Stored-Product Entomology Courses

Hagstrum and Subramayam (2009) reported that stored-product entomology courses have been or are currently offered at land grant universities in four states in the United States and in at least nine other countries. Nicoli Aldini Rinaldo is now teaching the Insect of Stored Products course at School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Universita di Bologna, Italy. http://www.agricultureveterinarymedicine.unibo.it/en/programmes/course-unit-catalogue/course-unit/2008/158274 . For more information on the course “Protecting foods from pests” by Marco Pagani at Universita Parma, Italy see webpage http://en.unipr.it/ugov/degreecourse/25218.

In addition to these courses, a course entitled “Pests of Stored Products” was offered by Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos to undergraduate students between 2000 and 2011 at Technological Educational Institute of Larissa School of Agriculture in Greece. Approximately, 1000 students (70-100 every semester) took the course. Pests of stored products are now covered in their Applied Entomology course. Post-harvest safety of stored agricultural products and food at University of Thessaly, a post-graduate course, is taught by Christos G. Athanassiou with 70 students per year.

The following undergraduate courses covering stored-product pests are also offered in Greece:

Pests of Annual Crops and Stored Products at Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki taught by Smaragdi Ch. Papadopoulou with 150 students per year.

Post-Harvest Pests and Diseases at Technological Educational Institute of Ionian Islands taught by Andreas Vitoratos and Charilaos Giotis.

Agricultural Entomology & Zoology at Agricultural University of Athens taught by Constantine Th. Buchelos prior to 2008 and then Nickolas G. Kavallieratos with 150 students per year.

Pests of Stored Products and Sanitation Insects at Democritus University of Thrace taught by Georgios Broufas and Maria Pappa.

Protection of Stored Products at University of Thessaly taught by Christos G. Athanassiou.

Pests of Stored Products at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki taught by Demetrius Koveos and Nikos Koulousis.

A Course entitled “Biology of Pests of Stored Products and Their Control” is taught by Mrs A.C Adeyemo in the Deptment of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. See http://www.futa.edu.ng/futacms/admin/attachments/BIO%20411.pdf

Florence M’mogi Olubayo has taught the course “Post harvest Pests and Diseases” from 2007 to the Present in the Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. See https://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/olubayo/files/curriculum_vitae_prof._f.m.olubayo_april_2013.pdf

We more recently discovered that Don C. Peters taught a stored-product entomology course at Oklahoma State University in 1978 and 1980, and Gerrit Cuperus taught it in 1996.

Also, we more recently learned that George Dean began teaching a course in stored-product entomology (called Milling Entomology) at Kansas State University in 1914, primarily for undergraduate milling and baking students. Donald A. Wilbur began teaching the course in 1949. In 1971 the College of Agriculture made major revisions in the curricula and the course was no longer required for milling students. Wilbur began teaching the current Insects of Stored Products course in 1956.

In 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018, David Hagstrum and Tom Phillips co-taught the course. A textbook and three other books were published to keep the Insects of Stored Products (ENTOM 805) course up to date (Hagstrum and Subramayam 2006, 2009; and Hagstrum et al.2012, 2013). The following describes the Insects of Stored Products course offered at Kansas State University.

Schedule:

Week 1 Introduction (Ch1 textbook and Ch2, Techniques p. 23-25)

Week 2 Mobility (Ch3 textbook and Ch2 Techniques p. 30-37)

Week 3 Sources of Infestation (Ch4 textbook)

Week 4 Sampling (Ch5 textbook and Ch2, Techniques p. 26-30)

Week 5 Life History (Ch6 textbook)

Week 6 Population Growth (Ch7 textbook)

Week 7 Decision Aids (Ch8 textbook and Ch9 Economics)

Week 8 Biological Control (Ch11 textbook)

Week 9 Aeration (Ch12 textbook)

Week 10Sanitation and Exclusion (Ch13 textbook)

Week 11 Extreme Temperatures (Ch14 textbook)

Week 12 Impact and Removal (Ch15 textbook and Ch16, Ionizing Radiation)

Week 13 Residual Insecticides (Ch17 textbook and Ch10, Resistance

Week 14 Fumigants and Modified Atmospheres (Ch18 textbook)

Week 8 Regulatory Control (Quarantine Ch 26 in KSU S156)

Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) for ENTOM 805 include:

1) Become familiar with the biology, ecology and behavioral diversity of stored product insects and mites

2) Understand monitoring-based IPM in relation to variables in the broad environment, variation in population dynamics, use of predictive models at all levels, and management options ranging from prevention to population suppression methods.

3) Appreciate the need for understanding foundational and current scientific literature, as well as regulatory and economic issues, in the design and implementation of IPM programs in the US and elsewhere in the world.

Course Design:

Stored product insects and mites can damage stored grains and other commodities with serious economic losses and food security and safety issues. ENTOM 805 is targeted to graduate students in Entomology, related agricultural sciences and the life sciences who desire knowledge of this economically important group of arthropod pests that also serve as excellent examples for biological study. The class will meet twice a week to discuss a series of topics. Discussion of topics will be lead be a different student each class meeting. Local field trips and laboratory meetings will familiarize students with insect identification, grain storage and processing facilities, sampling and fumigation. Grading is based on class participation, discussions and quizzes taken at the beginning, and revised at the end, of each class.

Textbook:

Hagstrum, D. W. and Bh. Subramanyam. 2006. Fundamentals of Stored Product Entomology, AACC International, St. Paul, MN

Supplemental Chapters:

Hagstrum, D. W., T. W. Phillips and G. Cuperus (eds.). 2012. Stored Product Protection. Kansas State University S156

Websites:

http://www.refworks.com/refshare2?site=015251129867200000/159211343138040369/SP%20Pest%20Mtg

https://www.storedproductinsects.com

http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/grsc_subi/speir/

http://bru.gmprc.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/

On Reserve at Library:

Hagstrum, D. W., and Bh. Subramanyam. 2009. Stored-Product Insect Resource. AACC International, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Hagstrum, D. W., T. Z. Klejdysz, Bh. Subramanyam and J. Nawrot. 2013. Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites. AACC International, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Grading:

1. Participation in discussion 40%

2. Preparedness as discussion leader 20%

3. Weekly quizzes 20%

4. Revision of chapter 20% (due May 15)

Recommended Readings:

Ch. 1 Introduction

American Institute of Baking. 1979. How to handle regulatory inspections. p. 19-21. In Basic Food Plant Sanitation Manual. American Institute of Baking, Manhattan, Kansas.

Arbogast, R. T., S. R. Chini and P. E. Kendra. 2005. Infestation of stored saw palmetto berries by Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the host paradox in stored-product insects. Florida Entomol. 88: 314-320.

Arthur, F. H. and T. Rogers. 2003. Legislative and regulatory actions affecting insect pest management for postharvest systems in the United States. p. 435-438. In Credland, P. F., D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley [eds.]. Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, York, United Kingdom. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Bailey, J. E. 1992. Terminal elevator storage. p. 157-182. In Sauer, D. B. [ed.], Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Buckland, P. C. 1981. The early dispersal of insect pests of stored products as indicated by archaeological records. J. Stored Prod. Res. 17: 1-12.

Cowley, R. J., D. C. Howard and R. H. Smith. 1980. The effect of grain stability on damage caused by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and three other beetle pests of stored maize. J. Stored Prod. Res. 16: 75-78.

Freeman, J. A. 1974. A review of changes in the pattern of infestation in international trade. EPPO Bull. 4: 251-273.

Gecan, J. S. 2002. Food defect action levels, pp. 77-86. In Y. H. Hui, B. L. Bruinsma, J. R. Gorham, W. K. Nip, P. S. Tong and P. Ventresca (eds.), Food Plant Sanitation. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N. Y.

Hagstrum, D. W., T. Z. Klejdysz, Bh. Subramanyam and J. Nawrot. 2013. Atlas of Stored-Product Insects and Mites. AACC International, St. Paul, Minnesota. (book)

Hagstrum, D. W. and T. W. Phillips. 2017. Evolution of Stored-Product Entomology: Protecting the World Food Supply. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 62: 379-397.

Hagstrum, D. W., C. Reed and P. Kenkel. 1999. Management of stored wheat insect pests in the USA.  Integrated Pest Management Review 4: 127-142.

Hagstrum, D. W. and Bh. Subramanyam. 2009. Stored-Product Insect Resource. AACC International, St. Paul, Minnesota. (book)

Hill, D. S. 2002.  Types of Damage. p. 71-78. In Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and Their Control. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Howe, R. W. 1991. Origins of insects as storage pests. p. 13-16. In J. R. Gorham [ed.] Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

Olsen, A. R., T. H. Sidebotton and S. A. Knight. 1996. Fundamentals of Microanalytical Entomology, a pratical guide to detecting and identifying filth in foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida (book)

Reed, C. 1992. Development of storage techniques: a historical perspective. p. 143-156. In Sauer, D. B. [ed.], Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Ch. 2 Techniques

Borgemeister, C., A. Tchabi and D. Scholz. 1998. Trees or stores? The origin of migrating Prostephanus truncatus collected in different ecological habitats in southern Benin. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 87: 285-294.

Camara, M., C. Borgemeister, R. H. Markham and H. M. Poehling. 2003. Electrophoretic analysis of the prey spectrum of Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis) (Col., Histeridae), a predator of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae), in Mexico, Honduras and Benin. J. Appl. Entomol. 127: 360-368.

Ching’oma, G. P. 2006. Spatial distribution of movement of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). PhD Thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

Halstead, D. G. H. 1963. External sex differences in stored-products Coleoptera. Bull. Entomol. Res. 54: 119-134.

Howe, R. W. 1991. Principles of rearing stored-product insects and of insectary management. p. 535-544. In J. R. Gorham (ed.) Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

Perez-Mendoza, J., J. E. Throne and J. E. Baker. 2004. Ovarian physiology and age-grading in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 40: 179-196.

Pfaffenberger, G. S. 1985. Description, differentiation, and biology of the four larval instars of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Coleopterist’s Bull. 39: 239-256.

Rajendran, S. 1999. Detection of insect infestation in stored food commodities. J. Food Sci. Technol. 36: 283-300.

Scholz, D., C. Borgemeister, R. H. Markham and H. M. Poehling. 1998. Physiological age-grading and ovarian physiology of Prostephanus truncatus. Physiol. Entomol. 23: 81-90.

Vowotor, K. A., N. A. Bosque-Perez and J. N. Ayertey. 1995. Effect of maize variety and storage form on the development of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. J. Stored Prod. Res. 31: 29-36.

Ch. 3 Mobility

Barney, R. J. and P. A. Weston. 1996. Movement of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in a small-farm ecosystem. Environ. Entomol. 25: 261-267.

Campbell, J. F. and D. W. Hagstrum. 2002. Patch exploitation by Tribolium castaneum: movement patterns, distribution and oviposition. J. Stored Prod. Res. 38: 55-68.

Campbell, J. F. and C. Runnion. 2003. Patch exploitation by female red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum. J. Insect Sci. http://www.insectscience.org/3.20

Campos, M. and T. W. Phillips. 2014. Attract-and-Kill and Other Pheromone-Based Methods to Suppress Populations of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 107: 473-480.

Ching’oma, G. P. 2006. Spatial distribution of movement of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). PhD Thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

Cox, P. D., M. E. Wakefield and T. A. Jacob. 2007. The effects of temperature on flight initiation in a range of moths, beetles and parasitoids associated with stored products. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43: 111-117.

Desouhant, E., G. Driessen, L. Lapchin, S. Wielaard and C. Bernstein. 2003. Dispersal between host populations in field conditions: navigation rules in the parasitoid Venturia canescens. Ecol. Entomol. 28: 257-267

Hagstrum, D. W. 1984. Growth of Ephestia cautella (Walker) population under conditions found in an empty peanut warehouse and response to variations in the distribution of larval food.  Environ. Entomol. 13: 171‑174.

Hagstrum, D. W.  1989. Infestation by Cryptolestes ferrugineus of newly‑harvested wheat stored on three Kansas farms.  J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 655‑659.

Hagstrum, D. W. 2000. Using five sampling methods to measure insect distribution and abundance in bins storing wheat.  J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 253-262.

Hagstrum, D. W. 2001. Immigration of insects into bins storing newly harvested wheat on 12 Kansas farms. J. Stored Prod. Res. 37: 221-229.

Hagstrum, D. W. and L. R. Davis Jr. 1980. Mate-seeking behavior of Ephestia cautella. Environ. Entomol. 9: 589-592.

Hagstrum, D. W. and E. E. Gilbert. 1976. Emigration rate and age structure dynamics of Tribolium castaneum populations during growth phase of a colonizing episode.  Environ. Entomol. 5: 445‑448.

Hagstrum, D. W. and B. J. Smittle. 1980. Age- and sex-specific tunneling rates of adult Tribolium castaneum. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 73: 11-13.

Hagstrum, D. W.; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju. 2010. Immature insects: Ecological roles of mobility. American Entomologist 56(4): 230-241.

Hawkin, Karen J., Dean M. Stanbridge and Paul G. Fields 2013. Sampling Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in flour mill rollstands. Journal of Stored Products Research 52: 7-11

Hawkin, K. J., D. M. Stanbridge and P. G. Fields. 2011. Sampling Tribolium confusum and Tribolium castaneum in mill and laboratory settings: differences between strains and species. Canadian Entomologist 5: 504-517.

Jian, F. and D. S. Jayas. 2009. Detecting and responding to resources and stimulus during the movement of Cryptolestes ferrugineus adults. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2: 45-56.

Jian, F., D. S. Jayas and N. D. G. White. 2009. Optimal environmental search and scattered orientations during movement of adult rusty grain beetles, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), in grain bulks – suggested movement and distribution patterns. J. Stored Prod. Res. 45: 177-183.

Kuenen, L. P. S. and H. C. Rowe. 2006. Cowpea weevil flights to a point source of female sex pheromone: analysis of flight tracks at three wind speeds. Physiol. Entomol. 31: 103-109.

Mankin, R. W. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1995. Three-dimensional orientation of male Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) flying to calling females in a windless environment.  Environ. Entomol. 24: 1616-1626.

Mankin, Richard W., David W. Hagstrum, Christian Nansen and William G. Meikle. 2014. Almond moth oviposition patterns in continuous layers of peanuts. Journal of Stored Products Research 59: 48-54.

McFarlane, J. A., I. Gudrups and H. Fletcher. 1993. Biotype differences affecting the pest status of stored-grain insects. Intern. J. Pest Management 39: 35-43.

Romero, S. 2007. Influence of landscape structure on movement behavior and habitat use by red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). PhD Thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

Romero, S., J. F. Campbell, J. R. Nechols and K. A. With. 2009. Movement behavior in response to landscape structure: the role of functional grain. Landscape Ecol. 24: 39-51.

Romero, S., J. F. Campbell, J. R. Nechols and K. A. With. 2010. Movement behavior of red flour beetle: response to habitat cues and patch boundaries. Environ. Entomol. 39: 919-929.

Savoldelli, S. and P. Trematerra. 2011. Mass-trapping, mating-disruption and attracticide methods for managing stored-product insects: success stories and research needs. Stewart Postharvest Review 3: 7.

Semeao, A. A., J. F. Campbell, R. J. Whitworth, and P. E. Sloderbeck. 2013. Movement of Tribolium castaneum within a flour mill. J. Stored Prod. Res. 54:17-22.

Steel, R., D. Elmouttie, and G. Hamilton. 2012. Geostatistical analysis of adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in wheat stored at constant temperatures. J. Stored Prod. Res. 50:8-14.

Toews, M. D., J. F. Campbell, F. H. Arthur and M. West. 2005a. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with residual applications of (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 1391-1398.

Ukeh, D. A., I. A. Udo and E. I. Ogban. 2008. Trapping of stored-product insects using flight traps outside traditional African storage granaries. J. Food Agric. Environ. 6: 399-401.

Utida, S. 1972. Density dependent polymorphism in the adult of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 8: 111-126.

Ch. 4 Sources of insect infestation

Arbogast, R. T., S. R. Chini and J. E. McGovern. 2005. Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Spatial relationshiop between trap catch and distance from a source of emerging adults. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 326-333.

Arbogast, R. T., S. R. Chini and J. E. McGovern 2006. Use of contour analysis in monitoring stored-product insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 601-603.

Arthur, F. H., D. W. Hagstrum, P. W. Flinn, C. R. Reed and T. W. Phillips. 2006. Insect populations in grain residues associated with commercial Kansas grain elevators. J. Stored Prod. Res. 42: 226-239.

Boon, K. S. and S. H. Ho. 1988. Factors influencing the post-fumigation reinfestation of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in a rice warehouse. J. Stored Prod. Res. 24: 87-90.

Borgemeister, C., A. Tchabi and D. Scholz. 1998. Trees or stores? The origin of migrating Prostephanus truncatus collected in different ecological habitats in southern Benin. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 87: 285-294.

Bowditch, T. G. and J. L. Madden. 1996. Spatial and temporal distribution of Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a confectionary factory: causal factors and management implications. J. Stored Prod. Res. 32: 123-130.

Curtis, C. E., R. K. Curtis and K. L. Andrews. 1984. Progression of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation and damage of almonds on the ground and on the tree during harvest. Environ. Entomol. 13: 146-149.

Hagstrum, D. W. 1985. Preharvest infestation of cowpeas by the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and population trends during storage in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 358-361.

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn and R. W. Howard. 1996. Ecology, p. 92-104. In Bh. Subramanyam and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Hamlin, J. C. and C. Benton. 1925. Control of the saw-toothed grain beetle in raisins: a preliminary report. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 790-795.

Jia, F., M. D. Toews, J. F. Campbell and S. B. Ramaswamy. 2008. Survival and reproduction of lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on flora associated with native habitats in Kansas. J. Stored Prod. Res. 44: 366-372.

Nansen, C., A. Liebhold and P. Tobin. 2006. Contour mapping and number of point observations. J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 599-600.

Sagnia, S. B. 1994. Mortality factors affecting Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) under field conditions in Niger. J. Stored Prod. Res. 30: 71-74.

Soderstrom, E. L., R. T. Hinsch, A. J. Bongers, D. G. Brandl and H. Hoogendorn. 1987. Detecting adult Phycitinae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestations in a raisin-marketing channel. J. Econ. Entomol. 80: 1229-1232.

Tilley, D. R. 2013. Incidence and spread of insects from bucket elevator leg boots. PhD Dissertation, Kansas State University Department of Grain Science and Industry.

Williams, G. C. 1961. Infestation of a disused flour mill. Milling 86: 92.

Ch. 5 Sampling

Adam, B. D., M. Siaplay, P. W. Flinn, B. W. Brorsen, and T. W. Phillips. 2010. Factors influencing economic profitability of sampling-based integrated pest management of wheat in country elevators. J. Stored Prod. Res. 46:186-196.

Belda, C., M. Ribes-Dasi, and J. Riudavets. 2011. Improving pest management in pet food mills using accurate monitoring and spatial analysis. J. Stored Prod. Res. 47:385-392.

Buckman, K.A. and J.F. Campbell. 2013. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum capture in pheromone traps. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 146: 404-412.

Campbell, J. F. 2012. Attraction of walking Tribolium castaneum adults to traps. Journal of Stored Products Research 51: 11–22.

Campbell, J.F. 2013. Influence of landscape pattern in flour residue amount and distribution on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) response to traps baited with pheromone and kairomone. J. Stored Prod. Res. 52: 112-117.

Fedina, T. Y. and S. M. Lewis. 2007. Effect of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) nutritional environment, sex, and mating status on response to commercial pheromone traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1924-1927.

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn and D. Shuman. 1996. Automated monitoring using acoustical sensors for insects in farm-stored wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 211-217.

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn and Bh. Subramanyam. 1998.  Predicting insect density from probe trap catch in farm-stored wheat.  J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 251-262.

Hagstrum, D. W., Milliken, G. A., and Wadell, M. S. 1985. Insect distribution in bulk stored wheat in relation to detection or estimation of abundance. Environ. Entomol. 14:655-661.

Hagstrum, D. W., Bh. Subramanyam, and P. W. Flinn. 1997. Nonlinearity of a generic variance-mean equation for stored grain insect sampling data. Environ. Entomol. 26: 1213-1223.

Haines, C., D. Rees, K. Ryder, S. Sistyanto and Y. Cahyana. 1991. Brown-rice bait-bags for monitoring insect pest populations in bag stacks of milled rice as an aid to pest control decision-making. p. 1351-1358. In Fluerat-Lessard, F. and P. Ducom [eds.]. Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Prod. Entomol., Bordeaux, France, Imprimerie Médocaine, Blanquefort Cedex, France.

Hodges, R. J. 2002. Detection and monitoring of larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7: 223-243.

Kuzmanov, D. K., N. D. Dimitrov, N. P. Ginov and I. G. Yanchev. 2008. A heated trap for detecting insect infestation in stored grain at low temperatures. Bulgarian J. Agric. Sci. 14: 528-534.

Mabbett, T. 1995. Pheromone traps reduce insurance fumigation for cocoa bean pests. International Pest Control. 37: 73-74.

Manis, J. M. 1992. Sampling, inspection and grading. pp. 563-588.  In Sauer, D. B. [ed.], Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Mankin, R. W., K. W. Vick, J. A. Coffelt and B. A. Weaver. 1983. Pheromone-mediated flight by male Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 12: 1218-1222.

Mankin, R. W., R. T. Arbogast, P. E. Kendra and D. K. Weaver. 1999. Active spaces of pheromone traps for Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in enclosed environments. Environ. Entomol. 28: 557-565.

Mankin, R. W., D. W. Hagstrum, M. T. Smith, A. L. Roda, and M. T. K. Kairo. 2011. Perspective and promise: a century of insect acoustic detection and monitoring. Amer. Entomol. 57: 30-44.

Mohan, S., S. S. Sivakumar, S. R. Venkatesh, and G. S. V. Raghavan. 2006. Simple technique to increase the sensitivity of probe traps in detecting Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera : Laemophloeidae) in stored wheat. Can. Entomol. 138:733-735. (increase trap catch by increasing insect activity)

Nansen, C., W.G. Meikle, J. Campbell, T.W. Phillips, B.Subramanyam. 2008. A binomial and species-independent approach to trap capture analysis of flying insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1719-1728.

Nansen C., T. W Phillips, P, K. Morton and E. L. Bonjour. 2006. Spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap captures from controlled releases of male Indianmeal moths. Environmental Entomology 35: 516–523.

Perez-Mendoza, J., P. W. Flinn, J. F. Campbell, D. W. Hagstrum and J. E. Throne. 2004. Detection of stored-grain insect infestation in wheat transported in railroad hopper-cars. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 1474-1483.

Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1996. Sampling, pp. 135-193. In Bh. Subramanyam and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Subramanyam, Bh., D. W. Hagstrum, R. L. Meagher, E. C. Burkness, W. D. Hutchinson and S. E. Naranjo. 1997. Development and evaluation of sequential sampling plans for Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) infesting farm-stored wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33: 321-329.

Toews, M. D., F. H. Arthur and J. F. Campbell. 2005b. Role of food and structural complexity on capture of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in simulated warehouses. Environ. Entomol. 34: 164-169.

Toews, M. D., F, H. Authur and J. F. Campbell. 2009. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with β-cyfluthrin: are residual insecticides and trapping compatible? Bull. Entomol. Res. 99: 121-129.

Ch. 6 Life history

Arbogast, R. T. 1991. Beetles: Coleoptera. p. 131-176. In J. R. Gorham [ed.] Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

Barrer, P. M. 1976. The influence of delayed mating on the reproduction of Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 12: 165-169.

Bell, C. H. 1994. A review of diapause in stored-product insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 30: 99-122.

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Cox, P. D. and C. H. Bell. 1991. Biology and ecology of moth pests of stored foods. p. 181-193. In J. R. Gorham [ed.] Ecology and Management of Food-Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

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Hagstrum, D. W. and Bh. Subramanyam. 2009. A review of stored-product entomology sources. Amer. Entomol. 55 (3): 174-183.

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Huang, F. and Bh. Subramanyam. 2003. Effects of delayed mating on reproduction performance of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 39: 53-63.

Sedlacek, J. D., P. A. Weston and R. J. Barney. 1996. Lepidoptera and Psocoptera. p. 41-70. In Bh. Subramanyam and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

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Ch. 7 Population growth

Ahmad, T. R. and M. A. Ali. 1995. Forecasting emergence and flight of some Ephestia spp. (Lep., Pyralidae) based on pheromone trapping and degree-day accumulations. J. Appl. Entomol. 119: 611-614.

Flinn, P. W. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1995. Simulation model of Cephalonomia waterstoni (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitizing the rusty grain beetle (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).  Environ. Entomol. 24: 1608-1615.

Flinn, P. W., T. W. Phillips, D. Hagstrum, F. Arthur and J. Throne. 2001. Modeling the effects of insect stage and grain temperature on phosphine-induced mortality for Rhyzopertha dominica. p. 531-539. In Donahaye, E. J., S. Navarro, and J. Leesch [eds.]. Proceedings of the InternationalConference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Executive Printing Services, Clovis, California.

Hagstrum, D. W. and P. W. Flinn. 1990. Simulations comparing insect species differences in response to wheat storage conditions and management practices. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 2469‑2475.

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Ch. 8 Decision aids

Bridgeman, B. W. and P. J. Collins. 1994. Integrated pest management in the GRAINCO, Queensland Australia, storage system. p. 910-914. In Highley, E., E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks and B. R. Champ [eds.] Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, Canberra, Australia, CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Compton, J. A. F., S. Floyd, P. A. Magrath, S. Addo, S. R. Gbedevi, B. Agbo, G. Bokor, S. Amekupe, Z. Motey, H. Penni and S. Kumi. 1998. Involving grain traders in determining the effect of postharvest insect damage on the price of maize in African markets. Crop Prot. 17: 483-489.

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Ch. 9 Economics

Alexander, C., Y. A. Yigezu, D. E. Maier, L. J. Mason, and C. P. Woloshuk. 2008. Cost of Good Sanitation Practices for On-Farm Grain Storage. Purdue Extension GQ-50-W.

Arthur, F.H., J.F. Campbell, and M.D. Toews. 2013. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) in a commercial food storage facility. J. Stored Prod. Res. 53: 7-14.

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Chowaniec, T. 1986. Sanitation cost – the bottom line.  Bull. Assoc. Operative Millers  December 4867-4871.

Curtis, C. E. 1976. Economics of NOW control and implementing orchard clean up. Almond Facts 41:5-8.

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Rulon, R. A., D. E. Maier and M. D. Boehlje. 1999. A post-harvest economic model to evaluate grain chilling as an IPM technology.  J. Stored Prod. Res. 35: 369-383.

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Ch. 10 Resistance

Andreev, D., T. Rocheleau. T. W. Phillips, R. W. Beeman and R. H. ffrench-Constant. 1994. A PCR diagnostic for cyclodiene insecticide resistance in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Pestic. Sci. 41: 345-349.

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Ch. 11 Biological control

Borgemeister, C., F. Djossou, C. Adda, H. Schneider, B. Djomamou, K. Azoma and R. H. Markham. 1997. Establishment, spread and impact of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae), an exotic predator of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in southwestern Benin. Environ. Entomol. 26: 1405-1415.

Brower, J. H., L. Smith, P. V. Vail and P. W. Flinn. 1996. Biological control, p. 223-286. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.]. Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

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Flinn, P. W. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1995. Simulation model of Cephalonomia waterstoni (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitizing the rusty grain beetle (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).  Environ. Entomol. 24: 1608-1615.

Flinn, P. W., D. W. Hagstrum and W. H. McGaughey. 1996. Supression of beetles in stored wheat by augmentative releases of parasitic wasps.  Environ. Entomol. 25: 505-511.

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Moore, D., J. C. Lord and S. M. Smith. 2000. Pathogens. p. 193-227. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Schöller, M. and P. W. Flinn. 2000. Parasites and predators. p. 229-271. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.]. Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Ch. 12 Aeration

Flinn, P. W., D. W. Hagstrum and W. E. Muir. 1997. Effects of time of aeration, bin size, and latitude on insect populations in stored wheat: a simulation study. J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 646-651.

Foster, G. H. and J. Tuite. 1992. Aeration and grain management. p. 219-248. In Sauer, D. B. [ed.], Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota.

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Reed, C. and F. H. Arthur. 2000. Aeration, p. 51-72. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Reed, C. and J. Harner. 1998a. Cooling of stored wheat in multiple or single cycles using automatic aeration controllers. Appl. Eng. Agric. 14: 495-500.

Reed, C. and J. Harner. 1998b. Thermostatically controlled aeration for insect control in stored hard red winter wheat. Appl. Eng. Agric. 14: 501-505.

Reed, C., T. Herrman, R. Higgins and J. Harner. 1995. Questions and answers about aeration controllers. MF-2090 Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas State University.

Ch. 13 Sanitation and pest exclusion

Adler, C. 2004. Significance of hermetic seals, controlled ventilation, and wire-mesh screens to prevent the immigration of stored product pests. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 27:13-16.

Arthur, F. H. 2000. Impact of accumulated food on survival of Tribolium castaneum on concrete treated with cyfluthrin wettable powder. J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 15-23.

Brickey, P.M., J.S. Gecan, and A. Rothschild. 1973. Method for determining direction of insect boring through food packaging materials. J. AOAC 56: 640-642.

Brody, A. L. 1982. Packaging. p. 503-535. In Christensen, C. M. [ed.], Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Cline, L. D. 1978. Penetration of seven flexible packaging materials by larvae and adults of eleven species of stored-product insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 726-729.

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Imholte, T. J. and T. K. Imholte-Tausher 1999. Engineering for Food Safety and Sanitation. Technical Institute of Food Safety, Crystal, Minnesota. (book)

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Karitas, J. J. 1964. Breakage and damage in grocery warehouses and retail food stores. USDA, ARS, Agricultural Market Service, Marketing Research Report No. 652.

Mills, R. and J. Pedersen. 1990. A Flour Mill Sanitation Manual. Eagan Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. (book)

Mowery, S. V., M. A. Mullen, J. F. Campbell and A. B. Broce. 2002. Mechanisms underlying sawthoothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis [L.] ) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) infestation of consumer food packaging materials. J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 1333-1336.

Mullen, M. A. and J. R. Pedersen. 2000. Sanitation and exclusion. p. 29-50. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

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Ch. 14 Temperature

Beckett, S. J. and R. Qaisrani. 2003. Heat disinfestations of empty farm silos before inloading. p. 803-806. In Credland, P. F., D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley [eds.] Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, York, United Kingdom. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

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Ch. 15 Impact mortality

Banks, J. and P. Fields. 1995. Physical methods for insect control in stored-grain ecosystems. p. 384-387.  In D. S. Jayas, N. D. G. White and W. E. Muir (eds.) Stored-Grain Ecosystem, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

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Ch. 16 Ionizing radiation

Banks, J. and P. Fields. 1995. Physical methods for insect control in stored-grain ecosystems. p. 389-391.  In D. S. Jayas, N. D. G. White and W. E. Muir (eds) Stored-Grain Ecosystem, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Cleghorn, D. A., S. V. Nablo, D. N. Ferro and D. W. Hagstrum. 2002. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects. Radiation Phys. Chem. 63: 575-579.

Cogburn, R.R., E. W. Tilton and J. H. Brower. 1972. Bulk-grain gamma irradiation for control of insects infesting wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 818-821.

Fields, P. G. and W. E. Muir. 1996. Physical control. p. 206-207. In Bh. Subramanyam and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Halverson, S. L. and S. V. Nablo. 2000. Radiation. p. 381-400. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Molins, R. A. 2001. Food irradiation: principles and applications. Wiley-Interscience, New York. (book)

Tilton, E. W. and J. H. Brower. 1987. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products. Cereal Foods World 32: 330-333.

Watters, F. L. and K. F. MacQueen. 1967. Effectiveness of gamma irradiation for control of five species of stored-product insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 3: 223-234.

Wilkinson, V. M. and G. W. Gould. 1998. Food irradiation, a reference guide. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England. (book)

Ch. 17 Residual insecticides

Arthur, F. H. 1996. Grain protectants: current status and prospects for the future. J. Stored Prod. Res. 32: 293-302.

Arthur, F. H., J. E. Throne and R. A. Simonitis. 1992. Degradation and biological efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl on wheat stored at five temperatures and three moisture contents. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 1994-2002.

Athanassiou, C. G., F. H. Arthur and J. E. Throne. 2009. Efficacy of spinosad in layer-treated wheat against five stored-product insect species. J. Stored Prod. Res. 45: 236-240.

Baker, J. E. and K. J. Kramer. 1996. Biotechnological approaches for stored-product insect pest management. Postharvest News and Information 7: 11-18.

Bohmont, B. L. 2007. The Standard Pesticide User’s Guide. 7th Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, N. J. (book)

Boina, Dhana Raj and Bhadriraju Subramanyam. 2012. Insect management with aerosols in food-processing facilities. p. 195-212. In  Farzana Perveen (ed.) Insecticides – Advances in Integrated Pest Management. InTech Europe, Rijeka, Croatia. http://www.intechopen.com/books/insecticides-advances-in-integratedpest-management/insect-management-with-aerosols-in-food-processing-facilities

Hodges, R. J., P. Carr and A. I. Hussein. 1999. Limiting the amount of pesticide applied to small bulks of maize in rural stores. p. 956-963. In Zuzan, J., L. Quan, L. Yongsheng, T. Xiachang, and G. Liaghua [eds.] Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Sichuan Publishing House, Chengdu, Peoples Republic of China.

Lale, N. E. S. 1995. An overview of the use of plant products in the management of stored product Coleoptera in the tropics. Postharvest News and Information 6: 69-75.

Minett, W. and P. Williams. 1971. Influence of malathion distribution on the protection of wheat grain against insect infestation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 7: 233-242.

Nansen, C. and T. W. Phillips. 2004. Attractancy and toxicity of an attracticide for Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 703-710.

Nawrot, J. and J. Harmatha. 1994. Natural products as antifeedants against stored product insects. Postharvest News and Information 5: 17-21.

Obeng-Ofori, D. and S. Amiteye. 2005. Efficacy of mixing vegetable oils with pirimiphos-methyl against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in stored maize. J. Stored Prod. Res. 41: 57-66.

Oberlander, H. and D. L. Silhacek. 2000. Insect growth regulators. p. 147-163. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Panagiotakopulu, E., P. C. Buckland and P. M. Day. 1995. Natural insecticides and insect repellents in antiquity: a review of the evidence. J. Archaeological Sci. 22: 705-710.

Rajapakse, R. and H. F. Van Emden. 1997. Potential of four vegetable oils and ten botanical powders for reducing infestation of cowpeas by Callosobruchus maculatus, C. chinesis and C. rhodesianus. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33: 59-68.

Snelson, J. T. 1987. Grain Protectants. ACIAR monograph No. 3. (book)

Subramanyam, Bh. And R. Roesli. 2000. Inert dusts. p. 321-380. In. Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Throne, J. E., J. E. Baker, F. J. Messina, K. J. Kramer and J. A. Howard. 2000. Varietal resistance. p. 165-192. In. Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Toews, M. D., J. F. Campbell, F. H. Arthur and M. West. 2005a. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with residual applications of (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 1391-1398.

White, N. D. G. and J. G. Leesch. 1996. Chemical control. p. 287-304. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Ch. 18 Fumigation and modified atmospheres

Adler, C., H. Corinth and C. Reichmuth. 2000. Modified atmospheres. p. 105-146. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum. [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.

Annis, P. C. 2001. Phosphine dosage regimes required for high mortality: a data-base approach. p. 45-55. In Donahaye, E. J., S. Navarro and J. G. Leesch [eds.] Proc. Intern. Conf. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Executive Printing Services, Clovis, California.

Banks, J. and P. Fields. 1995. Physical methods for insect control in stored-grain ecosystems. p. 367-377.  In D. S. Jayas, N. D. G. White and W. E. Muir [eds] Stored-Grain Ecosystem, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Bell, C. H. 1996. Alternatives – Physical Methods and Emission Reduction. p. 372-376. In Bell, C. H., N. Price and B. Chakrabarti [eds.] The Methyl Bromide Issue. John Wiley & Sons, New York. (book)

Bond, E. J. 1984. Manual of Fumigation for Insect Control.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Plant Production and Protection Paper 54. (book)

Buckman, K.A., J.F. Campbell, and B. Subramanyam. 2013. Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) associated with rice mills: Fumigation efficacy and population rebound. J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 499-512.

Campbell, J. F., and R. T. Arbogast. 2004. Stored-product insects in a flour mill: population dynamics and response to fumigation treatments. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 112: 217-225.

Campbell, J. F., K. A. Buckman, P. G. Fields and B. Subramanyam. 2015. Evaluation of Structural Treatment Efficacy against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Using Meta-Analysis of Multiple Studies Conducted in Food Facilities . J. Econ. Entomol. 108: 2125-2140.

Campbell, J.F., M.D. Toews, F.H. Arthur, and R.T. Arbogast. 2010a. Long-term monitoring of Tribolium castaneum in two flour mills: seasonal patterns and impact of fumigation. J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 991-1001.

Campbell, J.F., M.D. Toews, F.H. Arthur, and R.T. Arbogast. 2010b. Long-term monitoring of Tribolium castaneum populations in two flour mills: rebound after fumigation. J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 1002-1011.

Davis, R. and R. H. Barrett.1986. In-transit shipboard fumigation of grain: research to regulation. Cereal Foods World 31: 227-229.

Flinn, P., C. Reed, D. Hagstrum and T. Phillips. 2007b. Seasonal and spatial changes in insect density in commercial elevator bins: implications for phosphine fumigation. International Miller 2006-2007: 36-40.

Hamlin, J. C.and W. D. Reed. 1927. Insect revival after fumigation. J. Econ. Entomol. 20: 400-428.

Hartzer, M., B. Subramanyam,W.Chayaprasert, D. E. Maier, S. Savodelli, J. F. Campbell, and P. W. Flinn. 2010. Methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride effectiveness against red ßour beetle life stages, pp. 365Ð370. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 JuneÐ2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Hole, B. D., C. H. Bell, K. A. Mills and G. Goodship. 1976. The toxicity of phosphine to all developmental stages of thirteen species of stored product beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res. 12: 235-244.

Lindgren, D. L. and L. E. Vincent. 1962. Fumigation of food commodities for insect control. p. 85-152. In R. L. Metcalf [ed.] Advances in Pest Control Research Volume 5, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Navarro, S. 2006. Modified atmospheres for the control of stored-product insects and mites. Pages 105-145 in: Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing, 2nd ed. J. Heaps (ed.) AACC International, St. Paul, MN.

Navarro, S., Jay, E. G., and Leesch, J. G. 1986. Recirculation rate for adequate distribution of carbon dioxide in grain bins. Trans. ASAE 29:1348-1354.

Newman, C. J. E. 1990. Specification and design of enclosures for gas treatment. p. 108-130. In Fumigation and controlled atmosphere storage of grain. Australian Centre International Agricultural Research proceedings series no. 25.

Noyes, R. T., and Kenkel, P. 1994. Closed loop fumigation systems in the south-western United States. Pages 335-341 in: Proc. 6th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection. (Canberra, Australia.) E. Highley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks, and B. R. Champ, Eds. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.

Reed, C. and H. Pan. 2000. Loss of phosphine from unsealed bins of wheat at six combinations of grain temperature and grain moisture content. J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 263-279.

Small, G. J. 2007. A comparison between the impact of sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide fumigations on stored product insect populations in UK flour mills. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43: 410-416.

Tsai, W.-T., L. J. Mason, W. Chayaprasert, D. E. Maier, and K. E. Ileleji. 2011. Investigation of fumigant efficacy in flour mills under real-world fumigation conditions. J. Stored Prod. Res. 47: 179-184.

Walter, V. E. 1991. Fumigation in the food industry. p. 441-457. In Gorham, J. R. [ed.], Ecology and Management of Food‑Industry Pests, Assoc. Official Analytical Chem., Arlington, Virginia.

Walter, V. 2006. Commodity and space fumigations in the food industry. Pages 183-198 in: Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing, 2nd ed. J. Heaps (ed.) AACC International, St. Paul, MN.

White, N. D. G. and J. G. Leesch. 1996. Chemical control. p. 304-320. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Zettler, J. L., J. G. Leesch, H. B. Gillenwater, L. M. Redlinger, R. Davis and J. M. Zehner. 1986. Feasibility of fumigating unmodified river barges with phosphine while in transit. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 1315-1318.

 

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