Solar Disinfestation

The use of solar heating in excess of 50 degrees centigrade to disinfest stored commodities was reviewed by Hansen et al. 2011. Additional references not included in their review are given here. Early papers include Thompson 1915, Rahman 1942 and Reppert and Bentley 1936. An additional 5 papers were published between 1968 and 1977. The majority of the work (50 papers) has been done more recently.

Aspects of solar disinfestation have been investigated for 16 insect species infesting stored products (Acanthoscelides obtectus, calliphorids, Callosobruchus chinensis, Callosobruchus maculatus, Callosobruchus subinnotatus, Caryedon serratus, codling moth, dermestids, nitidulids, Prostephanus truncatus, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Zabrotes subfasciatus) and 20 commodities. The commodities included cereal grains (maize, sorghum and wheat), grain legumes (azuki bean, black gram, chickpea, cowpea, gram, lentil, mung, pea, Phaseolus beans and pigeonpea) and others (bambara groundnuts, catfish, cocoa beans, figs, museum artifacts, peanuts and tamariad pods).

Solar heating of commodities was done in plastic bags, metal tins, cardboard boxes and clay pots, by spreading commodity on various surfaces and in solar ovens of various designs. Studies measured the commodity temperatures reached after various exposure times to solar heating and the effect of commodity depths. Effects solar heating on seed germination and cooking qualities were also considered.

Abdullahi, G., R. Muhamad, O. Dzolkhifli, and U. R. Sinniah. 2017. Disinfestation of cocoa beans infested with life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) using solar heat trapped in a cardboard solar heater box. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(6): 226-233

Agona, J.A. and S. M. Nahdy. 1998. Effect of Solar Drying Period of Beans on Seed Viability, Cooking Time and Injuriousness of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Afr. Crop Sci. J., 6: 417-421.

Aguilera, J. M., M. I. Hau, and W. Villablanca. 1986. The effect of solar drying and heating on the hardness of Phaseolus beans during storage. J. Stored Prod. Res. 22:243-247.

Arogba SS, Ugwu FM, Abu JD. 1998. The effects of sun-drying surfaces and packaging materials on the storability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seed. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 53:113–120.

Al-Amri, A. M. 2013. Thermal Control of Stored Grains Insects by Utilizing Solar Energy. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 44(2): 39-45.

Allotey, J., Sefa-Dedeh, S., Osei, A. K., & Collison, E. K. (2012). Comparative Study of the Effects of Steam and Solar Heat Treated Cowpea Seed on the Development and Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 12(3): 6065-6078

Baskin, B. 2001. Solar bagging: putting sunlight to work to eliminate insect infestations in mere hours. West Assoc Art Conserv. Newsl. 23: 20-21.

Begum, S., A. Mannan, and A. Begum. 1991. Effect of sunning on different pulse seeds infested by the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 19:263-265.

Brokerhof, A. W. 2003. The solar tent – cheap and effective pest control in museums. Aust Inst Conserv Cult Mater Bull. 28:39-46.

Chauhan YS, Ghaffar MA. 2002. Solarheating of seeds—a low cost method to control bruchid (Callosobruchus spp.) attack during storage of pigeonpea. J. Stored Prod. Res. 38:87–91.

Chichaybelu Wessene, Mekasha  2004. Utilization of Solar Heat for the Control of Cowpea Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) (Ph. D. thesis). Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Chichaybelu, Mekasha, Dzolkifli, O., Yusuf, S., Rita, M., & Noorma, O. 2006. Effect of heat treatment on developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored adzuki bean Vigna angularis. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26(4): 273-279.

Chichaybelu, Mekasha, Dzolkifli, O., Yusuf, S., Rita, M. and Noorma, O. 2006. Development of Efficient Solar Heaters for Storage Insect Pest Management. African Crop Science Journal 14(3): 253-261

Chinwada, P., and D. P. Giga. 1996. Sunning as a technique for disinfesting stored beans. Postharvest Biol. Tech. 9:335-342.

Doumma, A. 2006. Effects of sun exposition on population of bruchids in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)) storage system in Niger. Pest Management of Horticultural Ecosystems 12(1): 9-15.

Elbashier Elhada, Ragaa Mohammed (2011) Development of Solar Heater Boxes and Management of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Seed Adzuki Bean. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Fawki, S., Abdel Fattah, H. M., Hussein, M. A., Ibrahim, M. M., Soliman, A. K. and Salem, D. A. M. 2014. The use of solar energy and citrus peel powder to control cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). 11th International Working Conference of Stored-Product Protection, 24-28 Nov. 2014, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Ghaffar, M.A. and Chauhan, Y.S. 1999. Solarization to protect pigeonpea seeds from bruchid damage during storage. International Chickpea and Pigeonpea New Letters, 6: 50-52.

Hansen, J.D., J.A. Johnson and D.A. Winter. 2011. History and use of heat in pest control: a review. International Journal of Pest Management. 57(4): 267–289

Higbee BS, Calkins CO, Temple C. 2001. Overwintering of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae in apple harvest bins and subsequent moth emergence. J. Econ. Entomol. 94:1511–1517.

Ismail, A. Y., and T. A. Abas. 1996. Use of solar energy to control red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. J. Educ. Sci. 25: 6-14.

Jakhar, Bhanwar Lal, M. C. Bhargava, M. Nitharwal and J. P. Yadav. 2006. Solar treatment of grains stored in coloured bags for the control of Trogoderma granarium Everts. Journal of Insect Science 19(2): 235-236.

Kitch, L. W., G. Ntoukam, R. E. Shade, J. L. Wolfson, and L. L. Murdock. 1992. A solar heater for disinfesting stored cowpeas on subsistence farms. J. Stored Prod. Res. 28:261-267.

Krishnamurthy, T.S.; Muralidharan, M. and Muthu, M. 1991. Disinfesting grain with solar heat. Appropriate Technology, 18(3): 15-16.

Lale, N. and B. Sastawa. 1996. The effect of sun-drying on the infestation of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by post-harvest insects in the Lake Chad District of Nigeria. Int. J. Pest Manage. 42:281-283.

Lale, N. 1998. Preliminary studies on the effect of solar heat on oviposition, development and adult mortality of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in the Nigerian savanna. J. Arid Environ. 40:157-162.

Lale, N. and F. Ajayi. 2001. Suppression of development of Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Col.: Bruchidae) in bambara groundnut seeds exposed to solar heat in the Nigerian savanna. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science 74(5):133-137.

Lale, N.E.S. and Y.T. Maina, 2002. Evaluation of host resistance, solar heat and insecticidal essential oils for the Management of Caryedon serratus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Bruchadae) infesting groundnut seeds and tamariad pods in storage. Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenkrankheiten Und Pflanzenschutz-Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 109: 410–420.

Lale, N., and S. Vidal. 2000. Mortality of different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus F. and Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) in bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. seeds exposed to simulated solar heat. Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenkrankheiten Und Pflanzenschutz-Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 107:553-559.

Lale, N. and S. Vidal. 2003. Simulation studies on the effects of solar heat on egg-laying, development and survival of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) in stored bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39:447-458.

Maina, Y. T. and Lale, N. E. S. 2004. Integrated management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F) infesting cowpea seeds in storage using varietal resistance, application of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil and solar heat. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 6(3): 440-446.

Mathur, R. K. and A. B. Patel. 1976. Solar heat treatment machine for grains. B. E. Thesis, University of University of UDaipur.

McFarlane, J. A. 1989. Preliminary experiments on the use of solar cabinets for thermal disinfestations of maize cobs and some observations on heat tolerance in Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Trop Sci. 29:75-89.

Mohamed, Mona I., Amany S. Khaled, Hoda M. Abdel Fattah, Mohamed A. Hussein, Dalia A.M. Salem and Shams Fawki. 2015. Ultrastructure and histopathological alteration in the ovaries of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) induced by the solar radiation The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology 68: 19–32.

Mohammed, D. E.; Yadav, T. D.; Singh, V. S. and Siddiqui, K. H. 2001. Disinfesting maize grain from Sitophilus oryzae and its variant with solar heat. Indian J. Entomol. 63: 413-420.

Mohan, S., Balasubramanian, G., Gopalan, M. and Jayaraj, S. 1987. Solar heat treatment – a novel method of rice weevil and red flour beetle infestation in sorghum during storage. Madras Agricultural Journal 74:235-236.

Mookherjee, P.B.; Jotwani, M.G.; Yadav, T.D. and Sircar, P. 1968. Disinfestation of stored seeds by heat treatment. Indian J. Entomol. 30: 197-202.

More, H.G., Unde, P.A. and Pabalka, S.R., 1996. Effects of solar disinfestations on quality of sorghum and storage insect mortality. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 21: 215–218.

Moumouni, D.A.; Doumma, A. and Seyni, I.S. 2014. Effect of solar drying on the biological parameters of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera-Bruchinae), in Sahelian area. Journal of Applied Biosciences 84(1): 7723-7729.

Murdock, L. L. and R. E. Shade. 1991. Eradication of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpeas by solar heating. Am. Entomol. 37:228-231.

Nakayama, T., J. Allen, S. Cummins and Y. Wang. 1983. Disinfestation of dried food by focused solar energy. J. Food Processing 7:1-8.

Ntoukam, G., L. W. Kitch, R. E. Shade, and L. L. Murdock. 1997. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestations. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33:175-179.

Pareek, Y., & Kumawat, K. C. 2013. Effect of sunshine exposure and different colour polythene bags on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 18(2): 226-227.

Pearce, A. 2003. Heat eradication of insect infestations: the development of a low cost, solar heated treatment unit. Aust Inst Conserv Cult Mate Bull. 28:3-8.

Rahman, K. A. 1942. Insect pests of stored grain in the Punjab and their control. Indian J. Agr. Sci. 12:564-587

Reppert, R. R., and M. R. Bentley. 1936. Practical use of the sun in cowpea weevil control. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 9:126-139.

Seidu, J. M., G. W. K. Mensah, V. K. Zah, S. A. A. Dankwah, W. K. J. Kwenin, and A. A. Mahama. 2010. The use of solar dryer to control insect infestation in stored grains in Ghana. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4:2397-2408

Shorey, H. H., L. Ferguson, and D. L. Wood. 1989. Solar heating reduces insect infestations in ripening and drying figs. Hort Sci. 24:443-445.

Singh, S. and Sharma, G. 2003. Pulse beetle management through solar energy in stored green gram seeds. Seed Research 31(1): 84-89.

Songa, J.M. and Rono, W. 1998. Indigenous methods for bruchid beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) control in stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). International Journal of Pest Management 44:1–4.

Tadesse, Rahel, Chichaybelu, Mekasha and Azerefegne, Ferdu. 2008. Effect of heating on bean bruchid, Callosobruchus chinensis L., (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on chickpea. Pest Management Journal Ethiopia 12: 67-76.

Thompson, R.L. 1915. Sun heat v. weevils. Rhodesia Agriculture Journal Salisbury, 12: 653-656.

Ugwu, F.M., Ekwu, F.C. and Abu, J.O. 1999. Effect of different sundrying surfaces on the functional properties, cooking and insect infestation of cowpea seeds. Bioresource Technology 69:87–90.

Yadav, T.D. 1977. Efficacy of different solar observance drying beds in raising up the temperature. Indian J. Entomol. 39: 232-236.

Yadav, T. D. and N. C. Pant. 1977. Use of solar radiation trap for drying and disinfestation of grain. Entomologists’ Newsletter 7:9-10.

Yadav, R.P. 2001. Biological effect of some vegetable oils and solar energy on Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.) on wheat. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis Submitted to Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner.

Yadav, R. P.; Bhargava, M.C. and Yadav, J.P. 2002. Studies on the solar radiation as a means of eradicating Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) in wheat. Indian J. Plant Prot. 30: 26-28.

Yoshida, T. 1974. Effect of sun drying on the mortality on immature rice weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch, (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Science Reports Faculty of Agriculture Okayama University 11-17.

Yoshida, T., and E. M. Gichuki. 1982. Use of solar heat to control stored-product insect pests: Bean depth. Sci. Reports of the Faculty of Agric. Okayama Univ. 61:5-8.

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