Table 1 Commodity Suitability updates the list of commodities in Hagstrum et al. (2013) for which the suitability of commodities as food has been studied for Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Suitability of commodities as food for T. castaneum depends upon their providing essential nutrients, particle size, moisture content and plant defensive chemicals. Autoclaving evidently reduced plant defense and made several legumes more susceptible to T. castaneum (Srivastava et al. 1973). Several commodities were included in more than one study, so the total number of suitability estimates was 477. Milled cereal grains were included in more than one study with oat flour in 3, barley flour in 5, millet flour in 8, wheat bran in 9, wheat flour + yeast in 8, rice flour in 11, sorghum flour in 12, maize flour in 13 and wheat flour in 29. Commodities were suitable for development and reproduction with 67 and 23% of estimates. Some studies determined the developmental time of only larvae while others determined total egg to adult developmental time. This was reported as mean or median or day of first adult eclosion. Studies have looked at suitability of different milling fractions of maize (Oosthuizen 1945), rice (Arthur et al. 2019), sorghum (Arthur et al. 2020) and wheat Oosthuizen 1945, Pande et al. 1988). Preferences when given a choice of several commodities or milling fractions of maize (Oosthuizen 1945), rice (Nadeem et al. 2011) and wheat (Oosthuizen 1945, Shafique et al. 2006) also have been studied.
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