarzbraunen Mehlkäfers, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb., in Natürlichen Und “Synthetischen” Diäten: Unter Besonderer Berücksichtigung Der Auf Carnitinunterdosierung Beruhenden Histopathologischen Verhältnisse (On the development of the black-brown meal beetle, Tribolium Destructor Uyttenb., In natural and “synthetic” diets: with special consideration of the histopathological conditions based on underdosage of carnitine). Zoologischen Institut der Universität München.

Naton, E. 1960. Über Die Entwicklung Des Schwarzbraunen Mehlkäfers, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. Teil I. Die Aufzucht von Tribolium destructor in Natürlicher Diät  (On the Development of T. destructor. Part I. The Rearing of T. destructor on a Natural Diet.). Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie 46(3): 233–244. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 215.

Naton, E. 1961. Über Die Entwicklung Des Schwarzbraunen Mehlkäfers, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb (About the development of the flour beetle, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb). Zeitschrift Für Angewandte Entomologie 48(1‐4): 58–74. (Tribolium destructor appears to be the only Tribolium species investigated that requires water supply for optimal growth) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 32.

Naton, E. 1963. Über Die Entwicklung Des Schwarzbraunen Mehlkäfers, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. Teil IV. Die Auswirkungen ‘Carnitinfreier’ Diäten Auf Die Entwicklungsdauer Und Auf Den Darmtrakt (About the development of the flour beetle, Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. Part IV. The Effects Of Carnitine-Free Diets On Developmental Time And On The Intestinal Tract). Zool.Beitr.NF 8: 173–86.

Naton, E. 1964. Kurzer Beitrag Zur Zucht Des Tribolium destructor (Short Contribution to the Breeding of Tribolium destructor). Anzeiger Für Schädlingskunde 37 (4): 52–55.

Naton, E. 1964. Neue Befunde Zur Wirkungsweise Des Carnitins Bei Tribolium destructor Uyttenb (New findings on the mode of action of carnitine in Tribolium destructor Uyttenb). Naturwissenschaften 51 (23): 564-.

Naton, E. 1967. Auswirkungen der carnitinblockade durch y-butyrobetain bei larven von Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. (Col., Tenebrionidae) und einigen anderen vorratsschadlingen (Effects of Carnitine Blockade by Y-Butyrobetaine in Larvae Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. (Col., Tenebrionidae) and Some Other Pests Storage). Journal of Stored Products Research 3 (1): 49–63.

Oliveira, Maria Regina V., Denise Návia, and Alexandre P. Mendes. 1999. Insects intercepted by Brazilian pos-entry quarantine, from October 1989 to December 1996. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 28(3): 497-503. (Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart, Sorghum vulgare, ICRISAT, Índia.)

Pacavira, R., O. Mata, A. Manuel, A. P. Pereira, and A. Mexia. 2006. Detection of stored products pests by pheromone traps in seven warehouses in Luanda/Angola. In Proceedings, 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, pp. 15-18. (Tribolium destructor found in two of seven warehouses in Angola.)

Palm, N. B. 1946. Structure and Physiology of the Stink Glands in Tribolium destructor Uytt. (Col.). Opuscula Entomologica 11: 119–132.

Panjković, Biljana, Milica Rat, Sara Mihajlović, Laszlo Galambos, Alen Kiš, Slobodan Puzović, Bojana Nadaždin, Jelena Šeat, Filip Vukajlović, Ivan Tot and Marko Đapić 2021. Invasive Alien Species in the Balkan Peninsula. In Invasive Alien Species: Observations and Issues from Around the World 3: 42-88. (Tribolium destructor on lists of alien species of insects in Serbia.)

Parkin, E. A. 1953. The susceptibility to DDT dust of Coleoptera infesting stored products. Bulletin of Entomological Research 44(3): 439-444.

Potter, C. 1939. The Occurrence of Tribolium destructor Uytt. in Seeds in England. (lantana seed from Italy)  Ent.Mon.Mag. 25: 114–15. (lantana seed from Italy, specimens from Argentina in British Museum)

Prins, A. J. 1984. Morphological and biological notes on some South African arthropods associated with decaying organic matter. III: The families Dermestidae, Cantharidae, Melyridae, Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera). Annale van die Suid-Afrikaanse Museum/ Annals of the South African Museum 94(4): 203–304 (Tribolium destructor is widely distributed in the Republic of South Africa, often in stores and butcheries in the western Cape. Larvae collected during September in butcheries around Paarl and Wellington in sawdust sweeping containing small bits of meat and dust. Describe biology and morphology of larvae, pupae and adults. p. 239-243, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40682112#page/243/mode/1up)

Pulkki L. H. 1964 Pests in flour mills, some new aspects and experiments. Milling 143(3): 54-55. (At end 8-year sanitation experiment in ultramodern flour mill in Hameenlinna, Finland with pneumatic conveying, mill was free of T. destructor.)  

Rees, D. 2004. Insects of Stored Products. London: Manson Publishing. (Tribolium destructor is a pest of cereal grain and their products, can be locally important in regions where it is found, appears intolerant of temperatures higher than 30oC, restricted to temperate regions or cool areas of tropical countries and is of interest to quarantine services where currently absent such as Australia.)

Reynolds, J. M. 1943. Effect of parental feeding on the rate of development and mortality of Tribolium destructor Uyttenboorgaart (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Nature, no. 3819: 55.

Reynolds, J. M. 1944. The biology of Tribolium destructor Uytt. I. Some effects of fertilization and food factors on fecundity and fertility. Annals of Applied Biology 31(2): 132-142. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 99, 102, 107, 108, 127, 205.

Reynolds, JM. 1945. On the Inheritance of Food Effects in a Flour Beetle, Tribolium-destructor. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 132 (869): 438–51. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 88.

Robinson, William H. 2005. Handbook of Urban Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press. (False black flour beetle, Tribolium destructor Adults are reddish brown and similar in appearance to the confused flour beetle. It is distributed in North America, Europe, and Africa. It has been found in animal-food pellets, flour,and other stored products, including flour, bran, rolled oats, semolina, alfalfa meal, sunflower seeds, grains, and poultry feed.)

Roth, LM, and ER Willis. 1951. Hygroreceptors in Adults of Tribolium (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 116 (3): 527–570. (Tribolium destructor has hygrorecptors on antennae) See Sokoloff 1974 p. 197.

Rozek, M., and M. Jordan. 1981. Chromosomes of Tribolium destructor Ulytt (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera). Folia Biologica-Krakow 29 (3–4): 293-

Scholz, R. 1934. Tribolium (Stene) destructor Uyttenb. Entomologische Blatter, Krefeld 30: 44-45. (Netherlands attacking roots of growing rye)

Schreurs, Jodi, and John Janovy Jr. 2008. Gregarines on a Diet: The Effects of Host Starvation on Gregarina Confusa Janovy et al., 2007 (Apicomplexa : Eugregarinida) in Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart, 1933 (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) Larvae. Journal of Parasitology 94 (3): 567–570.

Šefrová, Hana, and Zdeněk Laštůvka. 2005. Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 53(4): 151-170. (Tribolium destructor first occurrence 1948)

Serednyak, D. P., and V. P. Fedorenko. 2016. Species composition of pests of grain stocks in storage of grain. Interdepartmental Thematic Scientific Collection of Plant Protection and Quarantine 62: 361-370. (Destructive flour beetle (Tribolium destructor Uytt.) was detected in grain and its processing products at granaries and elevators of Kyiv, Poltava, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Odessa regions between 2012 and 2014.)

Silvo, O. 1949. Kokeita erilaisten saetellyjen ja saehkomagneettisen kentaen vaikutuksista rohmukuoriaiseen Tribolium destructor Uytt. (Tests on the effects of different radiations and e-m fields upon Tribolium destructor Uytt.). 15 (3): 141–42.

Sinha, R. N. 1965 Insects associated with stored products in Canada. Canadian Insect Pest Review, Suppl. 2, 47 p. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 11.

Sinha, R. N. and F. L. Watters. 1985. Insect Pests of Flour Mills, Grain Elevators, and Feed Mills and Their Control. Agriculture Canada Publication 1776, Cana­dian Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa, Canada. (cosmopolitan, cereal product, dried fruit, oilseed, potato flake, optimal temperature 30-32oC, egg to adult developmental time 28-212 days, adult longevity 290-1460 days, all of Canadian records (1969-1981) for Tribolium destructor were in Halifax flour mills.)

Sliwinski, Z. 1960. Chrzaszcze Szkodniki Produktów Spozywczych Zawleczone Do Polski w Ostatnim Dziesiçcioleciu (The Beetle Pests of Food Products Transported in the Last Ten Years to Poland).” Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 1–2(17–18): 111–116. (Tribolium destructor new to Poland)

Sokoloff, A. and Frank K. Ho. 1966. Competition between Tribolium anaphe, T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor and T. madens by pairs. Tribolium Information Bulletin 9: 110-119.

Sokoloff, A. 1974. The biology of Tribolium with special emphasis on genetic aspects. Vol. 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom. (Tribolium castaneum is only Tribolium species observed to fly and others must reach stored products by crawling. Tribolium destructor is well adapted to cold.)

Solomon, M. E. and B. E. Adamson 1955. Powers of survival of storage and domestic pests under winter conditions in Britain. Bulletin of Entomological Research 46(2): 311–355.

Spencer, G. J. 1957. A note on Tribolium destructor Utten.(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 53: 27-28. (Tea leaves from importing firm)

Strong, R. G. 1970. Distribution and relative abundance of stored-product insects in California: A method of obtaining sample populations. J. Econ. Entomol. 63:591-596. (Tribolium destructor caught food packets in California)

Strong, R. G. and G. T. Okumura. 1958. Insects and mites associ­ated with stored foods and seeds in California. Calif. Dep. Agric. Bull. 47: 233-249. (animal feed, grain, cereal, wheat flour)

Strümpel, H. 1963. Entwicklung von Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart in ihrer Abhangigkeit von abiotischen Umweltbedingungen (The development of Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart and its dependence upon abiotic environmental conditions) Zeitschrift Für Angewandte Entomologie 50: 215-227. See Sokoloff 1974 p. 61, 71, 84.

Strümpel H. 1966. Heterochronieerscheinungen bei Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart (Symptoms of heterochrony in Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart). Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg 3(55): 113-122.

Szafranek, J., E. Malinski, E. Dubis, E. Hebanowska, J. Nawrot, P. Oksman, and K. Pihlaja. 1994. Identification of Branched Alkanes in Lipids of Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and Tribolium destructor by Gc-Ms – a Comparison of Main-Beam and Link-Scanned Spectra. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20(9): 2197–2212.

Timuş, Asea. 2015. The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova. Current Trends in Natural Sciences 4(7): 41-49 (Tribolium destructor)

Tomov, R. and K. Trencheva. 2013. Annotated List of Pests (Insecta) on Stored Products in Bulgaria till 2012. Plant Science (Shannon, Ireland) 50(3): 115–126.

Trematerra, Pasquale and Giuseppe C. Lozzia 1985. Artropodi in ricoveri larvali di Paralipsa gularis (Zeller) (Lepidoptrera Galleriidae) (Arthropods in larval shelters of Paralipsa gularis (Zeller) (Lepidoptrera Galleriidae)). p. 535-541. 14th Congresso nazionale italiano di entomologia, Bologna, Tipografia Compositori (Tribolium destructor larvae and adults found in larval shelters of Paralipsa gularis)

Trencheva, Katia. 2019. Comparative Morphological Studies on Representatives from Genus Tribolium and Genus Tenebrio-Pests on Stored Products. Knowledge International Journal 35(3): 933–38. (Tribolium castaneum, Tribolium madens, Tribolium destructor, Tribolium confusum)

Tuovinen, Tuomo, Pehr Ekbom, and Pirkko Nyqvist. 1981. Asunto-ja varastotuholaisten torjunta-ainekokeet: laboratoriokokeet kovakuoriaisilla. (Housing and warehouse pest control tests: laboratory tests on beetles). Tuhoela Research Institute Bulletin No. 2

Uyttenboogaart, D. L. 1933. Verslag Nederlandsche Entomologische (Dutch Entomological Report). Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie 76: 42. (Tribolium destructor was discussed as a new species and specimens were passed around at 66th winter meeting of the Dutch Entomological Association. Tribolium destructor has a superficial resemblance to T. madens and eats all grains and seeds and their products and attacks garments, carpets and other natural products.)

Uyttenboogaart, D. L. 1934. Revision des Genus Tribolium (Col. Tenebrionidae). Entomologische Blätter 30: 20-31. (Describes T. destructor as new species from violet seeds of unknown origin at Erfurt, Germany)

Van Emden, F. 1935. Biologische Mitteilungen Über Tribolium (Stene) destructor Uytt. (Biological Notices on Tribolium (Stene) destructor Uytt.) Entomologische Blätter 31: 36-37. (Correction Scholz 1934 to dried rye root from teaching materials rather living rye roots)

Van Emden, F. I. 1947. Larvae of British beetles. VI. Tenebrionidae. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 83: 154-171. (Key for larvae of Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor and T. madens found in Britian)

Vilenkin, B. Ya. and V. I. Chikatunov. 1998. Co‐occurrence of species with various geographical ranges, and correlation between area size and number of species in geographical scale. Journal of biogeography 25(2): 275-284. (Tribolium destructor is stored food pest that inhabit human dwellings or habitats heavily transformed by the human activity habitats.)

Waterhouse, F. L., A. K. Onyearu, and T. G. Amos. 1971. Oviposition of Tribolium in Static Environments Incorporating Controlled Temperature and Humidity Gradients. Oikos 22: 131–35. (Tribolium destructor egg distribution showed incipient bimodality at the ‘low’ humidity condition but had a single mode at a slightly warmer temperature in the ‘high’ humidity condition. Fewer eggs were laid by T. destructor at ‘high’ humidity condition)

Weidner, Herbebt 1963. Schädlinge an Arzneidrogen und Gewürzen in Hamburg (Pests of drugs and spices in Hamburg). Beiträge zur Entomologie 13(3/4): 527-545. (Tribolium destructor infestations cantharids, flaxseed, tapioca flour, almond flour)

Wofková, Gabriela. 2014. Ekologické interakce skladištních členovců a patogenů ve skladovaných potravinách vedoucí k ohrožení člověka jako konečného spotřebitele (The interaction between stored product arthropods and pathogenic microorganisms causing hazard effect to the consumers). Bakalářská práce/ Bachelor thesis, Univerzita Karlova v Praze/ Charles University in Prague. (Tribolium destructor listed as common pest Czech Republic)

Wool, David. 1982. Critical examination of postulated cladistic relationships among species of flour beetles (Genus Tribolium, Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera). Biochemical genetics 20(3-4): 333-349. (Cytological considerations have led to the hypothesis that Tribolium confusum evolved from an ancestor similar to T. castaneum (by translocation of an autosome to the X chromsome, and that T. destructor was derived from CF. T. brevicornis is regarded as the most primitive on morphological grounds.)

Wright, Barry 1989. The fauna of Sable Island. Nova Scotia. Museum Curatorial Report 68: 1-93. (Two specimens of Tribolium destructor were found in the staff house at Met Station in September.)

Zacher, Friedrich 1932. Interessante Falle Des Schadlingsauftretens an Nahrungs- Und Genussmitteln, Webwaren Und Baustoffen (Interesting Cases of Pest Occurrence in Food and Beverages, Fabrics and Building Materials) Mitteilungen Der Gesellschaft Für Vorratsschutz 8: 42–48. (Tribolium madens actually Tribolium destructor)

Zacher, Friedrich 1935. Beobachtungen über Speicherinsekten (Observations on storage insects). Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 11(6): 63-66. (Found T destructor in flower seed, vegetable seed and corn at Erfurt, Germany seed dealerships in 1932, also received T. destructor from seed dealerships in Berlin, Breslau and Naumburg and in malt from Le Puy, France. Cultured on raw cocoa, prunes and clover seeds. Four month generation time at room temperature.)

Zadernowski, Ryszard, Grazyna Pierzynowska-Korniak, Dolores Ciepielewska, and Lucja Fornal. 1992. Chemical characteristics and biological functions of phenolic acids of buckwheat and lentil seeds. Fagopyrum 12: 27-35. (Tribolium destructor lived over 11 weeks and reproduced on dehulled buckwheat and lentil seeds. Tribolium confusum and T. destructor were the most sensitive of 9 species of stored product insects to phenolic compounds in seed hulls.)

Zhang, S.F. and Zhou, Y.X. 2002. Distribution, hosts and identification of important Triboliumspecies. Plant Quarantine 16(6): 349 -351. (in Chinese).

Zhang, Tao, Yi-Jiao Wang, Wei Guo, Dan Luo, Yi Wu, Zuzana Kučerová, Václav Stejskal et al. 2016. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six Tribolium pests of stored products. Scientific reports 6(1), e28494 p. 1-11. T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis

Zhang, Chengwei, LiuPing Xu, Miao Lu, Xiaosong Liang, and Jian Li. 2014. Rapid Molecular Identification of Tribolium destructor. Agricultural Biotechnology  3(4): 49-52 (rapid identification of T. destructor for quarantine)

Zuranska, I. 1978. Z badan nad biologia trojszyka wiekszego–Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera) (From the research on the biology of the greater Troika – Tribolium destructor Uyttenb. (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)). Ochrona roslin 22(3): 17-19.