Pre-harvest Infestation

Infestation of commodities in the field prior to harvest can be an important consideration in developing a pest management program for stored-product insects. Duhamel du Monceau and Tillet (1762) provided convincing evidence of field infestation of wheat by the Angoumois grain moth in France and Simmons and Ellington (1927) studied field infestation of wheat by this moth in the US. Fundamentals of Stored Product Entomology in Table 4.2 on pages 60-62 lists 19 insect species infesting 16 crops prior to harvest in 18 countries. Stored Product Insect Resource adds 42 species that infest commodities in the field prior to harvest and reproduce during storage, and another 137 insect species that infest commodities in the field in sufficient numbers to be a problem requiring pest management during storage but do not reproduce during storage. Below are 79 additional studies on pre-harvest infestation of cereal grains, coffee,dates, kola, legumes and potatoes, 24 on effectiveness of pre-harvest insecticide applications, 6 on the survival of field pests in commodities during storage and 13 on infestations of apples, olives, peaches or grapes by Sitophilus zeamais and Rhyzopertha dominica in orchards and vineyards.

Insect species infesting commodities prior to harvest that reproduce during storage (60)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)

Col., Silvanidae                                   Ahasverus advena (Waltl)

Lep., Cosmopterigidae                       Anatrachyntis rileyi (Walsingham)

Lep., Pyralidae                                    Apomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)

Col., Tenebrionidae                            Apsena rufipes Eschscholtz

Col., Anthribidae                                Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer)

Hom., Coccidae                                   Aspidiella hartii (Cockerell)

Col., Curculionidae                             Balanogstris kolae (Desbrochers)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Bruchidius incarnatus (Boheman)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Bruchidius uberatus Fåhraeus

Lep., Pyralidae                                    Cadra calidella Guenee

Lep., Pyralidae                         Cadra cautella (Walker)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus analis (Fabricius)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus chinensis (Linnaeus)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus dolichosi (Gyllenhal)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus phaseoli (Gyllenhal)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Callosobruchus theobromnae (Linnaeus)

Col., Nitidulidae                                  Carpophilus dimidatus (Fabricius)

Col., Nitidulidae                                  Carpophilus fumatus Boheman

Col., Bruchidae                                   Caryedon serratus (Olivier)

Col., Silvanidae                                   Cathartosilvanus trivialis (Grouvelle)

Col., Silvanidae                                   Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin-Meneville)

Col., Curculionidae                             Caulophilus oryzae (Gyllenhal)

Col., Nitidulidae                                  Colopterus denticulatus (Sharp)

Lep., Pyralidae                                    Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere)

Col., Laemophloeidae                        Cryptolestes biskrensis (Grouvel)

Col., Laemophloeidae             Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens)

Col., Curculionidae                             Cylas brunneus (Fabricius)

Col., Curculionidae                             Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)

Col., Curculionidae                             Cylas puncticollis Boheman

Lep., Pyralidae                                    Etiella behrii Zeller

Col., Tenebrionidae                            Gnatocerus maxillosus (Fabricius)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Pachymerus cardo (Fahraeus)

Col., Scolytidae                                   Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius)

Hom., Coccidae                                   Planococcus citri (Risso)

Hom., Coccidae                                   Planococcus dioscoreae Williams

Hom., Coccidae                                   Planococcus maritimus (Erhorn)

Lep., Pyralidae                                    Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)

Col., Bostrichidae                               Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)

Col., Bostrichidae                               Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius)

Col., Silvanidae                                   Silvanolomus crenicollis (Grouvelle)

Col., Silvanidae                                   Silvanolomus goughi Halstead

Col., Silvanidae                                   Silvanus inarmatus Wollaston

Col., Curculionidae                             Sitophilus linearis (Herbst)

Col., Curculionidae                             Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus)

Col., Curculionidae                             Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

Lep., Gelechiidae                                Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

Col., Curculionidae                             Sophrorhinus duvernoyi Faust

 Col., Curculionidae                            Sophrorhinus gbanjaensis Daramola and Taylor

Col., Curculionidae                             Sophrorrhinus insperatus (Faust)

Col., Curculionidae                             Sophrorhinus kolae Haustache

Col., Curculionidae                             Sophrorhinus quadricristatus Faust

Col., Curculionidae                             Sophrorhinus pujoli Hoffmann

Col., Curculionidae                             Sophrorhinus schedli Voss

Col., Tenebrionidae                            Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

Col., Mycetophagidae                       Typhaea stercorea (Linnaeus)

Col., Bruchidae                                   Zabrotes sylvestris Romero and Johnson


Insect species infesting commodities prior to harvest but not reproducing during storage (137)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides argillaceus (Sharp)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides chilensis (Schilsky)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides clandestinus (Motschulsky)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides griseolus (Fall)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides obvelatus Bridwell

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides pallidipennis (Motschulsky)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides puellus (Sharp)

Col., Bruchidae                       Acanthoscelides zeteki Kingsolver

Lep., Pyralidae                        Acrobasis caryae Grote

Lep., Pyralidae                        Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig

Lep., Pyralidae                        Acrobasis vaccinii Riley

Lep., Pyralidae                        Amyelois transitella (Walker)

Lep., Gelechiidae                    Anarsia lineatella Zeller

Lep., Arctiidae                        Apisa bourgognei Kiriakoff

Lep., Tortricidae                     Archips argyrospilus (Walker)

Lep., Pyralidae                        Arenipses sabella Hampson

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius alfierii (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius algiricus Allard

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius andrewesi (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius bimaculatus Olivier

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius cassiae Arora

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius dorsalis (Fahraeus)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius glycyrrhizae (Fåhraeus)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius lividimanus (Gyllenhal)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius jocosus Gyllenhal

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius murinus (Boheman)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius notatus Chujo

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius pauper (Boheman)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius quinqueguttatus (Olivier)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius sahlbergi Schilsky

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius saundersi (Jekel)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius trifolii (Motschoulsky)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius unicolor (Olivier)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius urbanus (Sharp)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchidius varius (Olivier)

Hym., Eurytomidae                Bruchophagus caraganae (Nikol’skaya)

Hym., Eurytomidae                Bruchophagus gibbus (Boheman)

Hym., Eurytomidae                Bruchophagus glycyrrhizae (Nikol’skaya)

Hym., Eurytomidae                Bruchophagus mellipes Gahan

Hym., Eurytomidae                Bruchophagus platypterus (Walker)

Hym., Eurytomidae                Bruchophagus roddi (Gussakovskii)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus affinis Froelich

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus atomarius (Linnaeus)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus brachialis Fahraeus

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus dentipes (Baudi)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus emarginatus Allard

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus ervi Froelich

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus lentis Froelich

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus loti Paykull

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus luteicornis Illiger

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus pisorum (Linnaeus)

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus rufimanus Boheman

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus rufipes Herbst

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus signaticornis Gyllenhal

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus tristiculus Fahraeus

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus tristis Boheman

Col., Bruchidae                       Bruchus viciae Olivier

Col., Bruchidae                       Callosobruchus cajanis Arora

Col., Bruchidae                       Callosobruchus imitator Kingsolver

Col., Bruchidae                       Callosobruchus pulcher (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Callosobruchus utidai Tuda

Col., Curculionidae                Chalcodermus aeneus Boheman

Col., Curculionidae                Cleonus capillosus Csiki

Col., Scolytidae                      Coccotrypes dactyliperda (Fabricius)

Lep., Gracillariidae                  Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower)

Col., Curculionidae                Curculio caryae (Horn)

Col., Curculionidae                Curculio nacum Linnaeus

Col., Curculionidae                Curculio obtusus (Blanchard)

Col., Curculionidae                Curculio occidentis (Casey)

Col., Curculionidae                Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cydia amplana (Hübner)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cydia caryana (Fitch)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cydia latiferreanus (Walsingham)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cydia nigricana (Fabricius)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cydia splendana (Hübner)

Col., Curculionidae                Cylas compressus Hartmann

Col., Curculionidae                Cylas cyanescens Boheman

Col., Curculionidae                Cylas femoralis (Faust)

Col., Curculionidae                Cylas hovanus Hustache

Col., Curculionidae                Cylas nicrocoerulans Fairmaire

Col., Curculionidae                Cylas vanderplasi Voss

Lep., Tortricidae                     Cyptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower)

Col., Curculionidae                Dinocleus pilosus (LeConte)

Hem., Pyrrhocoridae              Dysdercus cingulatus (Fabricius)

Lep., Pyralidae                        Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke)

Hym., Eurytomidae                Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein

Hym., Eurytomidae                Eurytoma onobrychidis Nikol’skaya

Col., Curculionidae                Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire)

Lep., Pyralidae                        Euzophera osseatella Treitschke

Col., Scolytidae                      Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Leguminivora ptychora (Meyrick)

Col., Curculionidae                Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel

Lep., Noctuidae                      Litoprosopus coachellae (Hill)

Col., Bruchidae                       Megabruchidius tonkineus (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Meibomeus surrubresus (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Mimosestes mimosae (Fabricius)

Lep., Pyralidae                        Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot

Hem., Lygaeidae                     Nysius vinitor Bergroth

Lep., Gelechiidae                    Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders

Lep., Gelechiidae                    Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)

Lep., Tineidae                         Phthoropoca oenochares (Meyrick)

Dip., Sciaridae                         Phytosciara zingiberis (Sasakawa)

Col., Curculionidae                Piezotrachelus varium (Wagner)

Lep., Noctuidae                      Plusia argentifera Guenée

Dip., Sciaridae                         Pnyxia scabiei Hopkins

  Dip., Sciaridae                       Psilosciara flammulinae (Sasakawa)

Col., Laemophloeidae            Rhabdophloeus concolor Sharp

Col., Scolytidae                      Scolytus dimidiatus Chapuis

Col., Bruchidae                       Sennius abbreviatus (Say)

Col., Bruchidae                       Sennius discolor (Horn)

Col., Bruchidae                       Sennius morosus (Sharp)

Col., Curculionidae                Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius)

Col., Curculionidae                Sophrorrhinus insperatus (Faust)

Col., Bruchidae                       Specularius bridwelli Arora

Col., Bruchidae                       Specularius erythraeus Pic

Col., Bruchidae                       Specularius impressithorax (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Specularius maindroni (Pic)

Col., Bruchidae                       Specularius sulcaticollis Pic

Col., Bruchidae                       Spermophagus albosparsus Gyllenhal

Col., Bruchidae                       Spermophagus latithorax Boheman

Col., Bruchidae                       Spermophagus sericeus (Geoffroy)

Lep., Heliodinidae                  Stathmopoda auriferella (Walker)

Col., Bruchidae                       Stator pruininus (Horn)

Col., Nitidulidae                      Stelidota geminata (Say)

Dip., Cecidomyiidae               Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coquillet)

Col., Bruchidae                       Sulcobruchus kingsolveri Arora

Hym., Eurytomidae                Systole albipennis Walker

Hym., Eurytomidae                Systole coriandri Nikol ‘skaya

Hym., Eurytomidae                Systole geniculata Foerster

Lep., Gelechiidae                    Tecia solanivora (Povolny)

Lep., Tortricidae                     Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick)


Pre-harvest infestation

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Abrol, D. 1999. Pulse susceptibility to Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Bruchidae : Coleoptera) under field conditions. Trop. Agric. 76(2):150.

Akob, C. A. and F. K. Ewete 2007. The development and field infestation of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on maize in the western highlands of Cameroon. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences 7(2): 167-174.

Aldawood, Abdulrahman S. 2013. Effect of Covering Dates Fruit Bunches on Ephestia Cautella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Infestation: Population Dynamics Studies in the Field. Intern. J. Agric. Appl. Sci. 5(1): 98–100.

Amro, M. A. 2004. The influence of plant characteristics on the field infestation and resistance status of certain cowpea cultivars to the lima bean pod borer Etiella zinckenella Treitschke and the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius). pp. 23-25. In The Sec. Int. Conf. for Develop. and Env. in the Arab world, Assiut Univ. March,.

Amro, A. 2014. The influence of plant characteristics on the field infestation and resistance status of certain cowpea cultivars to Etiella zinckenella and Callosobruchus maculatus. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98: 67.

Babarinde, S. A. and G. O. Kolawole. 2012. Efficacy of Intercropping and Harvest Time Modification for Reducing Field Infestation of Maize by Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Archives of Phytopathology And Plant Protection 45(5): 539–546.

Bastos, C. S.; Galvão, João Carlos Cardoso; Picanço, M.C.; Gonring, A.H.R.; Suinaga, Fábio Akiyoshi . 1997. Ataque en la cosecha y en almacenamiento de Sitophilus zeamais, Cathartus quadricollis y Cryptolestes ferrugineus en granos de doce cultivares de maiz. (Harvest and storage attack of Sitophilus zeamais, Cathartus quadricollis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus in grains of twelve maize cultivars) In: Maíz – VI Congreso Nacional, Compendio de Trabajos Presentados, Pergamino (BA), Argentina 1: 15-20.

Bastos, Cristina Schetino; Galvão, João Carlos Cardoso; Picanço, M.C.; Gonring, A.H.R.; Suinaga, Fábio Akiyoshi . 1997. Incidência de Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Cathartus quadricolis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) em milho. (Incidence of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cathartus quadricolis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) in corn). p. 307. In: Resumos do XVI Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia. Salvador – BA

Ben Hamza, Habib. 1990. Field infestation of wheat by stored-grain insects. Master’s thesis, Kansas State University

Bishara, Sadek I., Yehia M. Haggag, and Aida A. Riad 1967. Field infestation of broad beans by bruchids in U.A.R. Agric Res. Rev. Cairo 45: 33–39.

Chao, Yung-Chang, H. G. Simkover, H. S. Telford and Pete Stallcop 1953. Field infestations of stored grain insects in eastern Washington. Journal of Economic Entomology 46(5): 905-907.

Chesnut, T. L. 1972. Flight habits of the maize weevil as related to field infestation of corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 62(2): 434–435.

Chitra, N., and R. P. Soundararajan. 2013. Field infestation by Callosobruchus spp.(Coleoptera: bruchidae) in pigeonpea. Indian Journal of Entomology 75(3): 263-265.

Cotton, R. T., and T. F. Winburn. 1941. Field infestation of wheat by insects attacking it in farm storage. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 14(1): 12–16.

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Daramola, A. M. 1976. Weevil Infestation of Kolanuts in the Field and Markets in Western Nigeria. Nigerian J. Entomol. 2: 21–27.

Demissie, G., T. Tefera and A. Tadesse. 2008. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at Bako, Western Ethiopia. African J. Biotechn. 7(20): 3774-3779.

Dix, D. E., and J. N. All. 1986. Population Density and Sex Ratio Dynamics of Overwintering Maize Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infesting Field Corn. J. Entomol. Sci. 21(4): 368–375.

Duhamel du Monceau, H. L. and M. Tillet 1762. Histoire d’un insecte qui devore les grains de L’Angoumois; avec les moyens que l’on peut emplover pour le detruire (Story of an insect which devours the grains of L’Angoumois; with the means that we can employ to destroy it). H. L. Guerin and L. F. Delatour, Paris, 314 p.

Floyd, E. H., and J. D. Powell. 1958. Some factors influencing the infestation in corn in the field by the rice weevil. Journal of Economic Entomology 51(1): 23–26.

Galvão, João Carlos Cardoso; Bastos, C. S.; Suinaga, Fábio Akiyoshi; Silva, Flávio Marquini da; Picanço, M.C.; Souza, C. M. 1997. Ataque de Sitophilus zeamais, Cathartus quadricollis y Cryptolestes ferrugineus a dos cultivares de maiz sometidos a seis sistemas de fertilizacion. (Attack of Sitophilus zeamais, Cathartus quadricollis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus on two maize cultivars subjected to six fertilization systems) In: Maíz – VI Congreso Nacional, Compendio de Trabajos Presentados, Pergamino (BA), Argentina 1: 6-9.

Giga DP, Chinwada P. 1993. Progress in bean bruchid research in SADC. Proceedings Second Meeting of the Pan-Africa Working Group on Bean Entomology. Sep.1993, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Gomez, H. S. 1994. Relacion entre la epoca de cosecha y la presencia de plagas en maiz almaenado (Relationship between harvest time and the presence of insect pests in stored maize). Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 20:161-164.

Gunathilagaraj, K., Muralidharan, V. N. and Rajendran, R. 1977. Observation on the field infestation of Callosobruchus chinensis L. on redgram. Madras Agric. J. 64(9): 626-627

Idowu, O.L. and Ojelade, K. T. M. 1994. The effects of cultural maintenance operations in kola farms on field infestation of C. nitida nuts by the weevils. Annual Repprt Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria  p. 28-30.

Idowu, O.L. and Ojelade, K. T. M. 1995. Effects of timeliness of kola pod harvesting on weevil infestation in the field. Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria  p. 28-30.

Jarry, M. 1981. Evolution of spatial patterns of attacks by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) of Phaseolus vulgaris L. pods in south west France, pp. 131-141. In V. Labeyrie (ed.), The Ecology of Bruchidae attacking Legumes (Pulses), Proceedings of the International Symposium, Series Entomologica v. 19, 16-19 April, 1980, Tours, France.

Jarry M. 1987. Diet of adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and its effect on the special pattern of the attacks in the fields of Phaseolus vulgaris. Paper presented at: Insects-Plants; 6th International Symposium; 1986; Pau (F).

Jarry, M. and Chacon, A. 1983. Influence de la dure´e d’exposition des gousses muˆ res de Phaseolus vulgaris sur la distribution des pontes d’Acanthoscelides obtectus en plein champs. (Influence of exposure duration mature pods Phaseolus vulgaris on the distribution of Acanthoscelides obtectus in open fields) Entomol Exp Appl. 33:213–219.

Jarry M, Debouzie D, Chacon A. 1987. Influence de quelques variables lie´es a` la plante Phaseolus vulgaris sur la ponte d’Acanthoscelides obtectus dans la nature. (Influence of some variables related to the plant Phaseolus vulgaris on the Acanthoscelides obtectus oviposition in the wild) Entomol Exp Appl. 43:105–113.

Joubert, P. C. 1966. Field infestations of stored-product insects in South Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research 2(2): 159–161.

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Kabeh, J.D. and N.E.S. Lale, 2004. Effect of pre-harvest spray of neem (Azadirachta indicea, A. Juss.) seed products and pirimiphos-methyl and harvest time modification on infestation of cowpeas by storage bruchids in the field and stores in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nig. J. Entomol., 21: 104-116.

Kabeh, Joshua Dauda 2007. Harvest Time Modification, Neem Seed Products and Pirimiphos-Methyl as Methods of Reducing Field Infestation of Cowpeas by Storage Bruchids in the Nigerian Guinea Savannah. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 870-876.

Kabeh, J.D. and N.E.S. La1e. 2008. Role of host plant resistance and intercropping in reducing field infestation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp.) by bruchids in the Nigerian Sudan Savanna. Academic Journal of Entomology, 1(1): 12-18

Kebe, Khadim and Sembene, Mbacké. 2011. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) field infestation by the bruchids (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in the northern Senegal: preliminary biological and ecological data. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 41: 2788-2796.

Keever, D. W., B. R. Wiseman and N. W. Widstrom. 1988. Effects of Threshing and Drying on Maize Weevil Populations in Field-Infested Corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 81: 727–730.

Khanvilkar, S. V. and Dalvi, C. S. 1984. Carry over of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. infestation from field and its control. Bull. Grain. Tech., 22(1): 54-61.

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McMillian, W. W., N. W. Widstrom and K. J. Starks 1968. Rice weevil damage as affected by husk treatment within methods of artificially infesting field corn plots. Journal of Economic Entomology 61(4): 918–921.

McMillian, W. W., and B. R. Wiseman. 1972. Insect species present on sorghum heads of various stages of maturity. J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 7:179-182

Menten, L.A. and Menten, J.O.M. 1984. Epoca de ataque de Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) ao feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sob condico es de campo. (Attack time of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under conditions field.) Turrialbe: Revista Interamericana de Ciencias Agricolas. 34: 333–336.

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Mohan, S., and P. V. Subba Rao. 2000. Field record of Callosobruchus chinensis L. infesting black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper and green gram, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of Grain Technology 33: 73-74.

Muthamilselvan, Muthukumar, and Karchan N. Ragumoorthi. 2015. Impact of different maize cultivars on pre harvest infestation by Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). International Journal of Entomological Research 3(2): 47-54.

Nsobinenyui, Divine, Nelson N. Ntonifor, and Eric B. Fokam. 2017. Seasonal Changes in Field-to-storage Insect-pests of Maize and Implications for Their Control in South-Western Cameroon. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International 12(3): 1-13. Article no. JAERI.35378

Nualvatna, K. 1991. Survey of stored insect in rice field before harvest. p. 161-166. In Fleurat-Lessard, F.; Ducom, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection. 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc, Bordeaux (field infestation Sitotroga cerealella)

Ofosu, A. 1987. A preliminary study of pre-harvest insect infestation and storability of four Ghanaian maize varieties. Ghana Journal Agricultural Science 20: 11-14.

Ojelade, K.T.M. 2000. Studies on the effect of some cultural operation on kola (Cola nitida) pod infestation by kola weevils (Balanogastris kolae and Sophorhius Spp). Moor Journal of Agric. Research 1(1): 54-59.

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Patnaik, Hariprasad .1984, Notes on field infestation of pigeonpea by Callosobruchus spp. in Orissa. Bull. Grain. Tech., 22(3): 259-261.

Paul, U. V., A. Hilbeck, and P. J. Edwards. 2010. Pre-harvest infestation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in relation to bean pod maturity and pod aperture. Int. J. Pest Manage. 56: 41-50.

Picanço, M.C., Araújo, J.M., Faleiro, F.G., Miranda, M.M.M. 1994. Intensidade de Ataque de Cathartus quadricollis Guerin, 1829 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) a 49 populações de milho de polinização aberta. (Intensity of Attack of Cathartus quadricollis Guerin, 1829 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) at 49 Populations of open pollinated maize) Revista Brasileria de Armazenamento 18/19(1/2): 11-14.

Quintana, R. R., D. A. Wilbur and W. R. Young 1960. Insectos Del Grano Almacenado Que Infestan al Maiz En El Campo (Insects of Stored Grain that Infect Maize in the Field.). Agricultura Tecnica Mexico 10: 40–43.

Ragumoorthy, K. N. and K. Gunathilagaraj, 1988: Field incidence of and host resistance to Angoumois grain moth (AGM). International Rice Research Newsletter, 13(4), 12p.

Rai, P. S. 1979. Field infestation of cowpea cultivar, S-488 by Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ. 4(1): 104.

Ravindra, A. C. 1998. A Study of Field Infestation of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) by the Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Its Management. MS thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences GKVK, Bangalore.

Sahoo, B. K., A. P. Samolo, and P. K. Behera. 1993. Field infestation of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in different cultivars of pigeonpea in Orissa. Bulletin of Grain Technology 31: 149-151.

Sangappa, H. K. and Balaraju, E. S. 1977. A note on Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus as field pest of Redgram, Cajanus cajana. Current Res. 6(6): 106.

Sapunaru, T., C. Filipescu, T. Georgescu and Y. C. Bild. 2006. Bioecology and control of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say). Cercatari Agronomicu in Moldova. 39(2): 5–12.

Sayed, A. A. 1995. Infestation Levels of Two Species of Cadra in the Field and Storehouses, at Kharga Oasis, New Valley [Egypt]. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Egypt) 26(2): 137–142.

Silva, Gerson Adriano 2013. Fatores de perdas de produtividade e distribuição espacial de pragas em milho Bt Cry1Ab. (Loss factors and spatial distribution of pests in Bt corn Cry1Ab) Doctor Scientiae, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Simmons, Perez and George W. Ellington 1927. Dispersion of the Angoumois grain moth to wheat fields. J. Agric. Res. 34: 459-471.

Soujanya, P. Lakshmi, J. C. Sekhar, Chikkappa G. Karjagi, V. Vidhyadhari, S. B. Suby, N. Sunil, D. Sreelatha, and DharamPaul Chaudhary. 2017. Impact of harvesting time on field carry over infestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in different maize genotypes. Phytoparasitica 45(4): 485-499.

Stathers, T.E., Rees, D., Kabi, S., Mbilinyi, L., Smit, N., Kiozya,H., Jeremiah, S., Njango, A. and Jeffries, D. 2003. Sweetpotato infestation by Cylas spp. in East Africa : I. Cultivar differences in field infestation and the role of plant factors. Int. J. Pest Manag. 49(2): 131–140.

Subramanian, T.R., T. Santhanaraman and S. Vijayaraghavan. 1959. A serious attack of Sitotroga cerealella on standing crop of cholam and ragi at Coimbatore. Curr. Sci. 28: 127

Taylor, T. Ajibola. 1971. On the Flight Activity of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and Some Other Grain-Infesting Beetles in the Field and a Store. Journal of Stored Products Research 6(4): 295–306.

Vergani, A. R. 1968. Insects attacking grains of wheat at the time of harvest.  Informativo De Investigaciones Agricoles (Buenos Aires) 244: 41-7.

Walkden, H. H. 1951. Field Infestation of Ripening Wheat by Stored Grain Insects. Northwestern Miller 245 (11): 3a.

Walkden, H. H. 1951. Field infestation of ripening wheat by stored grain insects. Milling Production 16(3): 7–8.

Yoshii, T., Ikeuti, T. and Isimoto, S. 1958. Control measures against the field infestation of standing wheat and barley by the rice weevil. Rep. Koti Agric. Exp. Sta. 1, 17-19 (in Japanese).

Zachariae, G. 1958. Das Verhalten des Speisebohnenkafers Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) im Freien in Deutschland. . (The behavior of the edible bean beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) outdoors in Germany) Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 43:345–365.

Preharvest insecticide applications

Ahmed, I. A., Kiyawa, S. A., Maryam, T. A., Kutama, A. S. and Isah, I. B. 2014. Effects of Pre-harvest application of Lamda-cyhalothrin and Neem seed extracts in the management of Cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae) on stored cowpea. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science 3(3): 100-105.

Ben Salah, H. and R. Aalbu. 1992. Field Use of Granulosis Virus to Reduce Initial Storage Infestation of the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in North Africa. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 38: 119–126.

Biradar, S. 2001. Influence of pre-harvest insecticidal spray on seed yield and quality and post-harvest seed treatment on storability of greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilzeck). M. Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Dharwad, Karnataka (India).

Borikar, P.S. and V.M. Pawar, 1998. Effect of insecticidal application on field infestation and carry-over of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). Agric. Sci. Digest (Karnal), 18: 271-273.

Carino, F. O. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1976. Control of Sitophilus zeamais and Rhizopertha dominica by pre-harvest sprays and sack treatment with three insecticides in three sorghum varieties. Philippine Agriculturist 60: 81-95.

Dakshinamurthy, A. 1991. Pre harvest spray of insecticide in maize for the management of Sitotroga cerealella in storage. Bull. Grain Technol. 29:63-64.

Dakshinamurthy, A., A. Regupathy, and S. C. Goel. 1992. Pre-harvest spray of insecticides for the management of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier on rice, pp. 218-224. In Anonymous Bioecology and control of insect pests: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Growth, Development & Control Technology of Insect Pests. Uttar

Divyashri, J. 2006. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sanitation Spray on Seed Yield, Quality and Post-Harvest Seed Storability in Greengram (Vigna Radiata (l.) Wilczek). MS thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad

Hamby, K. A., N. L. Nicola, F. J. A. Niederholzer, and F. G. Zalom. 2015. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 108:683-693.

Harper, A. M. and P. E. Blakeley. 1968. Survival of Rhopalosiphum padi in stored grain during cold weather. J. Econ. Entomol. 61(5): 1455.

Jayaraj, J., G. Srinivasan, and M. Shanthi. 2019. Pre-Harvest and Storage Treatment of Botanicals on Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) in Black Gram. Indian Journal of Entomology 81 (4): 727–29.

Kawuki, R.S., A. Agona, P. Nampala, E. Adipala. 2005. A comparison of effectiveness of plant-based and synthetic insecticides in the field management of pod and storage pests of cowpea. Crop Protection 24: 473–478.

Kabeh, J.D. and N.E.S. Lale, 2004. Effect of pre-harvest spray of neem (Azadirachta indicea, A. Juss.) seed products and pirimiphos-methyl and harvest time modification on infestation of cowpeas by storage bruchids in the field and stores in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nig. J. Entomol., 21: 104-116.

Kabeh, Joshua Dauda 2007. Harvest Time Modification, Neem Seed Products and Pirimiphos-Methyl as Methods of Reducing Field Infestation of Cowpeas by Storage Bruchids in the Nigerian Guinea Savannah. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 870-876.

Lale, N. E. S., and J. D. Kabeh. 2004. Pre-harvest spray of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed products and pirimiphos-methyl as a method of reducing field infestation of cowpeas by storage bruchids in the Nigerian Sudan savanna. Int. J. Agric. Bio 6: 987-993.

Longiswaran, G. and M. S. Venugopal. 1994. Efficacy of neem oil, insecticides and their combinations on pre-harvest infestation by rice Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. Pesticide Research Journal 6:98-99.

Majumder, S. K. ; Krishnamurthy, K.; Godavari Bai, S. 1961. Pre-harvest prophylaxis for infestation control in stored food grains. Nature 192: 375-376.

Michaelraj, S. 2006. Studies on pre-harvest infestation and management of key pests of stored maize by plant products and insecticides. Doctoral dissertation, Indian Agricultural Research Institute; New Delhi, India.

Naveena, N. L., C. S. Jagadeesh Babu, and M. Byregowda. 2010. Evaluation of Biopesticides against Field Infestation of Bruchid, Callasobruchus theobromae L. on Fieldbean, Dolichos Lablab. Journal of Biopesticides 3(3): 622–623.

Opolot, H.N., Agona, A., Kyamanywa, S., Mbata, G.N. and Adipala, E. 2006. Integrated field management of cowpea pests using synthetic and botanical pesticides. Crop Prot 25(11): 1145–1152

Owera F, 2002. Field management of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera; Bruchidae).Msc thesis Makerere University

Ramzan, M., R. P. Chawla and B. S. Chahal. 1986. Efficacy of pre-harvest application of some insecticides on wheat for post-harvest protection against storage-pests. Pesticides 20: 50-51.

Sharma, R.K. 1995. Preharvest spray for the control of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.) in stored maize. Indian J. Entomol., 57: 157–158

Singh, Karan. 1979. Pre-harvest spray of malathion and DDVP for controlling the insect infestation of stored grain. International Pest Control May/June 21: 66-67.

Swamy, SVS Gopala, and B. John Wesley 2020. Field infestation of certain stored grain insect pests in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 8(4): 1725-1728.

Survival of field pests in stored commodities

Chiang,H.C. 1964. Overwintering corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae in storage cribs. J. Econ. Entomol. 57: 666-669.

Morrill, W. L., G. L. Jensen, D. K. Weaver, J. W. Gabor and W. T. Lanier. 1992. Cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), incidence at harvest and survival in storage in Montana. J. Entomol. Sci. 27: 1-4.

Potter, M. A., A. Carpenter, A. Stocker and S. Wright. 1994. Controlled atmospheres for the postharvest disinfestations of Thrips obscuratus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 1251-1255.

Patch, L.H. 1933. The infestation of corn ears by the European corn borer and cribbed corn as an auxiliary source of infestation. USDA Circ. 275.

Polivka, J.B. and E. A. Herr. 1929. The behavior of the corn borer in stored corn. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. Bimonthly Bull. 138: 103-105.

Wilde, G. 1976. Fate of European corn borer larvae in stored shelled grain (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 49: 557.

Field infestation – orchard, vineyard

Afonso, Ana Paula Schneid, João Luiz Faria, Marcos Botton, and Alci Enimar Loeck. 2005. Controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) com inseticidas empregados em frutíferas temperadas.( Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) control with insecticides used in temperate fruits) Ciência Rural 35(2): 253-258.

Botton, M., I. Lorini, A. E. Loeck, and A. P. S. Afonso. 2005. O gorgulho do milho Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) como praga em frutíferas de clima temperado. (The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as a pest in temperate fruit trees) Bento Gonçalves: Embrapa Uva e Vinho. Embrapa Uva e Vinho.Circular técnica, 58

Botton, M., I. Lorini, and A. Afonso. 2005. Ocorrência de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) danificando a cultura da videira no Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil (Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) damaging vineyards in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Neotropical Entomology 34: 355-356.

Buonocore, E., D. L. Monaco, A. Russo, H. P. Aberlenc, and G. T. Garzia. 2017. Rhyzopertha dominica (F., 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae): a stored grain pest on olive trees in Sicily. EPPO Bulletin 47: 263-268.

Hickel, E. R., and E. Schuck. 2008. Pet‑milho: armadilha para o monitoramento do gorgulho‑do‑milho, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), em parreirais. (Pet-milho: trap for monitoring of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in vineyards). Agropecuária Catarinense 21:51-54.

Hickel, E.R.and Schuck, E. 2005.Infestação e danos do gorgulho‑do‑milho em videira. (Infestation and damage of corn weevil on vine) Agropecuária Catarinense, Itacorubi 18: 49‑52.

Hinds, W. E. and W. F. Turner. 1911. Life history of the rice weevil (Calandra oryza L.) in Alabama. J. Econ. Entomol. 4: 230-236. Weevils observed feeding in the field before corn matures attack immature fruit of peach and apple, sucking the juice and gradually forming cavities within which they may be entirely concealed and even present a real burrowing habit. On such fruits weevils have been kept alive for more than six weeks in spite of a decayed condition of the fruit.

Lorenzato, D.; Grellmann, E.O. 1987. Resistência de maçãs, em dezesseis cultivares comerciais de macieiras (Malus domestica Bork), frente ao ataque do gorgulho do milho Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (Resistance of apples in sixteen commercial cultivars of apple trees (Malus domestica Bork), against the attack of the corn weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) Agronomia Sulriograndense 23(1): 3-10.

Nörnberg, Sandro Daniel . 2012. Bases para o manejo de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em pomares de pessegueiro e macieira. (Bases for the management of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in peach and apple orchards) Tese (Doutorado em Fitossanidade). Programa de Pós-graduação em Fitossanidade, Universidade Federal de Pelotas.

Nörnberg, S. D., D. E. Nava, A. D. Grützmacher, J. M. S. Bento, Â. L. Ozelame, and L. K. Hübner. 2013. Flutuação populacional e distribuição de Sitophilus zeamais em pomares de pessegueiro e macieira (Population dynamics and distribution of Sitophilus zeamais in peach and apple orchards.) . Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 48: 358-364.

Nörnberg, Sandro Daniel, Anderson Dionei Grützmacher, Dori Edson Nava, Ricardo Alexandre Valgas, and Angelo Luis Ozelame. 2016. Residual effects of pesticides in peach orchards on the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 38(3): e017.

Nörnberg, Sandro Daniel, Anderson Dionei Grützmacher, José Mauricio Simões Bento, Cornel Adler, and Dori Edson Nava. 2018. Unusual behavior of oviposition and development of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in peach and apple fruits. Phytoparasitica 46(1): 69-74. The average of egg-to-adult developmental time was 47.4 d in peach and and 45.1 d apple fruits, respectively, while in corn grains, its natural host, the duration was 38.2 d.

Scheunemann, Tiago, Sandro Daniel Nörnberg, R. da S. Gonçalves, AD Grützmacher, and de Nava. 2013. Ocorrência e distribuição de ataque de Sitophilus zeamais (coleoptera: curculionidae) em plantas de pessegueiro e macieira. (Occurrence and distribution of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack on peach and apple plants) In Embrapa Clima Temperado-Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE). In: Congresso de Iniciação Científica, 22.; Encontro de Pós-Graduação, 15., Pelotas.[Anais.]. Pelotas: UFPel


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