Burlap, gunny, jute, cotton, paper, plastic or woven polythene bags have been used to store many commodities (cocoa, cowpeas, grain, flour, peanuts, potatoes, etc.). Research on treating bags with insecticides began soon after the discovery of DDT and the use of synergized pyrethrum (a botanical) was also investigated. More recently, carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have been investigated. Between 1950 and 1989, there were 10-16 studies every 10 years. The most recent studies have been with the use of other botanicals and insect growth regulators. Watters (1966) investigated the use of silica gel bag treatment. Barrier layers in multilayer bags, and treated overwraps or shipping cases have been investigated to reduce the migration of insecticide from packaging to commodity. Most of research on bag treatment has been with large bags and only a few studies have been with consumer size packages (Dennis 1962 (meat cubes), Fletcher et al. 1981 (tobacco) and Highland and Cline 1986 (food pouches)). Parasitoids can also be part of insect pest management for bag storage.
In-bag fumigation and admixture of insecticides with the commodity have been investigated for single bags and fumigation for large bag stacks. Although most of this research was with large bags of raw commodities, Mayer and Nelson (1955) added a small measured amount of fumigant to the filled individual retail packages of beans or cowpeas on the packing line just prior to sealing and pilot tests with industry revealed no adverse customer reaction. Susceptibility of various packaging materials to insect penetration has been investigated and multilayer bags have been used to reduce insect penetration. Recently, the use of triple-layer, hermetically-sealed bags (Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags) has been investigated. For consumer packages, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been investigated. Citations for a total of 235 research papers are listed under the following categories.
Reviews (14) Treating bags with insecticide (73) Migration of insecticide residues from bags to commodity (11) Overwraps and shipping cases (6) Biological control (4) In-bag fumigation or admixture with commodity (11) Fumigation of bag stacks (48) Fumigation of empty bags (2) Hermetic sealing of bags (29) Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) of consumer packages (7) Insect penetration of insect-resistant packaging (35)
Adler, C., 2008. Insect-proof packaging to avoid stored product insects. Integrated Protection of Stored Products IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 40, 363-369.
Allahvaisi, S., 2012. Polypropylene in the Industry of Food Packaging. INTECH http://www.intechopen.com/books/polypropylene/polypropylene-in-the-industry-of-food-packaging
Athanassiou, Christos G., Jordi Riudavets, and Nickolas G. Kavallieratos. 2011. Preventing Stored-Product Insect Infestations in Packaged-Food Products. Stewart Postharvest Review 3(8): 1-5.
Davis, R. and T. Pettitt. 2002. Evaluation of food package resistance to insect invasion. International Conf. Urban Pests. Charleston, SC. 329-336.
Jirkovska, M., and J. Ondrejka. 1951. Insecticides in the packaging techniques. Obaly 6: 23-28.
Highland, Henry A. 1978. Insect resistance of food packages–a review. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 2( 2): 123-129.
Highland, H. A. 1977. Chemical treatments and construction features used for insect resistance. Package Development and Systems 7(3): 36-38.
Highland, H.A., 1984. Insect infestation of packages, pp. 309-320. In: Baur, F.J (Ed.), Insect management for food storage and processing. American Association of Cereal Chemists International, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, pp. 309-320.
Highland, H.A., 1991. Protecting packages against insects. In Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests. Gorham, J.R. [Ed]. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, pp. 345-350.
Mullen, M.A., Vardeman, J.M., Bagwell, J., 2012. Insect-resistant packaging, pp. 135-142. In Hagstrum, D.W., Philips, T.W., Cuperus, G. (Eds.), Stored-Product Protection. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
Newton, J., 1988. Insects and packaging – a review. International biodeterioration 24, 175-187.
Nigam, B. S., Perti, S. L. and Agarwal, P. N. 1969. Susceptibility of packaging materials to insects and rodents. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology 7-B: 89-98.
Webley, D. J. 1985. Use of pesticides in bag storage of grain. Pesticides and Humid Tropical Grain Storage Systems 14: 303-311.
Wohlgemuth, R., 1979. Protection of stored foodstuffs against insect infestation by packaging. Chemistry and Industry 10, 330-334.
Treating bags with insecticide (73)
Al-Saffar, Z., AI-Iraqi, R.A. and Salit, A.M. 1982. Residual efficiency of pirimiphos methyl and malathion against Trogoderma granarium Everts on different types of sack fibres in Iraq. Journal of the Egyptian Society for Parasitology 12(2): 431-437.
Ambika Devi, D., Saradamma, K., Dale, D. and Mohandas, N. 1988. Impregnation of gunny bags with natural products for the control of insect pests of dried tapioca chips. Proceeding-National Symposium on Integrated Pest Control-Progress and Perspectives, Oct. 15-17, 1987. Nov. 1988 pp. 447-449.
Arnold, K. A. 1955. Insect repellency in multiwall bags treated with non-toxic pyrenone in surface coating are found completely resistant to insect penetration. Mod. Packag. 28:120-121, 194, 196.
Atkins, W.G. 1953. Storage of flour in jute bags treated with insecticides. J. Sci. Food Agric. 4: 155-160.
Barakat, A. A., P. Khan and A. M. A. Karim. 1987. The persistence and activity of permethrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl sprays on jute and woven polypropylene bags. J. Stored Prod. Res. 23: 85-90.
Bareth, S. S. and H. C. Gupta. 1989. Efficacy of gunny-bag and seed treatment on the natural infestation of Rhizopertha dominica on stored wheat. Seed Research 17: 178-181.
Brook, J. P. and P. H. Lomax. 1959. The treatment of food packaging materials with pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for the protection of packaged products from insect infestation. Pyrethrum Post, London 6(1): 14-22.
Carino, F. O. and Morallo-Rejesus, B. 1976. Control of Sitophilus zeamais and Rhizopertha dominica by pre-harvest sprays and sack treatment with three insecticides in three sorghum varieties. Philippine Agriculturist 60: 81-95.
Chakraverti, I.B. 1955 Insect-proofing of jute bags for storage of food grains. Textile Digest. 16(2): 81-85.
Chander, H., Nagender, A., Ahuja, D.K. and Berry, S.K. 1999. Laboratory evaluation of plant extracts as repellents to the rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), on jute fabric. International Pest Control 41(1): 18-20
Cotton, R. T., H. J. Balzer and H. D. Young. 1944. Possible utility of DDT for insect-proofing paper bags. J. Econ. Entomol. 37: 140.
Cotton, R. T., J. C. Frankenfeld, and W. B. Strickland. 1949. Insect-repellent cotton bags: treatment of cloth with new non-toxic insecticides shows great promise. Mod. Packaging 23(3): 126-127.
Cutler, J. R. et al. 1964. Sealing paper sacks with treated tape promises effective mite control. Food Manufacture 39(9): 90-109.
Dennis, P. O. 1962. Insect infestation. the protection of foodstuffs by synergized pybuthrin. Food Processing and Packaging 31(267): 131-133.
Fletcher, L. W., D. P. Childs and L. C. Garrett. 1981. Resistance of polyethylene film impregnated with synergized pyrethrins to penetration by the cigarette beetle. Tobacco Science 25: 94-96.
Gray, H. E. 1952. Packaging of cereals, and some chemical treatments, to increase resistance to penetration by insects. Transactions of the American Association of Cereal Chemists 10: 50-59.
Highland, Henry A. 1967. Resistance to insect penetration of carbaryl-coated kraft bags. Journal of Economic Entomology 60(2): 451-452.
Highland, H. A. 1977. Protection for processed cereals: insect resistant shipping bags. Mod. Packag. 50: 2-3.
Highland, H. A. 1977. Insect resistant shipping bags; protection for processed cereals. Mod. Packag. 50: 37-38.
Highland, H. A., L. D. Cline and R. A. Simonaitis. 1977. Insect-resistant food pouches made from laminates treated with synergized pyrethrins. J. Econ. Entomol. 70: 483-485.
Highland, Henry A., A. H. Kamel, M. M. El Sayed, E. Z. Fam, Richard Simonaitis and L. D. Cline. 1984. Evaluation of permethrin as an insect-resistant treatment on paper bags and of tricalcium phosphate as a suppressant of stored-product insects. Journal of economic entomology 77(1): 240-246.
Highland, Henry A. and L. D. Cline. 1986. Resistance to insect penetration of food pouches made of untreated polyester or permethrin-treated polypropylene film. Journal of economic entomology 79(2): 527-529.
Highland, Henry A., R. A. Simonaitis and R. Boatright. 1984. Insecticide-treated film wrap to protect small packages from infestation. Journal of economic entomology 77(5): 1269-1274.
Incho, Harry H., Eileen J. Incho, and Norris W. Matthews. 1953. Insect-Proofing Paper, Laboratory Evaluation of Pyrethrins-Piperonyl Butoxide Formulations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1(20): 1200-1203.
Ismail, I. A., R. S. Abdel-Rahman, and N. A. Farag. Evaluation of Certain Rosaceae Plant Extracts as Gunny Sacks Protectants against Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Carpophilus hemipterus Infesting Dates. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 24(2): 415-420.
Jewett, H. H., and W. A. Price. 1951. Protecting stored corn from grain insects by bags impregnated with DDT. Ky. Ag. Exp. Bul. KAES–UK-571.
Joshi, H.C. and Kaul, C.L. 1965. Studies on the protectivity of jute bags impregnated with organic insecticides against red flour beetles and cigarette beetle. Indian J. Entomol. 27(4): 491-493.
Kavallieratos, Nickolas G., Christos G. Athanassiou and Frank H. Arthur. 2017. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res. 70: 18-24.
Khalsa, H. G. 1964. Insect-proof bags for foodstuffs. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology 2(1): 1-3.
Kuppuswamy, S. and Subramaniam, T.R. 1976. Studies on the impregnation of gunny bags with certain organophosphorous insecticides. Bulletin of Grain Technology 14: 45-50.
Lal, R., P. D. Srivastava and P. Dhar. 1960. Efficacy of insecticide impregnated jute bags against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Indian J. Entomol. 22(3): 204-210.
Langbridge, D. M. 1970. Treatment of paper to protect packaged food from insect attack. Appita 24(1): 45-51.
Laudani, H., Highland, H. A. and Jay, E. G. 1966. Treated bags keep corn meal insect-free during overseas shipment. Am. Miller Processor, 94: 14-19.
Majumder SK and SV Pingale 1955. Impregnation of jute bags with lindane: Some physico-chemical aspects. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 14B(6): 298-301.
Majumder, S. K., J. K. Krishnarao and H. G. Sethumadhavan. 1961. Insect-proofing of gunny bags for grain storage. Research and Industry 6: 391-393.
Majumder, S. K., J. K. Krishnarao, and H. G. Sethumadhaven. 1961. Insect proofing of gunny bags for grain storage. Jute Gunny Rev. 13: 346-347.
Misra, J. N. 1951. Assessment of effectiveness of jute sacking treated with insecticides against insects. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 10B: 67-72.
McFarlane, J. A. 1961. Malathion water-dispersible powder for the protection of bagged foodstuffs from insect infestation. Tropical Science 3 (3): 114-126.
Mohan, S., S. S. Sivakumar, S. R. Venkatesh and G. S. V. Raghavan. 2007. Penetration of Polyethylene Sheets Coated with Protein-Enriched Pea Flour Solution by Two Stored-Product Insects. Journal of Stored Products Research 43(2): 202-204.
Mookherjee, P.B. Y.P. Beri, G.C. Sharma, and S.S. Kumar. 1960. Relative efficacy of different types of jute bags against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. in stored ‘mung’ (Phaseolus aureus). Indian J. Entomol. 22: 237-238.
Morallo-Rejesus, B. and Eroles, D.E. 1976. Direct grain treatment and sack inpregnation with insecticides to control corn storage pests. Philippine Agriculturist, 59: 356-363.
Morallo-Rejesus, B., L. M. Varea, and E. G. Nerova. 1975. Insecticide impregnation of sacks and use of plastic lining for the protection of stored corn against insect damage. Philipp. Agric. 59: 196-204.
Moustafa, El., Ghaly, Z.S., Zeid, M.I., El-Sawaf, S.K. and Mansour, N.A. 1979. Comparative toxicity of four insecticides on two different fabric sacks against Tribolium conJusum (Du V). Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 25(3): 495-500 and 27(3): 681-687.
Muhammad, A.; Muhammad, A.; Mansoor, U. and Anjum, F.M. 2005. Efficacy of Azadirachta indica L. oil on bagging material against some insect pests of wheat stored in warehouses at Faisalabad. Pakistan Entomologist 27(1): 89-94.
Muthu, M. and S. V. Pingale. 1955. Control of insect pests in grains stored in insecticide-impregnated jute bags. J. Sci. Food Agric. 6(10): 637-640.
Naga, R.P.; Bhargava, M.C. and Choudhary, R.K. 2007. Impregnation of cloth bags with botanical weapons as against the incidence of Tribolium castaneum. Indian Journal of Applied Entomology 21: 121-122.
Nigam, B. S.; Perti, S. L.; Agarwal, P. N. 1969. Susceptibility of packaging materials to insects and rodents. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology 7-B: 89-98.
Pali, N.S. 1961. Studies on jute bag impregnation for the control of graminivorous insects. Journal of Entomology 22(3): 211-213.
Parkin, E. A. 1948. D.D.T. impregnation of sacks for the protection of stored cereals against insect infestation. Ann. Appl. Biol. 35(2): 233-242.
Paudyal, Sulochana, George P. Opit, Enoch A. Osekre, Frank H. Arthur, Georgina V. Bingham, Mark E. Payton, James K. Danso, Naomi Manu and Evans P. Nsiah 2017. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin incorporated, (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 70: 44-52.
Pingale, S.V. 1954. Impregnation of jute bag containers with insecticides for protecting stored food stuffs. I. efficacy of piperonyl butoxide pyrethrins. Indian J. Entomol. 15(4): 343-351.
Pingale, S.V. and S. K. Majumder. 1955. Impregnation of jute bags for the insect-free storage of foods–relative efficacy of some insecticides. Bulletin of the Central Food Technological Research Institute. 4: 83-86.
Plank, W. J. e. a. 1961. Development of a heavy-wall polyethylene shipping bag. Packaging Progress 3: 24-27
Rai, R. S., Lal, P. and Srivastava, P.K. 1987. Impregnation of jute bags with insecticide for protecting stored food grains. III. Comparative efficacy of impregnation method vis-à-vis existing method of prophylactic chemical treatment against cross infestation of different stored grain insect pests. Pesticides. 21: 8, 39-42
Rai, R.S. et al. 1985. Impregnation of jute bags with insecticides for protecting stored food grains: II. comparative efficacy of some safe organophosphatic insecticides. Pesticides 19(4): 45-48.
Rai, R.S., P. Lal, and P. K. Srivastava. 1985. Impregnation of jute bag with insecticides for protecting stored food grains: I preliminary studies on the efficacy of some safe organophosphatic insecticides. Pesticides 19(3): 16-18.
Ramakrishnan, C. and P. S. Narayanaswamy. 1964. Studies on storage of cholam in impregnated jute gunnies. Madras Agr. J. 51: 178-180.
Ramamurthy, R. and Venugopal, M.S. 1997. Impregnation of gunny bags with botanical weapons as against the incidence of sorghum storage pest Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture (eds.) G.M. Bharad, R.S. Bonde, S.A. Nimbalkar and S.V. Sarode, pp. 340-342.
Ramzan, M., Chahal, B.S., Judge, B.K. and Narang, D.D. 1987. Field trials on the impregnation of gunny bags with synthetic pyrethroids against storage loss of wheat due to stored grain pests. Bulletin of Grain Technology 25: 160-163.
Ramzan, M.; Judge, B.K. and Chawala, R.P. 1989. Effect of disinfestation of gunny bags by sequential dipping in malathion emulsion on toxicity to Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.). Bulletin of Grain Technology 27: 221-222.
Sarala, M., S. Arivoli and N. Raja. 1998. Effect of insecticide treated gunny bags against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) infestation in stored grains. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 18: 59-63.
Sarkar, D. K., S. K. Handa and S. K. Mukerjee 1984. Residual toxicity and persistence of fenvalerate on jute bags and its persistence on wheat grains. Pesticides (Bombay) 18(5): 30-31.
Scheff, Deanna 2016. Packaging technologies for the control of stored-product insects. PhD diss., Kansas State University. Department: Grain Science and Industry.
Singh, Sukhdev and B. S. Chahal. 1975. Screening of some relatively safe insecticides for impregnation of gunny bags against stored-grain pests. Bulletin of Grain Technology 13: 162-164.
Sivik, F. P., and W. M. Kulash. 1956. Treated cloth bags to control the rice weevil in corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 49: 64-65.
Smit, Bernard 1955. Pyrethrum-treated bags for the protection of grain and meal. African entomology : journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 18: 265-272.
Smith, K. G. 1952. The Spraying of Bags of Cocoa Beans with a Macrodosage of DDT against Ephestia and Tribolium. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43(2): 313-315.
Srinivasan, D. and Nadarajan, L. 2005. Bag Impregnation with Plant extracts to manage Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored paddy. p. 45-49. In S. Ignacimuthu and S Jayaraj eds. Green Pesticides for Insect Pest Management. Alpha Science Int’l Ltd.
Viado, G. G., and R. M. Labadan. 1958. DDT treatment of sack containers for the control of storage insects of corn. Philipp. Agric. 41: 450-459.
Watters, F. L. 1966. Protection of packaged food from insect infestation by use of silica gel. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 146-149.
Webley, D. J. 1981. Surface treatment of bags with organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Presented at Symposium on pest management, Biotrop. Indonesia. December 1981.
Webley, David J. and Kenneth M. Kilminster. 1980. The persistence of insecticide spray deposits on woven polypropylene and jute sacking. Pesticide Science 11(6): 667-673.
Webley, D. J. and K. M. Kilminster. 1981. The persistence and activity of insecticide spray deposits on woven polypropylene fabric. Pestic. Sci. 12: 74-78.
Yadav TD 1997. Evaluation of deltamethrin as fabric treatment in storage of wheat seed at farm level. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(1): 103-109.
Yadav, T.D. and Singh, S. 1994. Persistence toxicity and efficacy of four insecticides as jute fabric treatment to protect cereal and legume seeds. Ind. J. Entomol. 56(2): 146-155.
Migration of insecticide residues from bags to commodity (11)
Butterfield, D. E., E. A. Parkin and M. M. Gale. 1949. Transfer of DDT to foodstuffs from impregnated sacking. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 68: 310-313.
Devi, D. A., N. Mohandas, and A. Visalakshy. 1986. Residues of fenthion quinalphos and malathion in paddy grains following surface treatment of gunny bags. Agric. Res. J. Kerala 24: 222-224.
Highland, H. A., E. G. Jay, M. Phillips and D. F. Davis. 1966. Migration of piperonyl butoxide from treated multiwall kraft bags into four commodities. J. Econ. Entomol. 59(3): 543-545.
Highland, H. A., M. Secreast and P. H. Merritt. 1968. Polyvinylidene-coated kraft paper as an insecticide barrier in insect-resistant packages for food. J. Econ. Entomol. 61(5): 1459-1460.
Highland, H. A., R. Van Byrd, and M. Secreast. 1968. Effect of ethylene vinyl acetate on the migration of piperonyl butoxide from coatings of synergized pyrethrins on kraft paper. USDA, ARS 51-28
Highland, H. A., M. Secreast, and R. V. Byrd. 1972. Establishing insecticide barriers: how insect-resistant bags effect the migration of piperonyl butoxide into cereal products. Northwestern Miller 279(5): 8-32.
Highland, H. A. et al. 1973. Barrier coatings enhance insect-resistance of multiwalls. Paper, Film and Foil Converter 47(9): 60-61.
Highland, H. A., and M. Secreast. 1973. Barriers in synergized-pyrethrins-treated paper bags to prevent migration of piperonyl butoxide into cornmeal, flour, and CSM. Agricultural Research Service, US Dept. of Agriculture No. 1475.
Kessler, R. P. 1965. Developments in multiwall sacks–construction, end uses, barrier sheets and adhesives. Paper Trade Journal 149(36): 50-53.
McFarlane, J. A., and L. Donegan. 1962. Contamination of bagged whole ginger after surface treatment with two synthetic contact insecticides. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 13(12): 634-638.
Reddy, D., C. Srivastava, and B. Paul. 2005. Residual toxicity of impregnated insecticides on gunnybags against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 75: 532-534.
Overwraps and shipping cases (6)
Highland, H. A., D. L. Cline, and R. A. Simonaitis. 1986. Insect resistance of chlorpyrifos-methyl and permethrin-treated film overwraps on cases of packaged food. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 775-778.
Highland, H. A., and R. H. Guy. 1969. Insect resistance of polypropylene film overwrap on cigarette packages. Tobacco Science 169: 121-122.
Highland, Henry A., R. A. Simonaitis, and R. Boatright. 1984. Insecticide treated film wrap to protect small packages from infestation. J. Econ. Entomol. 77:1269-1274.
Thomson, A. G. 1950. Infestation of packaged products checked by pest proof wrap. (Formed of DDT-impregnated multi-layer wadding, it kills insects before they can penetrate goods.). Food Ind. 22: 91.
Yerington, Albert P. 1979. Methods to increase the insect resistance of food shipping cases. USDA Advances in Agric. Techn., western series AAT-W-7
Yerington, A. P. 1983. Efficiency of various overwraps and seal tightness in excluding insects from dried-fruit cartons. Environ. Entomol. 12:1310-1311.
Biological control (4)
Adarkwah, C., Büttner, C., Reichmuth, C., Obeng-Ofori, D., Prozell, S. and Schöller, M. 2010. Ability of the larval ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to locate the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in bagged and bulk stored rice. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117: 67-70.
Adarkwah, C., C. Ulrichs, S. Schaarschmidt, B. K. Badii, I. K. Addai, D. Obeng-Ofori, and M. Schöller. 2014. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags. Bull. Entomol. Res. 104: 534-542.
Cline, L., J. Press and B. Flaherty. 1985. Suppression of the Rice Weevil, Sitophilus-Oryzae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), Inside and Outside of Burlap, Woven Polypropylene, and Cotton Bags by the Parasitic Wasp, Anisopteromalus-Calandrae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 835-838.
Cline, L.D. and J.W. Press. 1990. Reduction in almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestations using commercial packaging of foods in combination with the parasitic wasp, Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1110-1113.
In-bag fumigation or admixture with commodity (11)
Graham, W. M. and S. P. L. Kockum. 1961. Admixture of malathion and lindane with bagged maize. Bull. Entomol. Res. 52: 727-739.
Green, A. A. and Wilkin, D. R. 1969. The control of insects in bagged grain by the injection of dichlorvos. J. stored Prod. Res. 5: 11-19.
Green, AA, and Kane, J. 1959. A comparison of lindane, DDT and malathion for the protection of bagged ground nuts from infestation by T. castaneum (Hbst.). Tropical Science, 1(4): 290-295.
Knight, K. L. 1940. Fumigation of sacked grain with chloropicrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 33: 536-539.
Mayer, Elmer L. and Howard D. Nelson. 1955. Fumigation of Dry Beans and Cowpeas on the Packing Line. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Marketing Service Report, no. AMS-4, 11 p. January
Morallo-Rejesus, B. and P. A. Javier. 1981. Protection of bagged milled rice from insect infestation with primiphos methyl and malathion. Grains Journal (Philippines) 6(2): 38 (paper liner inside woven polythene sacks)
Peirrot, R., and Ducom, P. 1981. Efficacy of carbon tetrachloride in sealed sacks compared with contact insecticides. In: Proceedings of GASCA Seminar on appropriate use of pesticides for the control of stored product pests in developing countries. Slough, England, Tropical Development and Research Institute, p. 149-152.
Prevett, P.F. 1960. Treatment of rice stored in jute bags against insect pests. Tropical Stored Products Information 1: 4-9.
Rai, B.K. and Croal, K. 1973. Chemical control of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) infesting paddy stored in bags. Indian Journal of Entomology 35(1): 57-62.
Tayior, R.W.D. 1975. Fumigation of individual sacks of grain using methallyl chloride for control of maize weevil. International Pest Control 17(1): 4-8.
Webley, DJ. and Hams, A.H. 1977. A comparison of fumigants for in-bag fumigation. Tropical Stored Products Information 33: 9-17.
Fumigation of bag stacks (46)
Ahmad, Akhlaq; Ahmed, Mubarik; Rizvi, Syed Anser; Zafar, Syed Muhammed Naushad 2012. Development of pest management protocols for storage of wheat in leaky house type godowns. The Entomological Society of Karachi, Pakistan 27(1): 49-54.
Ahmad, Akhlaq, M. Anwar Arain, Rahila Nazli, Syed Anser Rizvi, Mubarik Ahmed and Farzana Ibrahim. 2012. Cost effectiveness of under-sheet and whole godown fumigation of bagged wheat. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 25(1): 12-20.
Ahmad, M. S., T. Mahmood, and H. Ahmad. 1994. Development of phosphine fumigation technique for bag cum bulk wheat stored in house type godowns. Pak. J. Agri. Sci 31(4): 371-376.
Annis, P. C. 1990. Sealed storage of bag stacks: status of the technology. p. 203-210. In Champ, B. R., Highley, E., and Banks, H. J. eds. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain. Singapore, 14-18 February 1989. Proc. series No. 25. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR, Canberra.
Anonymous 1955. Rice fumigation: polyethylene sheeting brings fumigation to the product at more economical costs. Rice Journal 58: 30-32.
Anonymous 1957. Studies of the fumigation of sacked rice under gas-tight tarpaulins. Rice J. 60: 14-16, 37.
Ashman, J.A. 1964. Insect reinfestation problems in fumigated maize on the Kenya coast. Bull Entomol Res. 55(1): 139-146.
Boon, K. S. and S. H. Ho. 1988. Factors influencing the post-fumigation reinfestation of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in a rice warehouse. J. Stored Prod. Res. 24: 87-90.
Brown, W. B. 1954. Fumigation with methyl bromide under gas-proof sheets. Bulletin of the pest infestation board No. 1., HMSO, London.
Cogburn, R. R. 1974. Detia EX-B for phosphine fumigation in sacked milled rice. J. Econ. Entomol. 67:436-438.
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