Molecular species identification

Molecular species identification has been demonstrated for 108 stored product insect or mite species and one pseudoscorpion species as published in the following 59 papers between 1996 and 2021, majority (43) since 2011. The most studied species is the khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium. Studies have included both pests (94) and natural enemies (15) (Table Molecular species identification) and as many as 7, 10, 23 or 43 species per study. The objective of these studies was to replace the traditional dichotomous key with rapid molecular diagnosis for regulatory agencies and research programs. Molecular identification can be particularly important when adult or immature stages of species are difficult to identify morphologically.

Arif, M., F. M. Ochoa-Corona, G. P. Opit, Z. Li, Z. Kucerova, V. Stejskal and Q. Yang. 2012. PCR and isothermal-based molecular identification of the stored-product psocid pest Lepinotus reticulatus (Psocoptera: Trogiidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 49: 184-188

Aslam, Abu Faiz Md, Sharmin Sultana, Sumita Rani Das, and Abdul Jabber Howlader 2019. DNA barcoding to resolve the confusion in identifying Tribolium confusum and Tribolium castaneum. Bangladesh J. Zool 47(2): 333-342.

Aslam, Abu Faiz Md, Sharmin Sultana, Faria Farhana Rain, Sumita Rani Das, Ayesha Siddika, and Abdul Jabber Howlader 2019. Molecular characterization and identification of three stored grain pests based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 47(1): 1-11. Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis, Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Atikah, AR Nor, M. Halim, SA Syarifah Zulaikha, and S. Yaakop. 2019. Molecular identification and first documentation of seven species of Carpophilus Stephens (Nitidulidae: Carpophilinae) in oil palm ecosystem, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 22(2): 619-624. Carpophilus hemipterus, Carpophilus maculatus, Carpophilus mutilatus, Carpophilus marginellus, Carpophilus nepos, Carpophilus obsoletus

Bai, Chunqi, Yang Cao, Yuxiang Zhou and Yi Wu 2017. Molecular diagnosis Carpophilus dimidiatu (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) based on species-specific PCR J. Stored Prod. Res. 74: 87-90.

Belshaw, Robert, Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde, Naci Degerli, and Donald LJ Quicke. 2001. Paraphyletic taxa and taxonomic chaining: evaluating the classification of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using 28S D2-3 rDNA sequences and morphological characters. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73(4): 411-424. Habrobracon hebetor

Carr, Martin, Peter Mayhew, and J. Peter Young. 2010. Phylogeny of bethylid wasps (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) inferred from 28S and 16S rRNA genes. Insect Systematics & Evolution 41(1): 55-73. Holepyris sp.

Carvalho, M. M., da Silva, N. M., Matioli, A. L., Oliveira, E. E., Ferreira, C. L., & Lindner, J. D. D. 2018. Morphological and molecular characteristics of stored-product mites found on Brazilian ripened cheeses. Journal of Stored Products Research 79, 79-82. Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Sancassania aff. Feytaudi, Tyrophagus putrescentiae

Castalanelli, Mark A. 2011. Biology and Systematics of Trogoderma Species with Special Reference to Morphological and Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Identification of Trogoderma Pest Species. PhD diss., Curtin University of Technology, School of Biomedical Science.Trogoderma granarium, Trogoderma variable

Chen, Dongxu, Tao Zhang, Radek Aulicky, Vaclav Stejskal, Yonglin Ren, Yang Cao, David Hawthorne and Zhihong Li 2020. Real-time PCR for identification of five species of Cryptolestes based on COI barcode region. J. Stored Prod. Res. 87, 101623. Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusillus, Cryptolestes turcicus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes capensis

Chen, Yan, Shuifang Zhu, and Chen Ke. 2010. A Molecular Identification of Trogoderma granarium Based on Partial COI Gene. Plant Quarantine 1: 22–23.

Cui, Jixiang, Yun Su, Shiqian Feng, Peng Wei, Xingyue Liu and Zhihong Li 2020. Morphological and molecular identification of Liposcelis corrodens (Heymons, 1909) (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) as the first record from China. J. Stored Prod. Res. 87, 101588

Devi, Salam Rita, Asha Thomas, K.B. Rebijith and V.V. Ramamurthy. 2017. Biology, morphology and molecular characterization of Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 73: 135-141.

Dowton, M., A. D. Austin, and M. F. Antolin. 1998. Evolutionary relationships among the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) inferred from partial 16S rDNA gene sequences. Insect Molecular Biology 7(2): 129-150 Habrobracon hebetor

Emam, A. K., H. E. Hanafy, S. I. Salama, and I. M. Badoor. 2013. “Survey and Molecular Identification of Insect Pests Infesting Stored Leguminous Seeds and Their Associated Parasitoids.” Journal of Applied Sciences Research 9 (1): 928–936. Callosobruchus maculatus, Callosobruchus chinensis, Bruchidius incarnatus, Acanthoscelides obtectus, Eupelmus vuilleti, Dinarmus basalis, Uscana lariophaga

Furui, Satoshi, Akihiro Miyanoshita, Taro Imamura, and Yukio Magariyama. 2020. Novel molecular identification methods for the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 55(1): 175-180.

Furui, S., A. Miyanoshita, T. Imamura, Y. Minegishi, and R. Kokutani. 2019. Qualitative Real-Time PCR Identification of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Appl Entomol Zool 54: 101–107.

Hidayat, P., TW Phillips, and RH FfrenchConstant. 1996. Molecular and Morphological Characters Discriminate Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Confirm Reproductive Isolation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89(5): 645–52.

Hong, K. J., M. Kim, and D. S. Park. 2014. Molecular Identification of Reesa vespulae (Milliron) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), a Newly Recorded Species from Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 7(3): 305–307.

Ide, Tatsuya, Natsumi Kanzaki, Wakako Ohmura, and Kimiko Okabe. 2016. Molecular Identification of an Invasive Wood-Boring Insect Lyctus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae: Lyctinae) Using Frass by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Nested PCR Assays. Journal of Economic Entomology 109(3): 1410–1414.

Khaing, T.M., Shim, J.K. and Lee, K.Y. 2014. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of economically important acaroid mites (Acari: Astigmata: Acaroidea) in Korea. Entomol. Res. 44, 331-337. Rhizoglyphus robini, Rhizoglyphus echinopus, Sancassania sp. Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Tyrophagus similis

Khidr, Sahand K., Waran Nooraldeen, A. Agha, and Adil H. Amin. 2017. Molecular Identification of Three Stored Product Insect Species on Dried Fruits and Their Control with the Use of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts. Science Journal of University of Zakho 5 (2): 178–186. Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium

Li, Z., Z. Kucerova, S. Zhao, V. Stejskal, G. Opit, and M. Qin. 2011. Morphological and molecular identification of three geographical populations of the storage pest Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera). J. Stored Prod. Res. 47:168-172.

Lin, G. W., S. L. Lu, T. Y. Huang, C. L. Shih, W. J. Wu, and C. C. Chang. 2008. Molecular Identification of Weevils Significant for Customs Inspection and Quarantine Importance  (in Chinese). Formosan Entomol. 28: 43–55. Cylas formicarius

Liu, Cong, Jiang, Xiang, Fan, Wu-jiang, Wang Xin-guo, Lu, Ying-zi, Lin, Hui-jiao, Liu, Er-long, LIU, Lai-qun XIA, and Li-ping BAN 2012. Rapid molecular identification of Trogoderma glabrum and Trogoderma variabile (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J Beijing University of Agriculture 27:27–30 

Liu, L.J., A.H. Pang, S.Q. Feng, B.Y. Cui, Z.H. Zhao, Z. Kucerova, V. Stejskal, et al. 2017. Molecular Identification of Ten Species of Stored-Product Psocids through Microarray Method Based on ITS2 RDNA. Sci. Rep. 7, 16694 Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis entomophila, Liposcelis decolor, Liposcelis paeta, Liposcelis brunnea, Liposcelis corrodens, Liposcelis mendax, Liposcelis rufa, Liposcelis pearmani, Liposcelis tricolor

Lu, Yujie, Yaru Zhao, Zhengyan Wang, Shiyuan Miao, Fengjie Liu and Robert N. Emery. 2018. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR for the identification of three stored-product pest species of genus Palorus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 78: 32-38. Palorus subdepressus, Palorus ratzeburgi, Palorus cerylonoides

Ma, Jun, Xuenan Hu, Fan Liang, Xinguo Wang, and Jupeng Zhao. 2009. Molecular Identification for Trogoderma granarium Everts and Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst). Zhiwu Jianyi /Plant Quarantine 23(4): 27–28.

Ma, Jun, Hu Xuenan, Liang Fan, Wang Xinguo, and Zhao Jupeng. 2009. Molecular identification for Trogoderma granarium Everts and Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst). Plant Quarantine

Ming, Qinglei, Amin Wang, and Chao Cheng. 2015. Molecular Identification of Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Using PCR-RFLP Analysis. Journal of Genetics 94(1): 17–21.

Nasir, Muhammad Farooq, Gregor Hagedorn, Carmen Büttner, Christoph Reichmuth, and Matthias Schöller 2013. Molecular identification of Trichogramma species from Pakistan, using ITS-2 region of rDNA. BioControl 58(4): 483-491. Trichogramma evanescens

Olson, R.L., Farris, R.E., Barr, N.B. and Cognato, A.I. 2014. Molecular identification of Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) using the 16s gene. Journal of Pest Science 87(4): 701-710.

Peng, W., H. Lin, C. Chen, and C. Wang. 2002. DNA identification of two laboratory colonies of the weevils, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and S. zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) in Taiwan. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39:225-235.

Qin, M., Li, Z. H., Kucerova, Z., Cao, Y. and Stejskal, V. 2008. Rapid discrimination of the common species of the stored product pest Liposcelis (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) from China and the Czech Republic, based on PCR-RFLP analysis. Eur. J. Entomol.105:713–717.  Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis entomophila, Liposcelis decolor, Liposcelis paeta

Rako, Lea, Arati Agarwal, Linda Semeraro, Adam Broadley, Brendan C. Rodoni, and Mark J. Blacket. 2021. A LAMP (loop‐mediated isothermal amplification) test for rapid identification of Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium). Pest Management Science 77(12): 5509-5521.

Reales, Natalia, Nicolás Rocamundi, Adriana E. Marvaldi, María del Carmen Fernández-Górgolas and Teodoro Stadler 2018. Morphological and molecular identification of Carpophilus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) associated with stored walnut in Northwestern Argentina. J. Stored Prod. Res. 76: 37-42.

Sasakawa, Koji, Masumi Sato, and Masakazu Shimada. 2012. Additional notes on Anisopteromalus sp.(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), the sibling species of a parasitic wasp of stored‐product pests, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard): A new alternative host, an eye color mutant and DNA barcodes. Entomological Science 15(3): 349-351.

Schöller, Matthias, Sabine Prozell, Pompeo Suma and Agatino Russo 2018. Biological Control of Stored-Product Insects. p. 183–209. In Christos G. Athanassiou and Frank Arthur eds. Recent Advances in Stored Product Protection, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Anisopteromalus calandrae, Habrobracon hebetor, Holepyris sp., Lariophagus distinguendus, Trichogramma evanescens, Xylocoris flavipes

Silva, Isabel MMS, Jeffrey Honda, Frenk van Kan, Jianguo Hu, Luis Neto, Bernard Pintureau, and Richard Stouthamer. 1999.Molecular differentiation of five Trichogramma species occurring in Portugal. Biological Control 16(2): 177-184. Trichogramma evanescens

Solà, Mireia, Jordi Riudavets, and Nuria Agusti. 2018. Detection and identification of five common internal grain insect pests by multiplex PCR. Food Control 84: 246-254. Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais Sitotroga cerealella

Tay, Wee Tek, Stephen J. Beckett, and Paul J. De Barro. 2016. Phosphine Resistance in Australian Cryptolestes Species (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): Perspectives from Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase I Analysis. Pest Management Science 72 (6): 1250–1259. Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusillus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes turcicus

Thomas, Asha, Salam Rita Devi, and Asha Gaur 2015. DNA barcoding of Immature stages of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I. Indian Journal of Entomology 77(1): 66-70.

Varadínová, Z., Y. J. Wang, Z. Kučerová, V. Stejskal, G. Opit, Y. Cao, …, and Z. H. Li. 2015. COI Barcode Based Species-Specific Primers for Identification of Five Species of Stored-Product Pests from Genus Cryptolestes (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 105 (2): 202–209. Cryptolestes capensis, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes pusillus, Cryptolestes turcicus

Vulchi, Rohith, Kent M. Daane, and Jacob A. Wenger. 2021. Development of DNA Melt Curve Analysis for the Identification of Lepidopteran Pests in Almonds and Pistachios (Amyelois transitella, Cadra figulilella, Plodia interpunctella). Insects 12(6), 553.

Wang, Y.J., Li, Z.H., Zhang, S.F., Varadínová, Z., Jiang, F., Kučerová, Z., Stejskal, V., Opit, G., Cao, Y. & Li, F.J. 2014. DNA barcoding of five common stored-product pest species of genus Cryptolestes (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 104, 671–678. Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusillus, Cryptolestes turcicus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes capensis

Webster, L.M.I., Thomas, R.H., McCormack, G.P. 2004. Molecular systematics of Acarus siro s. lat., a complex of stored food pests. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32: 817-822. Acarus siro, Acarus farris, Acarus gracilis, Acarus immobilis, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae

Wong, Shew Fung, Ai Ling Chong, Joon Wah Mak, Jessie Tan, Suk Jiun Ling, and Tze Ming Ho 2011. Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites. Experimental and applied acarology 55(2): 123-133. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis

Wu,Yi, Fujun Li, Zhihong Li, Václav Stejskal, Radek Aulicky, Zuzana Kučerová, Tao Zhang, Peihuan He andYang Cao. 2016. Rapid diagnosis of two common stored-product predatory mite species based on species-specific. PCR. J. Stored Prod. Res. 69: 213-216. Cheyletus malaccensis, Cheyletus eruditus

Wu, Yi, Zhihong Li, Fujun Li, Václav Stejskal, Dan Zheng, Xin Chen, Yang Cao 2018. DNA barcode of stored-product pests based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene. p. 113-117. In Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP), October 7-11, 2018, Berlin, Germany. Ahasverus advena, Aleuroglyphus ovatum, Amphiareus constrictus, Callosobruchus chinensis, Carpophilus dimidiatus, Chelifer nodosus, Cheyletus eruditus, Cheyletus malaccensis, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes pusillus, Cryptolestes turcicus, Cryptophilus intger, Dermatophagoides farine, Glycyphagus domesticus, Lariophagus distinguendus, Lasioderma serricorne, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis brunnea, Liposcelis corrodens, Liposcelis decolor, Liposcelis entomophila, Liposcelis mendax, Liposcelis paeta, Liposcelis pearmani, Liposcelis rufa, Liposcelis tricolor, Liposcelus silvarum, Nemapogon granella, Neoseiulus cucumeris, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Plodia interpunctella, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, Sitotroga cerealella, Tribolium castaneum, Tribolium confusum, Trogoderma variable, Typhaea decipiens, Tyroborus lini, Xylocoris flavipes

Wu, Zonglin, Shaohua Lu, Jiying Li, Shiyuan Miao, and Yujie Lu. 2021. Morphological and molecular identification of Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern China. Grain & Oil Science and Technology 4(1): 26-32.

Yang, Q., Z. Kucerova, Z. Li, I. Kalinovic, V. Stejskal, G. Opit, and Y. Cao. 2012. Diagnosis of Liposcelis entomophila (Insecta: Psocodea: Liposcelididae) based on morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes. J. Stored Prod. Res. 48:120-125.

Yang, Q. Q. et al.2013. Rapid molecular diagnosis of the stored-product psocid Liposcelis corrodens (Psocodea: Liposcelididae): Species specific PCR primers of 16S rDNA and COI. J. Stored Prod. Res.54: 1–7.

Yang, Q. Q. et al. 2013.Validation of the 16S rDNA and COI DNA Barcoding Technique for Rapid Molecular Identification of Stored Product Psocids (Insecta: Psocodea: Liposcelididae). J. Econ. Entomol.106:419–425. Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis entomophila, Liposcelis decolor, Liposcelis paeta, Liposcelis brunnea, Liposcelis corrodens, Liposcelis mendax

Yao, Me-Chi, Shu-Chen Chang, Chi-Yang Lee, and Kuang-Hui Lu. 2012. A SCAR-based method for rapid identification of four major lepidopterous stored-product pests. Journal of economic entomology 105(3): 1100-1106.Corcyra cephalonica, Cadra cautella, Sitotroga cerealella, Plodia interpunctella

Zeng, Lingyu, Yun Su, Vaclav Stejskal, George Opit, Radek Aulicky and Zhihong Li 2021. Primers and visualization of LAMP: A rapid molecular identification method for Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) (Psocodea: Liposcelididae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 93, 101855.

Zhang, Chengwei, LiuPing Xu, Miao Lu, Xiaosong Liang, and Jian Li. 2014. Rapid Molecular Identification of Tribolium destructor. Agricultural Biotechnology 3(4): 49–52.

Zhang, T., Wang, Y.J., Guo, W., Luo, D., Wu, Y., Ku_cerov_a, Z., Stejskal, V., Opit, G., Cao, Y., Li, F.J., Li, Z.H., 2016. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six Tribolium pests of stored products. Sci. Rep. 6, e28494. Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani T. brevicornis

Zhao, Zi-Hua, Bing-Yi Cui, Zhi-Hong Li, Fan Jiang, Qian-Qian Yang, Zuzana Kučerová, Václav Stejskal, George Opit, Yang Cao, and Fu-Jun Li. 2016. The establishment of species-specific primers for the molecular identification of ten stored-product psocids based on ITS2 rDNA. Scientific reports 6(1), 21022: 1-8. Liposcelis bostrychophila, Liposcelis entomophila, Liposcelis decolor, Liposcelis paeta, Liposcelis brunnea, Liposcelis corrodens, Liposcelis mendax, Liposcelis rufa, Liposcelis pearmani, Liposcelis tricolor

Zheng, Sizhu, Jialin Li, Yihan Wei, Yuan Gao, Guohu Zhan, Xiaojun Yang, and Yunfang Chen. 2016. DNA Barcoding Identification of Dermestidae Species. Mitochondrial DNA.Part A 27(6): 4498–4502. Anthrenus museorum, Anthrenus scrophulariae, Anthrenus verbasci, Anthrenus picturatus hintoni, Anthrenus sinensis, Attagenus pellio, Attagenus smirnovi, Attagenus unicolor simulans, Attagenus woodroffei, Dermestes ater, Dermestes frischii, Dermestes lardarius, Dermestes maculatus, Dermestes murinus, Dermestes szekessyi, Dermestes tessellatocollis Dermestes peruvianus, Trogoderma yunnaeunsis, Trogoderma granarium, Trogoderma glabrum, Trogoderma anthrenoides, Trogoderma variabile, Trogoderma teukton