Insect Pest Management for Bag Storage

Burlap, gunny, jute, cotton, paper, plastic or woven polythene bags have been used to store many commodities (cocoa, cowpeas, grain, flour, peanuts, potatoes, etc.). Research on treating bags with insecticides began soon after the discovery of DDT and the use of synergized pyrethrum (a botanical) was also investigated. More recently, carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have been investigated. Between 1950 and 1989, there were 10-16 studies every 10 years. The most recent studies have been with the use of other botanicals and insect growth regulators. Watters (1966) investigated the use of silica gel bag treatment. Barrier layers in multilayer bags, and treated overwraps or shipping cases have been investigated to reduce the migration of insecticide from packaging to commodity. Most of research on bag treatment has been with large bags and only a few studies have been with consumer size packages (Dennis 1962 (meat cubes), Fletcher et al. 1981 (tobacco) and Highland and Cline 1986 (food pouches)). Parasitoids can also be part of insect pest management for bag storage.

In-bag fumigation and admixture of insecticides with the commodity have been investigated for single bags and fumigation for large bag stacks. Although most of this research was with large bags of raw commodities, Mayer and Nelson (1955) added a small measured amount of fumigant to the filled individual retail packages of beans or cowpeas on the packing line just prior to sealing and pilot tests with industry revealed no adverse customer reaction. Susceptibility of various packaging materials to insect penetration has been investigated and multilayer bags have been used to reduce insect penetration. Recently, the use of triple-layer, hermetically-sealed bags (Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags) has been investigated. For consumer packages, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been investigated. Citations for a total of 235 research papers are listed under the following categories.

Reviews (14)                                                                                                                               Treating bags with insecticide (73)                                                                                     Migration of insecticide residues from bags to commodity (11)                                             Overwraps and shipping cases (6)                                                                                      Biological control (4)                                                                                                                   In-bag fumigation or admixture with commodity (11)                                                             Fumigation of bag stacks (48)                                                                                                 Fumigation of empty bags (2)                                                                                               Hermetic sealing of bags (29)                                                                                                Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) of consumer packages (7)                                   Insect penetration of insect-resistant packaging (35)

Reviews (14)

Adler, C., 2008. Insect-proof packaging to avoid stored product insects. Integrated Protection of Stored Products IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 40, 363-369.

Allahvaisi, S., 2012. Polypropylene in the Industry of Food Packaging. INTECH http://www.intechopen.com/books/polypropylene/polypropylene-in-the-industry-of-food-packaging

Athanassiou, Christos G., Jordi Riudavets, and Nickolas G. Kavallieratos. 2011. Preventing Stored-Product Insect Infestations in Packaged-Food Products. Stewart Postharvest Review 3(8): 1-5.

Davis, R. and T. Pettitt. 2002. Evaluation of food package resis­tance to insect invasion. International Conf. Urban Pests. Charleston, SC. 329-336.

Jirkovska, M., and J. Ondrejka. 1951. Insecticides in the packaging techniques. Obaly 6: 23-28.

Highland, Henry A. 1978. Insect resistance of food packages–a review. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 2( 2): 123-129.

Highland, H. A. 1977. Chemical treatments and construction features used for insect resistance. Package Development and Systems 7(3): 36-38.

Highland, H.A., 1984. Insect infestation of packages, pp. 309-320. In: Baur, F.J (Ed.), Insect management for food storage and processing. American Association of Cereal Chemists International, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, pp. 309-320.

Highland, H.A., 1991. Protecting packages against insects. In Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests. Gorham, J.R. [Ed]. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, pp. 345-350.

Mullen, M.A., Vardeman, J.M., Bagwell, J., 2012. Insect-resistant packaging, pp. 135-142. In Hagstrum, D.W., Philips, T.W., Cuperus, G. (Eds.), Stored-Product Protection. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Newton, J., 1988. Insects and packaging – a review. International biodeterioration 24, 175-187.

Nigam, B. S., Perti, S. L. and Agarwal, P. N. 1969. Susceptibility of packaging materials to insects and rodents. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology 7-B: 89-98.

Webley, D. J. 1985. Use of pesticides in bag storage of grain. Pesticides and Humid Tropical Grain Storage Systems 14: 303-311.

Wohlgemuth, R., 1979. Protection of stored foodstuffs against insect infestation by packaging. Chemistry and Industry 10, 330-334.

 

Treating bags with insecticide (73)

Al-Saffar, Z., AI-Iraqi, R.A. and Salit, A.M. 1982. Residual efficiency of pirimiphos methyl and malathion against Trogoderma granarium Everts on different types of sack fibres in Iraq. Journal of the Egyptian Society for Parasitology 12(2): 431-437.

Ambika Devi, D., Saradamma, K., Dale, D. and Mohandas, N. 1988. Impregnation of gunny bags with natural products for the control of insect pests of dried tapioca chips. Proceeding-National Symposium on Integrated Pest Control-Progress and Perspectives, Oct. 15-17, 1987. Nov. 1988 pp. 447-449.

Arnold, K. A. 1955. Insect repellency in multiwall bags treated with non-toxic pyrenone in surface coating are found completely resistant to insect penetration. Mod. Packag. 28:120-121, 194, 196.

Atkins, W.G. 1953. Storage of flour in jute bags treated with insecticides. J. Sci. Food Agric. 4: 155-160.

Barakat, A. A., P. Khan and A. M. A. Karim. 1987. The persistence and activity of permethrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl sprays on jute and woven polypropylene bags. J. Stored Prod. Res. 23: 85-90.

Bareth, S. S. and H. C. Gupta. 1989. Efficacy of gunny-bag and seed treatment on the natural infestation of Rhizopertha dominica on stored wheat. Seed Research 17: 178-181.

Brook, J. P. and P. H. Lomax. 1959. The treatment of food packaging materials with pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for the protection of packaged products from insect infestation. Pyrethrum Post, London 6(1): 14-22.

Carino, F. O. and Morallo-Rejesus, B. 1976. Control of Sitophilus zeamais and Rhizopertha dominica by pre-harvest sprays and sack treatment with three insecticides in three sorghum varieties. Philippine Agriculturist 60: 81-95.

Chakraverti, I.B. 1955 Insect-proofing of jute bags for storage of food grains. Textile Digest. 16(2): 81-85.

Chander, H., Nagender, A., Ahuja, D.K. and Berry, S.K. 1999. Laboratory evaluation of plant extracts as repellents to the rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), on jute fabric. International Pest Control 41(1): 18-20

Cotton, R. T., H. J. Balzer and H. D. Young. 1944. Possible utility of DDT for insect-proofing paper bags. J. Econ. Entomol. 37: 140.

Cotton, R. T., J. C. Frankenfeld, and W. B. Strickland. 1949. Insect-repellent cotton bags: treatment of cloth with new non-toxic insecticides shows great promise. Mod. Packaging 23(3): 126-127.

Cutler, J. R. et al. 1964. Sealing paper sacks with treated tape promises effective mite control. Food Manufacture 39(9): 90-109.

Dennis, P. O. 1962. Insect infestation. the protection of foodstuffs by synergized pybuthrin. Food Processing and Packaging 31(267): 131-133.

Fletcher, L. W., D. P. Childs and L. C. Garrett. 1981. Resistance of polyethylene film impregnated with synergized pyrethrins to penetration by the cigarette beetle. Tobacco Science 25: 94-96.

Gray, H. E. 1952. Packaging of cereals, and some chemical treatments, to increase resistance to penetration by insects. Transactions of the American Association of Cereal Chemists 10: 50-59.

Highland, Henry A. 1967. Resistance to insect penetration of carbaryl-coated kraft bags. Journal of Economic Entomology 60(2): 451-452.

Highland, H. A. 1977. Protection for processed cereals: insect resistant shipping bags. Mod. Packag. 50: 2-3.

Highland, H. A. 1977. Insect resistant shipping bags; protection for processed cereals. Mod. Packag. 50: 37-38.

Highland, H. A., L. D. Cline and R. A. Simonaitis. 1977. Insect-resistant food pouches made from laminates treated with synergized pyrethrins. J. Econ. Entomol. 70: 483-485.

Highland, Henry A., A. H. Kamel, M. M. El Sayed, E. Z. Fam, Richard Simonaitis and L. D. Cline. 1984. Evaluation of permethrin as an insect-resistant treatment on paper bags and of tricalcium phosphate as a suppressant of stored-product insects.  Journal of economic entomology 77(1): 240-246.

Highland, Henry A. and L. D. Cline. 1986. Resistance to insect penetration of food pouches made of untreated polyester or permethrin-treated polypropylene film. Journal of economic entomology 79(2): 527-529.

Highland, Henry A., R. A. Simonaitis and R. Boatright. 1984. Insecticide-treated film wrap to protect small packages from infestation. Journal of economic entomology 77(5): 1269-1274.

Incho, Harry H., Eileen J. Incho, and Norris W. Matthews. 1953. Insect-Proofing Paper, Laboratory Evaluation of Pyrethrins-Piperonyl Butoxide Formulations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1(20): 1200-1203.

Ismail, I. A., R. S. Abdel-Rahman, and N. A. Farag. Evaluation of Certain Rosaceae Plant Extracts as Gunny Sacks Protectants against Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Carpophilus hemipterus Infesting Dates. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 24(2): 415-420.

Jewett, H. H., and W. A. Price. 1951. Protecting stored corn from grain insects by bags impregnated with DDT. Ky. Ag. Exp. Bul. KAES–UK-571.

Joshi, H.C. and Kaul, C.L. 1965. Studies on the protectivity of jute bags impregnated with organic insecticides against red flour beetles and cigarette beetle. Indian J. Entomol. 27(4): 491-493.

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G., Christos G. Athanassiou and Frank H. Arthur. 2017. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res. 70: 18-24.

Khalsa, H. G. 1964. Insect-proof bags for foodstuffs. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology 2(1): 1-3.

Kuppuswamy, S. and Subramaniam, T.R. 1976. Studies on the impregnation of gunny bags with certain organophosphorous insecticides. Bulletin of Grain Technology 14: 45-50.

Lal, R., P. D. Srivastava and P. Dhar. 1960. Efficacy of insecticide impregnated jute bags against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Indian J. Entomol. 22(3): 204-210.

Langbridge, D. M. 1970. Treatment of paper to protect packaged food from insect attack. Appita 24(1): 45-51.

Laudani, H., Highland, H. A. and Jay, E. G. 1966. Treated bags keep corn meal insect-free during overseas shipment. Am. Miller Processor, 94: 14-19.

Majumder SK and SV Pingale 1955. Impregnation of jute bags with lindane: Some physico-chemical aspects. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 14B(6): 298-301.

Majumder, S. K., J. K. Krishnarao and H. G. Sethumadhavan. 1961. Insect-proofing of gunny bags for grain storage. Research and Industry 6: 391-393.

Majumder, S. K., J. K. Krishnarao, and H. G. Sethumadhaven. 1961. Insect proofing of gunny bags for grain storage. Jute Gunny Rev. 13: 346-347.

Misra, J. N. 1951. Assessment of effectiveness of jute sacking treated with insecticides against insects. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 10B: 67-72.

McFarlane, J. A. 1961. Malathion water-dispersible powder for the protection of bagged foodstuffs from insect infestation. Tropical Science 3 (3): 114-126.

Mohan, S., S. S. Sivakumar, S. R. Venkatesh and G. S. V. Raghavan. 2007. Penetration of Polyethylene Sheets Coated with Protein-Enriched Pea Flour Solution by Two Stored-Product Insects. Journal of Stored Products Research 43(2): 202-204.

Mookherjee, P.B. Y.P. Beri, G.C. Sharma, and S.S. Kumar. 1960. Relative efficacy of different types of jute bags against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. in stored ‘mung’ (Phaseolus aureus). Indian J. Entomol. 22: 237-238.

Morallo-Rejesus, B. and Eroles, D.E. 1976. Direct grain treatment and sack inpregnation with insecticides to control corn storage pests. Philippine Agriculturist, 59: 356-363.

Morallo-Rejesus, B., L. M. Varea, and E. G. Nerova. 1975. Insecticide impregnation of sacks and use of plastic lining for the protection of stored corn against insect damage. Philipp. Agric. 59: 196-204.

Moustafa, El., Ghaly, Z.S., Zeid, M.I., El-Sawaf, S.K. and Mansour, N.A. 1979. Comparative toxicity of four insecticides on two different fabric sacks against Tribolium conJusum (Du V). Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 25(3): 495-500 and 27(3): 681-687.

Muhammad, A.; Muhammad, A.; Mansoor, U. and Anjum, F.M. 2005. Efficacy of Azadirachta indica L. oil on bagging material against some insect pests of wheat stored in warehouses at Faisalabad. Pakistan Entomologist 27(1): 89-94.

Muthu, M. and S. V. Pingale. 1955. Control of insect pests in grains stored in insecticide-impregnated jute bags. J. Sci. Food Agric. 6(10): 637-640.

Naga, R.P.; Bhargava, M.C. and Choudhary, R.K. 2007. Impregnation of cloth bags with botanical weapons as against the incidence of Tribolium castaneum. Indian Journal of Applied Entomology 21: 121-122.

Nigam, B. S.; Perti, S. L.; Agarwal, P. N. 1969. Susceptibility of packaging materials to insects and rodents. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology 7-B: 89-98.

Pali, N.S. 1961. Studies on jute bag impregnation for the control of graminivorous insects. Journal of Entomology 22(3): 211-213.

Parkin, E. A. 1948. D.D.T. impregnation of sacks for the protection of stored cereals against insect infestation. Ann. Appl. Biol. 35(2): 233-242.

Paudyal, Sulochana, George P. Opit, Enoch A. Osekre, Frank H. Arthur, Georgina V. Bingham, Mark E. Payton, James K. Danso, Naomi Manu and Evans P. Nsiah 2017. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin incorporated, (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 70: 44-52.

Pingale, S.V. 1954. Impregnation of jute bag containers with insecticides for protecting stored food stuffs. I. efficacy of piperonyl butoxide pyrethrins. Indian J. Entomol. 15(4): 343-351.

Pingale, S.V. and S. K. Majumder. 1955. Impregnation of jute bags for the insect-free storage of foods–relative efficacy of some insecticides. Bulletin of the Central Food Technological Research Institute. 4: 83-86.

Plank, W. J. e. a. 1961. Development of a heavy-wall polyethylene shipping bag. Packaging Progress 3: 24-27

Rai, R. S., Lal, P. and Srivastava, P.K. 1987. Impregnation of jute bags with insecticide for protecting stored food grains. III. Comparative efficacy of impregnation method vis-à-vis existing method of prophylactic chemical treatment against cross infestation of different stored grain insect pests. Pesticides. 21: 8, 39-42

Rai, R.S. et al. 1985. Impregnation of jute bags with insecticides for protecting stored food grains: II. comparative efficacy of some safe organophosphatic insecticides. Pesticides 19(4): 45-48.

Rai, R.S., P. Lal, and P. K. Srivastava. 1985. Impregnation of jute bag with insecticides for protecting stored food grains: I preliminary studies on the efficacy of some safe organophosphatic insecticides. Pesticides 19(3): 16-18.

Ramakrishnan, C. and P. S. Narayanaswamy. 1964. Studies on storage of cholam in impregnated jute gunnies. Madras Agr. J. 51: 178-180.

Ramamurthy, R. and Venugopal, M.S. 1997. Impregnation of gunny bags with botanical weapons as against the incidence of sorghum storage pest Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture (eds.) G.M. Bharad, R.S. Bonde, S.A. Nimbalkar and S.V. Sarode, pp. 340-342.

Ramzan, M., Chahal, B.S., Judge, B.K. and Narang, D.D. 1987. Field trials on the impregnation of gunny bags with synthetic pyrethroids against storage loss of wheat due to stored grain pests. Bulletin of Grain Technology 25: 160-163.

Ramzan, M.; Judge, B.K. and Chawala, R.P. 1989. Effect of disinfestation of gunny bags by sequential dipping in malathion emulsion on toxicity to Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.). Bulletin of Grain Technology 27: 221-222.

Sarala, M., S. Arivoli and N. Raja. 1998. Effect of insecticide treated gunny bags against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) infestation in stored grains. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 18: 59-63.

Sarkar, D. K., S. K. Handa and S. K. Mukerjee 1984. Residual toxicity and persistence of fenvalerate on jute bags and its persistence on wheat grains. Pesticides (Bombay) 18(5): 30-31.

Scheff, Deanna 2016. Packaging technologies for the control of stored-product insects. PhD diss., Kansas State University. Department: Grain Science and Industry.

Singh, Sukhdev and B. S. Chahal. 1975. Screening of some relatively safe insecticides for impregnation of gunny bags against stored-grain pests. Bulletin of Grain Technology 13: 162-164.

Sivik, F. P., and W. M. Kulash. 1956. Treated cloth bags to control the rice weevil in corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 49: 64-65.

Smit, Bernard 1955. Pyrethrum-treated bags for the protection of grain and meal. African entomology : journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 18: 265-272.

Smith, K. G. 1952. The Spraying of Bags of Cocoa Beans with a Macrodosage of DDT against Ephestia and Tribolium. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43(2): 313-315.

Srinivasan, D. and Nadarajan, L. 2005. Bag Impregnation with Plant extracts to manage Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored paddy. p. 45-49. In S. Ignacimuthu and S Jayaraj eds. Green Pesticides for Insect Pest Management. Alpha Science Int’l Ltd.

Viado, G. G., and R. M. Labadan. 1958. DDT treatment of sack containers for the control of storage insects of corn. Philipp. Agric. 41: 450-459.

Watters, F. L. 1966. Protection of packaged food from insect infestation by use of silica gel. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 146-149.

Webley, D. J. 1981. Surface treatment of bags with organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Presented at Symposium on pest management, Biotrop. Indonesia. December 1981.

Webley, David J. and Kenneth M. Kilminster. 1980. The persistence of insecticide spray deposits on woven polypropylene and jute sacking. Pesticide Science 11(6): 667-673.

Webley, D. J. and K. M. Kilminster. 1981. The persistence and activity of insecticide spray deposits on woven polypropylene fabric. Pestic. Sci. 12: 74-78.

Yadav TD 1997. Evaluation of deltamethrin as fabric treatment in storage of wheat seed at farm level. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(1): 103-109.

Yadav, T.D. and Singh, S. 1994. Persistence toxicity and efficacy of four insecticides as jute fabric treatment to protect cereal and legume seeds. Ind. J. Entomol. 56(2): 146-155.

 

Migration of insecticide residues from bags to commodity (11)

Butterfield, D. E., E. A. Parkin and M. M. Gale. 1949. Transfer of DDT to foodstuffs from impregnated sacking. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 68: 310-313.

Devi, D. A., N. Mohandas, and A. Visalakshy. 1986. Residues of fenthion quinalphos and malathion in paddy grains following surface treatment of gunny bags. Agric. Res. J. Kerala 24: 222-224.

Highland, H. A., E. G. Jay, M. Phillips and D. F. Davis. 1966. Migration of piperonyl butoxide from treated multiwall kraft bags into four commodities. J. Econ. Entomol. 59(3): 543-545.

Highland, H. A., M. Secreast and P. H. Merritt. 1968. Polyvinylidene-coated kraft paper as an insecticide barrier in insect-resistant packages for food. J. Econ. Entomol. 61(5): 1459-1460.

Highland, H. A., R. Van Byrd, and M. Secreast. 1968. Effect of ethylene vinyl acetate on the migration of piperonyl butoxide from coatings of synergized pyrethrins on kraft paper. USDA, ARS 51-28

Highland, H. A., M. Secreast, and R. V. Byrd. 1972. Establishing insecticide barriers: how insect-resistant bags effect the migration of piperonyl butoxide into cereal products. Northwestern Miller 279(5): 8-32.

Highland, H. A. et al. 1973. Barrier coatings enhance insect-resistance of multiwalls. Paper, Film and Foil Converter 47(9): 60-61.

Highland, H. A., and M. Secreast. 1973. Barriers in synergized-pyrethrins-treated paper bags to prevent migration of piperonyl butoxide into cornmeal, flour, and CSM. Agricultural Research Service, US Dept. of Agriculture No. 1475.

Kessler, R. P. 1965. Developments in multiwall sacks–construction, end uses, barrier sheets and adhesives. Paper Trade Journal 149(36): 50-53.

McFarlane, J. A., and L. Donegan. 1962. Contamination of bagged whole ginger after surface treatment with two synthetic contact insecticides. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 13(12): 634-638.

Reddy, D., C. Srivastava, and B. Paul. 2005. Residual toxicity of impregnated insecticides on gunnybags against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 75: 532-534.

 

Overwraps and shipping cases (6)

Highland, H. A., D. L. Cline, and R. A. Simonaitis. 1986. Insect resistance of chlorpyrifos-methyl and permethrin-treated film overwraps on cases of packaged food. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 775-778.

Highland, H. A., and R. H. Guy. 1969. Insect resistance of polypropylene film overwrap on cigarette packages. Tobacco Science 169: 121-122.

Highland, Henry A., R. A. Simonaitis, and R. Boatright. 1984. Insecticide treated film wrap to protect small packages from infestation. J. Econ. Entomol. 77:1269-1274.

Thomson, A. G. 1950. Infestation of packaged products checked by pest proof wrap. (Formed of DDT-impregnated multi-layer wadding, it kills insects before they can penetrate goods.). Food Ind. 22: 91.

Yerington, Albert P. 1979. Methods to increase the insect resistance of food shipping cases. USDA Advances in Agric. Techn., western series AAT-W-7

Yerington, A. P. 1983. Efficiency of various overwraps and seal tightness in excluding insects from dried-fruit cartons. Environ. Entomol. 12:1310-1311.

 

Biological control (4)

Adarkwah, C., Büttner, C., Reichmuth, C., Obeng-Ofori, D., Prozell, S. and Schöller, M. 2010. Ability of the larval ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to locate the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in bagged and bulk stored rice. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117: 67-70.

Adarkwah, C., C. Ulrichs, S. Schaarschmidt, B. K. Badii, I. K. Addai, D. Obeng-Ofori, and M. Schöller. 2014. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags. Bull. Entomol. Res. 104: 534-542.

Cline, L., J. Press and B. Flaherty. 1985. Suppression of the Rice Weevil, Sitophilus-Oryzae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), Inside and Outside of Burlap, Woven Polypropylene, and Cotton Bags by the Parasitic Wasp, Anisopteromalus-Calandrae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 835-838.

Cline, L.D. and  J.W. Press. 1990. Reduction in almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestations using commercial packaging of foods in combination with the parasitic wasp, Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1110-1113.

 

In-bag fumigation or admixture with commodity (11)

Graham, W. M. and S. P. L. Kockum. 1961. Admixture of malathion and lindane with bagged maize. Bull. Entomol. Res. 52: 727-739.

Green, A. A. and Wilkin, D. R. 1969. The control of insects in bagged grain by the injection of dichlorvos. J. stored Prod. Res. 5: 11-19.

Green, AA, and Kane, J. 1959. A comparison of lindane, DDT and malathion for the protection of bagged ground nuts from infestation by T. castaneum (Hbst.).  Tropical Science, 1(4): 290-295.

Knight, K. L. 1940. Fumigation of sacked grain with chloropicrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 33: 536-539.

Mayer, Elmer L. and Howard D. Nelson. 1955. Fumigation of Dry Beans and Cowpeas on the Packing Line. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Marketing Service Report, no. AMS-4, 11 p. January

Morallo-Rejesus, B. and P. A. Javier. 1981. Protection of bagged milled rice from insect infestation with primiphos methyl and malathion. Grains Journal (Philippines) 6(2): 38 (paper liner inside woven polythene sacks)

Peirrot, R., and Ducom, P. 1981. Efficacy of carbon tetrachloride in sealed sacks compared with contact insecticides. In: Proceedings of GASCA Seminar on appropriate use of pesticides for the control of stored product pests in developing countries. Slough, England, Tropical Development and Research Institute, p. 149-152.

Prevett, P.F. 1960. Treatment of rice stored in jute bags against insect pests. Tropical Stored Products Information 1: 4-9.

Rai, B.K. and Croal, K. 1973. Chemical control of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) infesting paddy stored in bags. Indian Journal of Entomology 35(1): 57-62.

Tayior, R.W.D. 1975. Fumigation of individual sacks of grain using methallyl chloride for control of maize weevil. International Pest Control 17(1): 4-8.

Webley, DJ. and Hams, A.H. 1977. A comparison of fumigants for in-bag fumigation. Tropical Stored Products Information 33: 9-17.

 

Fumigation of bag stacks (46)

Ahmad, Akhlaq; Ahmed, Mubarik; Rizvi, Syed Anser; Zafar, Syed Muhammed Naushad 2012. Development of pest management protocols for storage of wheat in leaky house type godowns. The Entomological Society of Karachi, Pakistan 27(1): 49-54.

Ahmad, Akhlaq, M. Anwar Arain, Rahila Nazli, Syed Anser Rizvi, Mubarik Ahmed and Farzana Ibrahim. 2012. Cost effectiveness of under-sheet and whole godown fumigation of bagged wheat. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 25(1): 12-20.

Ahmad, M. S., T. Mahmood, and H. Ahmad. 1994. Development of phosphine fumigation technique for bag cum bulk wheat stored in house type godowns. Pak. J. Agri. Sci 31(4): 371-376.

Annis, P. C. 1990. Sealed storage of bag stacks: status of the technology. p. 203-210. In Champ, B. R., Highley, E., and Banks, H. J. eds. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain. Singapore, 14-18 February 1989. Proc. series No. 25. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR, Canberra.

Anonymous 1955. Rice fumigation: polyethylene sheeting brings fumigation to the product at more economical costs. Rice Journal 58: 30-32.

Anonymous 1957. Studies of the fumigation of sacked rice under gas-tight tarpaulins. Rice J. 60: 14-16, 37.

Ashman, J.A. 1964. Insect reinfestation problems in fumigated maize on the Kenya coast. Bull Entomol Res. 55(1): 139-146.

Boon, K. S. and S. H. Ho. 1988. Factors influencing the post-fumigation reinfestation of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in a rice warehouse. J. Stored Prod. Res. 24: 87-90.

Brown, W. B. 1954. Fumigation with methyl bromide under gas-proof sheets. Bulletin of the pest infestation board No. 1., HMSO, London.

Cogburn, R. R. 1974. Detia EX-B for phosphine fumigation in sacked milled rice. J. Econ. Entomol. 67:436-438.

Cogburn, R. R. and W. Tilton. 1963. Studies of phosphine as a fumigant for rice stacked under gastight tarpaulins. J. Econ. Entomol. 56: 706-708.

Graham, W.M. 1970. Warehouse ecology studies of bagged maize in Kenya. IV. Reinfestation following fumigation with methyl bromide gas. J Stored Prod Res. 6(2): 177-180.

Halliday, D. and P. F. Prevett. 1963. Fumigation of Pyramidal Stacks of Bagged Decorticated Groundnuts with Methyl Bromide. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 14 (8): 586-592.

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Liu, Zhengyong; Fan, Lei; Zhou, Xiaojun; Shen, Lirong; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dianxuan 1999. Effect of fumigant concentration and gastightness on the efficacy of insect mortality in corn stacks. p. 513-515. In  Jin, Z.; Liang, Q.; Liang, Y.; Tan, X.; Guan, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China

Nataredja, Yun C. and R. J. Hodges. 1990. Commercial experiences of sealed storage of bag stacks in Indonesia. p. 197-202. In Champ, B. R., Highley, E., and Banks, H. J. eds. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain. Singapore, 14-18 February 1989. Proc. series No. 25. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR, Canberra.

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Rahim, M., and G. Daglish. 1991. Residual application of insecticides for protection of milled rice against insect reinfestations under tropical warehouse conditions, pp. 599-608. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc

Rajendran, S. 2000. Sheeted Bag-Stack Fumigaiton with Phosphine. Pesticide Outlook 11: 92-93.

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Rajendran, S., N. Gunasekaran and N. Muralidharan. 2001. Studies on Phosphine Fumigation of Wheat Bag-Stacks Under Different Storage Conditions for Controlling Phosphine-Resistant Insects. Pesticide Research Journal 13: 42-47.

Rajendran, S., V. Lalith Kumar and V. Sriranjini. 2008. Fumigation of Grain Stacks with Sulfuryl Fluoride. International Pest Control 50 (4): 192-195.

Rawnsley, J. 1960. Advancements in the Progress of Short-Period Fumigation of Cocoa Stacks Inside Sheds. Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board.

Riley, J. 1969. Fumigation of Large Cocoa Stacks in a Specially Designed Cocoa Warehouse using Phosphine Part 2. Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute.Technical Reports (1): 1-6.

Riley, J. 1973. The Fumigation of Large Cocoa Stacks in a Specially Designed Cocoa Warehouse using Phosphine; Part 3. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, 3.

Riley, J. and E. A. Simmons. 1968. The Fumigation of Large Cocoa Stacks at the Ikeja Cocoa Stores using Methyl Bromide in the 1966-67 Cocoa Season. Rep.Niger.Stored Prod.Res.Inst.1967: 29-38.

Riley, J. and E. A. Simmons. 1968. The Fumigation of Large Cocoa Stacks in a Specially Designed Cocoa Warehouse using Phosphine. Rep.Niger, Stored Prod.Res Inst. p. 17-27.

Sabio, G. C., Caliboso, F.M.,Tiongson, R.L. and Benigno, E.A. 1984. Establishment of economic threshold levels in stored grains, and preliminary trial of methacrifos as a stack spray. p. 65-93. In R. L. Semple and A. S. Frio (eds.) Health and Ecology in Grains Post Harvest Technology. Proceedings of the 7th ASEAN Technical Seminar on Grain Post-Harvest Technology, 21-24 August 1984, Kuala Lumpur.

Sabio, G. C., D. Alvindia, D. D. Julian, R. Murillo Jr. and M. S. Sambrano. 1990. p. 180-187. In Champ, B. R., Highley, E., and Banks, H. J. eds. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain. Singapore, 14-18 February 1989. Proc. series No. 25. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR, Canberra.

Sonelal, J., K. K. Arora, K. K. Shivshankar and V. Kumar. 1993. Development of suitable sealing mechanism for fumigation covers in commercial godown in India. Bulletin of Grain Technology 31: 3-5.

Sukprakarn, C., K. Attaviriyasook, L. Kowchaimaha, K. Bhudhasamai and B. Promsatit. 1990. Carbon dioxide treatment for sealed storage of bag stacks of rice in Thailand. p. 188-196. In Champ, B. R., Highley, E., and Banks, H. J. eds. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain. Singapore, 14-18 February 1989. Proc. series No. 25. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR, Canberra.

Taylor, R.W.D. and Harris, A.H. 1994. The fumigation of bag- stacks with phosphine under gas-proof sheets using techniques to avoid development of insect resistance. p. 210-214. In: Highley E., Wright E.J., Banks H.J. and Champ B.R. eds. Proceeding of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored- Product Protection, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Thiem, H., D. Bogs, and J. Bischoff 1974. The control of stored-product pests with phosphine in grain stacks under polyethylene covers. Nachrichtenblatt fur den pflanzenschutz in der DDR 28(11): 217‒220.

Tilton, E. W. 1961. Fumigation of sacked rice under plastic film with hydrogen cyanide for long-term protection. Rice J. 64: 4-5.

Wainman, H. E., B. Chakrabarti, E. N. W. Allan, and K. A. Mills. 1975. Fumigation with Phosphine of Stacked Flour in Polythene-Clad Sacks. International Pest Control 17(5): 4-8.

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Wang, Xianggang, Zhijun Huang, Deqi He, Zhongwen Luo, Yuanfang Tian and Yilin Leng. 2006. Application of Second – Class Slow – Releasing Fumigation in Six – Sides Airtight Stacks of Bagged Wheat. Grain Storage 35(2): 17-19.

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Winterbottom, D. C. 1922. Weevil in wheat and storage of grain in bags: a record of Australian experience during the war period (1915-1919). Government Printer, Adelaide.

 

Fumigation of empty bags (2)

Brown, W. B. and S. E. Lewis. 1946. A comparison of methyl bromide and hydrogen cyanide for the fumigation of empty bags in barges. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.(Great Britain) 65: 241-245.

Hill, Edward G. 1963. Treatment for insects and mites in sacks. Milling, Liverpool 141(24): 657-658.

 

Hermetic sealing of bags (29)

Adegbola, A. J., F. E. Awagu, S. I. Onimajesin, E. O. Ojuekaiye and O. S. Kamaldeen. 2013. Salient factors in the low utilization of PICS bags (triple-bagging) in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state, Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 2: 135-139.

Anankware, J. P., A. O. Fatunbi, K. Afreh-Nuamah, D. Obeng-Ofori and F. A. Ansah. 2012. Efficacy of the multiple-layer hermetic storage bag for biorational management of primary beetle pests of stored maize. Acad. J. Entomol. 5: 47-53.

Anankware, P. J., A. F. Ansah, A. O. Fatunbi, K. Afreh–Nuamah and D. Obeng-Ofori. 2013. Use of the Triple-Layer Hermetic Bag against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in three varieties of maize. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 3: 67-73.

Baoua, I. B., L. Amadou, and L. L. Murdock. 2013. Triple bagging for cowpea storage in rural Niger: Questions farmers ask. J. Stored Prod. Res. 52:86-92.

Baoua, I. B., L. Amadou, B. Ousmane, D. Baributsa, and L. L. Murdock. 2014. PICS bags for post-harvest storage of maize grain in West Africa. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 20-28.

Baoua, I. B., L. Amadou, D. Baributsa and L. L. Murdock. 2014. Triple bag hermetic technology for post-harvest preservation of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.). J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 48-52.

Baoua, I. B., L. Amadou, J. D. Lowenberg-DeBoer and L. L. Murdock. 2013. Side by side comparison of GrainPro and PICS bags for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain in Niger. J. Stored Prod. Res. 54: 13-16.

Baoua, I. B., V. Margam, L. Amadou and L. L. Murdock. 2012. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger. J. Stored Prod. Res. 51: 81-85.

Baributsa, D., K. Djibo, J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, B. Moussa and I. Baoua. 2014. The fate of triple-layer plastic bags used for cowpea storage. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 97-102.

Cline, L., and H. Highland. 1978. Survival of 4 species of stored-product insects in airtight laminated food pouches. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 66-68.

García-Lara, S., S. Ortíz-Islas and P. Villers. 2013. Portable hermetic storage bag resistant to Prostephanus truncatus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Callosobruchus maculatus. J. Stored Prod. Res. 54: 23-25.

Guenha, R., B. d. V. Salvador, J. Rickman, L. F. Goulao, I. M. Muocha, and M. O. Carvalho. 2014. Hermetic storage with plastic sealing to reduce insect infestation and secure paddy seed quality: A powerful strategy for rice farmers in Mozambique. Stored Prod. Res. 59: 275-281.

Hell, K., K. E. Ognakossan and Y. Lamboni. 2014. PICS hermetic storage bags ineffective in controlling infestations of Prostephanus truncatus and Dinoderus spp. in traditional cassava chips. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 53-58.

Ibro, G., M. C. Sorgho, A. A. Idris, B. Moussa, D. Baributsa and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. 2014. Adoption of cowpea hermetic storage by women in Nigeria, Niger and Burkina Faso. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 87-96.

Martin, D.T., D. Baributsa, J.E. Huesing, S.B. Williams and L.L. Murdock. 2015. PICS bags protect wheat grain, Triticum aestivum (L.), against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) J. Stored Product Res. 63: 22-30.

Martin, D.T., S.B. Williams, D. Baributsa and L.L. Murdock 2015. The effect of small leaks, grain bulk, and the patching of leaks on the performance of hermetic storage. Journal of Stored Product Research 62: 40-45.

Moussa, B., T. Abdoulaye, O. Coulibaly, D. Baributsa and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. 2014. Adoption of on-farm hermetic storage for cowpea in West and Central Africa in 2012. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 77-86.

Murdock, L. L., D. Baributsa and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. 2014. Special Issue on hermetic storage. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 1-2.

Murdock, L.L. and I.B. Baoua. 2014. On Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) technology: Background, mode of action, future prospects J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 3-11

Mutungi, C. M., H. Affognon, A. W. Njoroge, D. Baributsa and L. L. Murdock. 2014. Storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) and pigeonpea grains (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp) in hermetic triple-layer bags stops losses caused by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 39-47.

Mutungi, C., H. D. Affognon, A. W. Njoroge, J. Manono, D. Baributsa and L. L. Murdock. 2015. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage. J. Econ. Entomol. 108:  2479-2488.

Njoroge, A.W., H.D. Affognon, C.M. Mutungi, J. Manono, P.O. Lamuka, L.L. Murdock 2014 Triple bag hermetic storage delivers a lethal punch to Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored maize J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 12-19

Prasantha, B. D. R., R. F. Hafeel, K. M. S. Wimalasiri, and U. P. D. Pathirana. 2014. End-use quality characteristics of hermetically stored paddy. J. Stored Prod. Res. 59:158-166.

Ribeiro, F. C., F. M. Borem, G. S. Giomo, R. R. De Lima, M. R. Malta, and L. P. Figueiredo. 2011. Storage of green coffee in hermetic packaging injected with CO2. J. Stored Prod. Res. 47:341-348.

Sanon, A., L. C. Dabire-Binso, and N. M. Ba. 2011. Triple-bagging of cowpeas within high density polyethylene bags to control the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 47:210-215.

Santos, S. B., M. A. Martins, L. R. D’Antonino Faroni, V. Rodrigues Junior, and O. D. Dhingra. 2010. Quality of maize grains treated with allyl isothiocyanate stored in hermetic bags. J. Stored Prod. Res. 46: 111-117.

Sudini, H., G.V. Ranga Rao, C.L.L. Gowda, R. Chandrika, V. Margam, A. Rathore, L.L. Murdock 2015. Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for safe storage of groundnuts J. Stored Prod. Res. 64: 133-138.

Vales, M. I., G. V. R. Rao, H. Sudini, S. B. Patil, and L. L. Murdock. 2014. Effective and economic storage of pigeonpea seed in triple layer plastic bags. J. Stored Prod. Res. 58: 29-38.

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Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) of consumer packages (7)

De Carli, M., B. Bresolin, C. P. Zapata Norena, I. Lorini and A. Brandelli. 2010. Efficacy of Modified Atmosphere Packaging to Control Sitophilus spp. in Organic Maize Grain. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 53: 1469-1476.

Labuza, T.P. and Breene, W.M. 1989. Applications of“active packaging”for improvement of shelf-life and nutritional quality of fresh and extended foods. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 13: 1–69.

Locatelli DP and Daolio E. 1993. Effectiveness of carbon dioxide under reduced pressure against some insects infesting packaged rice. Journal of Stored Products Research  29: 81–89.

Navarro, S. 2006. Modified atmospheres for the control of stored-product insects and mites. In: Insect management for food storage and processing, 2nd edition. Heaps JW (editor). St Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists  pp. 101–141.

New, J.H. and Rees, D.P. 1988. Laboratory studies on vacuum and inert gas packing for the control of stored-product insects in foodstuffs. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 43: 235–244.

Riudavets, J., Castañé, C., Alomar, O., Pons, M.J. and Gabarra, R. 2009. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) as an alternative measure for controlling ten pests that attack processed food products. Journal of Stored Products Research 45: 91–96.

Riudavets J, Castañé C, Alomar O, Pons MJ and Gabarra R. 2010. The use of carbon dioxide at high pressure to control nine stored-product pests. Journal of Stored Products Research 46: 228–233.

 

Insect penetration of insect-resistant packaging (35)

Allahvaisi, S., A.A. Pourmirza and M.H. Safaralizade 2010. The study on polymers permeability for foodstuffs packaging by some serious species of stored pest insects and phosphine gas. J. Agric. Tech. 6: 747-759.

Batth, S. S. 1970. Insect Penetration of Aluminum-Foil Packaging. Journal of Economic Entomology 63 (2): 653-655.

Bowditch, TG. 1997. Penetration of Polyvinyl Chloride and Polypropylene Packaging Films by Ephestia Cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae, and Tribolium Confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Adults. Journal of Economic Entomology 90 (4): 1028-1031.

Brannen, J. P., A. L. Gennaro, and C. D. Woolfolk. 1977. Tests for the Resistance of Packaging and Insulating Materials to Penetration by Anthrenus Flavipes Leconte (Dermestidae: Coleoptera). Studies in Natural Sciences 2 (8): 1-4.

Chung, S. K., J. Y. Seo, J. H. Lim, H. H. Park, Y. T. Kim, K. H. Song, S. J. Park, S. S. Han, Y. S. Park and H. J. Park. 2011. Barrier Property and Penetration Traces in Packaging Films Against Plodia Interpunctella (Hubner) Larvae and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Adults. Journal of Stored Products Research 47 (2): 101-105.

Cline, L. Daniel and Henry A. Highland 1977. Penetration by adult lesser grain borers through multiwall kraft bags. Journal of Economic Entomology 70(2): 156-158.

Cline, LD. 1978. Penetration of 7 common flexible packaging materials by larvae and adults of 11 species of stored-product insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 71 (5): 726-729.

Dal Monte, G. 1967(1968). Protection Contre Les Insectes Des Produits Stockés Et Plus Particulièrement Des Pâtes Alimentaires Par Les Emballages En Plastique. (Resistance to Insect Penetration of Plastic Film Wrapping Dry Stored Products, especially Food Pastes). Lisbon-Oeiras, EPPO (Eur. Mediterr. Plant Prot. Org.).

Dal Monte, G. 1969. Prove sulla resistenza di alcune pellicole plastiche da imballo all’attacco di insetti granivori (Tests on the resistance of some plastic packing films to attacks of granivorous insects). Ministero Dell’Agricoltura e delle Foreste, 50 p.

Despaul, J. E. 1957. Penetration of protective coverings by insects. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 20: 100-104.

El-Kady, E. A. and A. M. Hekal. 1986. Penetration of various Packaging Polymer Films by Certain Stored Grain Insects. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent 51(3B): 1261-1266.

Essig, E. O., W. M. Hoskins, E. G. Linsley, A. E. Micrelbacher, and R. F. Smith. 1944. Penetration of Packaging Materials by Insects. Mod.Packaging 17(11): 109-113.

Essig, E. O., W. M. Hoskins, E. G. Linsley, A. E. Micrelbacher, and R. F. Smith. 1943. A Report on the Penetration of Packaging Materials by Insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 36(6): 822-829.

Gerhardt, P. D. and D. L. Lindgren. 1954. Penetration of Packaging Films. California Agriculture 8: 3-4.

Gerhardt, P. D. and D. L. Lindgren. 1955. Insect Penetration of Films. Modern Packaging 28 (8): 216-219.

Gerhardt, P.D. and D.L. Lindgren. 1954. Penetration of various Packaging Films by Common Stored-Product Insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 47(2): 282-287.

Gerhardt, P.D. and D.L. Lindgren. 1955. Penetration of Additional Packaging Films by Common Stored-Product Insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 48 (1): 108-109.

Gray, H. E. 1955. Premix Food Packages and some Chemical Treatments to Reduce Penetration by Insects. Tappi Journal (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry) 38(6): 329-333.

Hassan, M. W., M. U. Qasim, J. Iqbal, and M. Jamil. 2014. Study of penetration ability by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) through different loose plastic packaging. J. Pure App. Sci. 24-33: 17–20.

Hassan, Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Umar Qasim, Javaid Iqbal, and Moazzam Jamil. 2014. Study of penetration ability by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) through different loose plastic packaging. Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 24-33(1-2): 17-20.

Highland, H. A. 1986. Penetration of Packaging Films by the Cowpea Weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Entomological Science 21 (1): 33-37.

Highland, H. A.  1988. Vacuumized and Unvacuumized Polyethylene of Polyester Film Bags: Insect Survival and Resistance to Insect Penetration. Journal of Economic Entomology 81(3): 955-958.

Highland, H. A. and R. Wilson. 1981. Resistance of Polymer Films to Penetration by Lesser Grain Borer and Description of a Device for Measuring Resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology 74 (1): 67-70.

Hou, XW, P. Fields, and W. Taylor. 2004. The Effect of Repellents on Penetration into Packaging by Stored-Product Insects. Journal of Stored Products Research 40(1): 47-54.

Iyengar, N. V. R., M. V. Sharangapani, and S. V. Pingale. 1958. Packaging wheat flour in laminated jute bags. Food Science 7 (12): 357-360.

Khare, B.P. and R.P. Shukla. 1979. Penetration of Different Packing Materials by some Stored-Product Insects. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49(2): 116-117.

Kunike, G. 1942. Der Schutz Von Verpackungsmaterial Gegen Das Eindringen Von Vorratsschadlingen. (the Protection of Packaging Material Against the Penetration of Storage Pests). Forschungsdienst 13: 179-181.

Kunike, G. 1941. Untersuchungen Uber Den Schutz Von Verpackungsmaterial Gegen Das Eindringen Von Vorratsschadlingen. (Studies on the Protection of Packaging Material Against the Penetration of Storage Pests). Mitt.Biol.Reichsanst.Land-Forstwirtsch.Berl.–Dahlem 65: 42-44.

Li, S. H., S. J. Kwon, S. E. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. S. Lee, J. H. Na and J. Han. 2014. Effect of type and thickness of flexible packaging films on perforation by Plodia interpunctella. Korean. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 739–42.

Licciardello, F., G. Muratore, P. Suma, A. Russo, and C. Ner_ın. 2013. Effectiveness of a novel insect-repellent food packaging incorporating essential oils against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 19: 173–80.

Mohan, S., S. S. Sivakumar, S. R. Venkatesh, and G. S. V. Raghavan. 2007. Penetration of Polyethylene Sheets Coated with Protein-Enriched Pea Flour Solution by Two Stored-Product Insects. Journal of Stored Products Research 43 (2): 202-204.

Riudavets, J., M. J. Pons and I. Salas. 2007. Evaluation and Characterization of Damage Produced in Packaging Films by Insect Pests. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 30 (2): 127-132.

Riudavets, J., I. Salas, and M. J. Pons. 2007. Damage Characteristics Produced by Insect Pests in Packaging Film. Journal of Stored Products Research 43: 564-570.

Riudavets, Jordi, Cristina Castane, Oscar Alomar, Maria Jose Pons, and Rosa Gabarra. 2009. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) as an Alternative Measure for Controlling Ten Pests that Attack Processed Food Products. Journal of Stored Products Research 45 (2): 91-96.

Shinoda, K., S. Tanaka, T. Yoshida and F. Nakasuji. 1990. Penetration of Polyethylene Film for Packaging by Larvae of Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) and their Dispersal. Jpn. J. Environ. Entomol. 2 (3): 128-132.

Shukla, R. M., G. Chand, M. Chandra and M. L. Saini. 1993. Comparative resistance of different packaging materials to stored grain insects. Plant Prot. Bull. (Faridabad) 45: 21–23.