Overseas exported commodities are transported by ship. Cross infestation of commodities by insects from other commodities in a ship’s hold and insects left behind in food residues from previous cargos are sources of infestation. The following references identify the commodities carried by ship, the insect species infesting them and the locations where residual insect infestations can be found by inspectors on ships and removed.
Aitken, A. D. 1975. Insect Travelers. Volume I. Coleoptera. A Survey of the Beetles Recorded from Imported Cargoes by the Insect Inspectorate of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food with a Special Analysis for the Years 1957 to 1969. Vol. Technical Bull. 31. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office.
Aitken, A. D. 1984. Insect Travelers. Volume II. A Survey of the Beetles Recorded from Imported Cargoes by the Insect Inspectorate of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food during the Period 1957 to 1977. Vol. Reference Book 437. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office.
Belskaya, N. M. and L. G. Popova. 1978. Injurious Insects in Cargoes from India. Zashchita Rastenii 2: 42-43.
Concela da Fonseca, J. P., and J. Franqueira. 1956. Contribuição para o estudo da entomofauna dos navios mercantes. (Contribution to the study of the insect fauna of ships merchants). Estudos de Defesa Fitossanitaria.Anais 11: 85-106.
Cornes, M. A. and S. I. Ogunmodede. 1960. Technical Report No. 21. A survey of pest infestation in ships visiting Apapa docks. p. 73-81. In West African Stored Products Research Unit (WASPRU) Annual Report, Department of Marketing and Exports, Lagos, Nigeria
Freeman, J. A. 1948. World foci of infestation and principal channels of dissemination to other points, with suggestions for detection and standards of inspection., pp. 15-34. In S. S. Easter (ed.) Preservation of Grains in Storage, International Meeting on Infestation of Foodstuffs, August 5-12, 1947, London. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Washington.
Freeman, J. A. 1961. Inherent Vice and Infestation of Cargo. Journal of the Insurance Institute of London. 50: 97-108.
Freeman, J. A. 1963. Analysis of insect and mite infestations found in produce from the United States examined in ports in Great Britain in 1962. Cooperative Ecomomic Insect Report 13: 628-630.
Freeman, J. A. 1971. On the occurence of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) in food and feeding stuffs imported into the United Kingdom. Proceedings of 13th International Congress of Entomology
Freeman, J. A. 1974. A review of changes in the pattern of infestation in international trade. Bulletin OEPP.EPPO 4: 251-273.
Howe, R. W., and J. A. Freeman. 1955. Insect infestation of west African produce imported into Britain. Bulleting of Entomological Research 46: 643-667.
Hurlock, E. T. 1961. Occurrence of Gibbium psylloides de Czen. (Col., Ptinidae) in ships’ holds. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 96: 129-130.
Hurlock, E. T. 1961. Persistence of khapra beetle in ships’ holds. Pest Technology 3: 144-146.
Hurlock, E. T. 1962. New efforts at khapra beetle control. Pest Technology 4: 150-151.
Hurlock, E. T. 1963. Infestation of Canadian produce inspected in United Kingdom ports between 1953 and 1959. Can. Entomol. 95: 1263-1284.
Hurlock, E. T. 1964. Infestation of foodstuffs from the United States of America Inspected in the United Kingdom between 1953 and 1961. Bull. Entomol. Res. 55: 173-192.
Lopes Cabral, Amilcar and Maria Irene S. Moreira. 1960. Da Ocorrencia De Algumas Pragas De Produtos Ultramarinos Em Poroes De Navios Mercantes (Carreira Da Guine). (the Occurrence and Distribution of some Pests of Stored Products in Ship Holds of Cargo-Ships of Guinea Line). Garcia De Orta : Revista Da Junta Das Missoes Geograficas e De Investigacoes do Ultramar. 8(1): 47-57.
Matthews, G. A. 1958. A Preliminary Investigation into the Insect Infestation of Cargoes from West Africa. 46(2): 259-263.
Monro, H. A. 1951,1969. Insect Pests in Cargo Ships. Publications Department of Agriculture Canada 855
Monro, H. A. U. 1951. Insect Pests in Cargo Ships. Pest Control 19 (12): 12-14,16, 49.
Ngatia, C. M. 1979. Incidences of Stored Products Pests in Cargo Ships Calling at Mombasa during 1972 – October 1979. Kenya Entomologist’s Newsletter 10: 3-6.
Pals, J. P. and T. Hakbijl. 1992. Weed and Insect Infestation of a Grain Cargo in a Ship at the Roman Fort of Laurium in Woerden (Province of Zuid-Holland). Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 73: 287-300.
Ozburn, G. W. 1957. An Inspection of the Holds of Ships Carrying Cocoa from Apapa. West African Stored Product Research Unit (WASPRU) Annual Report: 66-72.
Phillips, G. L. 1959. Control of Insects with Pyrethrum Sprays in Wheat Stored in Ships’ Holds. Journal of Economic Entomology 52 (4): 557-559.
Turtle, E. E., and J. A. Freeman. 1960. Residual insect infestations and their control in holds of ships. p. 1729-1732. In Anonymous Proc. 4th Inst. Congress of Crop Protection, V. 2. 1957, Hamburg. Biologische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig
Weidner, Herbert. 1967. Schädliche Insekten auf Schiffen. (Harmful insects on ships) Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde(2): 17-22.