Resistance of Insects to Pesticides, Monitoring and Management

The following list expands, updates and rearranges the list of pesticides, insect species and countries summarized in the Subramanyam and Hagstrum (1996) paper for which resistance ratios have been calculated for field-collected strains  of insects. At the bottom of page, there is an annotated list of references on monitoring and managing pesticide resistance. Research since 1991 has examined the use of phosphine-induced narcosis as a same-day test for phosphine resistance. Majority of susceptible insects are immobilized while resistant individuals are still active.

Resistance ratio is the LD50 for resistant insects divided by the LD50 for susceptible insects. The LD50 is the pesticide dose killing 50% of the insect population. With a higher resistance ratio, a higher pesticide dose may be required to control insect pests. The resistance ratios for the LD50 tend to be conservative since the resistance ratios calculated for LD90, LD95 or LD99.9 are often higher than those for LD50. This resistance may be a result of the insect detoxifying a pesticide, modification of the target site binding a pesticide or reduced penetration of a pesticide into the insect. Resistance screening generally does not test for behavioral resistance. The following list is sorted by pesticide and then by the maximum resistance ratios so that the reader can see how the published resistance ratios for a pesticide vary with insect species, year and country.

In the following list, resistance ratios at LD50 have been calculated in a number of studies or for more than one pesticide (n) for 16 insect species: Acanthoscelides obtectus (Aobt, n=1), Alphitobius diaperinus (Adia, n=1), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Cfer, n=1), Cadra cautella (Ccau, n=12), Ephestia kuehniella (Ek, n=1), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Osur, n=30), Plodia interpunctella (Plodia, n=12), Rhyzopetha dominica (Rdom, n=16), Sitophilus granarius (Sgra, n=8), Sitophilus oryzae (Sory, n=13), Sitophilus zeamais (Szea, n=14), Tribolium castaneum (Tcas, n=66), Tribolium confusum (Tcon, n=18), Trogoderma granarium (Tgra, n=3), Trogoderma versicolor (Tver, n=1) and Typhaea stercorea (Tser, n=2) (Freqency Distributions). Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Tribolium castaneum were the most studied insect species. Resistance ratios have been calculated in 60 studies on 26 pesticides and for insects from 24 countries, the majority (58%) were for insects from Australia or the United States (US). Together lindane, malathion and pirimiphos methyl were 42% of the 197 pesticide-insect species-study-country combinations and the pesticides included four fumigants: ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, methyl bromide and phosphine. Seventy six of these 197 records (38.4%) were more recent than 1995. Most of the studies were with adults, but seven studies were with larvae of Ccau (Arthur et al 1988, Attia et al 1979, Zettler 1977), Ek (Attia et al 1979), Plodia (Arthur et al 1988, Attia et al 1979), Tgra (Ahmedani et al 2007, Borah and Chahal 1979, Udeaan 1990) and Tver (Obretenchev 2011). Borah and Chahal (1979) also determined resistance ratio for eggs and pupae. Zettler (1977) compared the resistance ratios for diapausing and non-diapausing Ccau. Sardesai (1972) did not calculate resistance ratio, but found that diapausing and non-diapausing Plodia larvae were equally susceptible to hydrogen cyanide and that diapausing larvae were 1.8 times more resistant to methyl bromide.

This list (Full List) includes the resistance ratios for 1029 insect populations and the number of populations is included in parentheses when a range for resistance ratios is given. Because these resistance ratios are for so many pesticides (26), insect species (16), countries (26) and a 42 year period, resistance ratios for these 1029 populations provide only some general trends for the changes in resistance. When the 1029 resistance ratios are summarized into three time periods (1959-1975, 1976-1990 and 1991-2011) and four resistance ratio ranges (1 = none or slight resistance (0.9-5 resistance ratios), 2 = moderate resistance (5.1-20 resistance ratios), 3 = high resistance (21-100 resistance ratio) and 4 = very high resistance (>100 resistance ratios)) (Freqency Distributions), the levels of resistance were similar for the three time periods, i. e., 79.3% of the populations are resistance level 1, 12.0% are resistance level 2, 5.2% are resistance level 3 and 3.6% are resistance level 4 for the first time period; 52.1% are resistance level 1, 18.6% are resistance level 2, 11.3 are resistance level 3 and 18.0% are resistance level 4 for the second time period and 58.4% are resistance level 1, 23.9% are resistance level 2, 12.3% are resistance level 3 and 5.4% are resistance level 4 for the third time period. None or slight resistance was reported for 79.3, 52.1 and 58.4% of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. Moderate resistance was reported for 12.0, 18.6 and 23.9% of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. High resistance was reported for 5.2, 11.3 and 12.3 of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. Very high resistance was reported for 3.6, 18.0 and 5.4% of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. The similarity of the resistance ratios over time periods may at least in part be the results of insecticides being replaced by newer insecticides, i. e., lindane by malathion and malathion by others. Differences in resistance ratios among the three time periods are in part the results of differences in the insect species, pesticides and countries for which resistance ratios were reported. The primary insect species were: 1) Szea and Tcas, 2) Plodia and Tcas, and 3) Rdom and Tcas during the three time periods, respectively. The total numbers of pesticides tested were 8, 22 and 14 during the three time periods, respectively. During the three time periods, 1) Lindane and malathion, 2) dichlorvos and malathion, and 3) malathion and phosphine were the most prevalent pesticides, respectively. The majority of insect populations were from: 1) Kenya and US, 2) Australia and US and 3) Italy and Brazil during the three time periods, respectively.

Pesticide              Insect Species   Resist Ratio    Study, Country

bioresmethrin     Osur                    3                      Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
bioresmethrin     Osur                    3.8, 3.9           Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
bioresmethrin    Tcas                     4.2, 12             Collinsb1990, Australia
carbaryl              Osur                     >14, >14         Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
carbaryl              Tcas                     18, 86              Collins 1990, Australia
carbaryl              Osur                     150                 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
chlorpyrifos        Tcas                     1.5-2.7(7)       Rossi 2010, Italy
chlorpyrifos        Tcon                     0.8, 5.7           Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
chlorpyrifos        Tcon                     0.7-9.3(11)    Rossi 2010, Italy
chlorpyrifos        Tcas                     2.8-11.7(3)     Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
chlorpyrifos methyl      Szea          1.1, 1.2            Ribeiro et al 2003, Brazil
chlorpyrifos methyl      Plodia        0.8-1.3(8)      Arthur et al 1988, US
chlorpyrifos methyl      Sgra           0.8-2.7(4)      Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
chlorpyrifos methyl      Osur          2.2, 2.9           Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
chlorpyrifos methyl      Osur          3.1                   Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
chlorpyrifos methyl      Tcas           1.7, 3.4           Collins 1990, Australia
chlorpyrifos methyl      Ccau           1.8-4.1(7)      Arthur et al 1988, US
chlorpyrifos methyl     Rdom          21.3-100.4(8) Guedes et al 1996, Brazil
chlorpyrifos methyl     Rdom          5.6-167.9(7)    Guedes et al 1996, US
cyfluthrin            Osur                      2                     Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
cyfluthrin            Tcas                       4.1, 270         Collins 1990, Australia
cyhalothrin         Tcas                       4.2, 310         Collins 1990, Australia
cypermethrin     Szea                       0.7-1.4(4)      Ribeiro et al. 2003, Brazil
cypermethrin     Tcon                      0.3, 1.4           Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
cypermethrin     Sgra                       1-2.1(4)         Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
cypermethrin     Osur                      2.4                  Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
cypermethrin     Tcon                      0.3-2.7(9)     Rossi 2010, Italy
cypermethrin     Tcas                       3-8(3)           Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
cypermethrin     Tcas                       3-14(6)         Rossi 2010, Italy
cypermethrin     Adia                     1-92(8)           Chernaki-Leffer 2011, Brazil
cypermethrin     Tcas                    3.2, 130           Collins 1990, Australia
DDT                     Tcas                    2.3                    Bhatia et al 1971, India
DDT                     Osur                   6.2, 6.4             Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
DDT                     Szea                    1.3-14.1(9)       Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
DDT                     Sory                    16.6, 17.9         Santhoy-Morallo-Rejesus 1984, Philippines
DDT                     Tcas                    1.5-84.2(3)      Speirs 1971, US
deltamethrin      Tcas                    0.1                     Stadler 2003, Argentina
deltamethrin      Tcon                    0.3, 0.5            Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
deltamethrin      Tcas                     0.5-1.5(3)       Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
deltamethrin      Szea                     1.2, 1.8             Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
deltamethrin      Osur                    2.2                    Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
deltamethrin      Tcas                     0.5-14(7)        Rossi 2010, Italy
deltamethrin      Tcon                    0.5-16.7(11)    Rossi 2010, Italy
deltamethrin      Sgra                     5.8-20.9(4)     Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
deltamethrin      Rdom                   1-63.8(12)      Chen 2013, Taiwan
deltamethrin      Rdom                   1-873.8(11)     Lorini-Galley 1999, Brazil
deltamethrin      Tcas                     19, 950            Collins 1990, Australia
deltamethrin       Sory                    2633.7             Guedes et al 1994, Brazil
diazinon               Tcas                     0.5-1.6(7)       Rossi 2010, Italy
diazinon               Tcon                     0.5, 2.2          Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
diazinon               Tcas                     0.6-3(3)         Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
diazinon               Tcon                     0.5-10.4(11) Rossi 2010, Italy
dichlorvos           Ccau                      1.1-1.3(8)      Zettler 1982, US
dichlorvos           Plodia                    1.1-1.9(6)      Zettler 1982, US
dichlorvos           Ccau                      1.4-2.3(6)     Arthur et al 1988, US
dichlorvos           Tcas                      1.1-2.7(4)      Zettler 1982, US
dichlorvos           Sgra                      1.5-3.3(4)     Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
dichlorvos           Osur                     3.9                 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
dichlorvos           Rdom                   4,6                  Greening et al. 1975, Australia
dichlorvos           Osur                     7.8, 8.2           Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
dichlorvos           Plodia                   2.1-9.3(16)    Arthur et al 1988, US
dichlorvos          Tcas                      0.9-10.5(13)  Saxena-Sinha 1989, India
dichlorvos           Adia                      1-134.4(8)    Chernaki-Leffer 2011, Brazil
d-Phenothrin     Tcas                      8.3, 25           Collins 1990, Australia
ethylene dibromide    Tcas             0.9-1.1(10)   Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
ethylene dibromide    Tcon            1-1.8(7)         Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
fenitrothion       Tcas                       7                      Stadler 2003, Argentina
fenitrothion       Tcas                       8.2, 9.5           Collins 1990, Australia
fenitrothion       Sory                       14.3                Collins et al 1993, Australia
fenitrothion       Osur                       145                 Collins-Wilson 1986, Australia
fenitrothion       Osur                       172.3              Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
fenitrothion       Osur                       164, 244        Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
fenvalerate       Tcas                        4.4, 29            Collins 1990, Australia
flucythrinate    Tcas                        4.4, 77             Collins 1990, Australia
fluvalinate        Tcas                        2.6, 9               Collins 1990, Australia
hydrogen cyanide   Tcas                1-1.4(10)        Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
hydrogen cyanide   Tcon                0.9-1.4(7)      Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
lindane             Sory                         0.3                  Stadler 2003, Argentina
lindane             Tcas                         1                      Bhatia et al 1971, India
lindane             Osur                        2                      Parkin 1965, England
lindane             Sgra                         2.5                  Parkin 1965, South Africa
lindane             Sory                         2, 2.6              Parkin 1965, Tanzania
lindane             Osur                         2.7                  Parkin 1965, Kenya
lindane             Szea                         3.1                   Parkin 1965, Zimbabwe
lindane             Szea                         2, 3.7              Parkin 1965, Kenya (Thailand)
lindane             Szea                         7.9                  Parkin 1965, Trinidad (Thailand)
lindane             Sory                         9.5                  Parkin 1965, Kenya
lindane             Sory                         13.2                Parkin 1965, Trinidad
lindane             Szea                          5-22(9)         Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
lindane             Osur                         >24                Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
lindane             Szea                          1-49(48)       DeLima 1972, Kenya
lindane             Sory                         100                McDougall 1964, Australia
malathion        Tcas                          0.1-0.3(6)    Rossi 2010, Italy
malathion        Tcas                          0.2-0.3(3)    Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
malathion       Osur                           0.5-1.1(6)    Subramanyam et al 1989, US
malathion       Tcon                           0.8-1.2(8)    Strong et al 1959, US
malathion       Tcon                          0.8-1.3(6)    Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
malathion       Tcas                          0.8-1.3(39)   Strong et al 1959, US
malathion       Osur                          1.5                 Subramanyam-Harein 1990, US
malathion      Tcon                           0.6, 2.3         Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
malathion      Tcas                            2.4                Speirs 1971, US
malathion      Sory                            1.6-2.5(5)    Pandey et al 1979, India
malathion      Tcon                            0.4-3.4(10) Rossi 2010, Italy
malathion      Sory                            4.1                 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion      Sgra                            4.2                 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion      Sgra                            2.5-4.4(4)    Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
malathion      Sory                           1.2-5.8 (6)    Rajak 1973, India
malathion      Tcas                           0.6-6.4(11)  Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
malathion      Sory                            6.5                Stadler 2003, Argentina
malathion      Ccau                            1.2-7.2(6)    Zettler et al 1973, US
malathion      Ccau                            6, 7.5            Zettler 1977, US
malathion      Tcas                            1.8-8.9(5)    Pandey et al 1979, India
malathion      Rdom                          2.1-8.9(7)    Guedes et al 1996, US
malathion      Tcas                            1.1-11.3(10) Speirs 1967, US
malathion      Rdom                          5.8-12.1(8)  Guedes et al 1996, Brazil
malathion     Tcas                              12.7              Stadler 2003, Argentina
malathion     Ccau                              3-7.4(6)       Zettler 1982, US
malathion     Tcas                             18, 15           Collins 1990, Australia
malathion     Osur                            16                  Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
malathion     Osur                            15.4, 16.6     Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
malathion     Tcas                            2.9-18.3(9)  Ataur Rahman et al 2007, Bangladesh
malathion     Tcas                            2-21.2(7)      Rajak 1973, India
malathion     Szea                             1.6-31.4(10) Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
malathion     Tcas                             37.8              Bhatia et al. 1971, India
malathion     Tcas                             1-38(9)         Zettler 1975, US
malathion     Tcas                             5.9-40.6(4)  Subramanyam et al 1989, US
malathion     Tcas                            44                   Bansode-Campbell 1979, US
malathion     Tcas                            6.1-46.3(7)   Subramanyam-Harein 1990, US
malathion     Tcas                            10-60(7)      Parkin 1965, Nigeria
malathion     Rdom                         >62                Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion     Tser                            65.7               Weinzierl-Porter 1990, US
malathion     Tcas                            73                   Beeman 1982, US
malathion     Tcas                            9.6-108.7(6) Zettler 1974, US
malathion     Tcas                            3.6-111(3)     Beeman-Nanis 1986, US
malathion     Plodia                         45.7->114(12) Zettler 1982, US
malathion     Tcas                            3.5-129.6(4)  Zettler 1982, US
malathion     Plodia                         177-206(7)     Zettler et al 1973, US
malathion     Tcas                            3-232.6(40)   Irshad 1990, Pakistan
malathion     Ek                                1->244(6)     Attia et al 1979, Australia
malathion     Tcas                           >256                Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion     Ccau                           1->259(19)     Attia et al 1979, Australia
malathion     Plodia                         1->260(15)     Attia et al 1979, Australia
malathion     Tcas                           405.6               White-Bell 1988, Canada
methacrifos  Tcas                           2.3, 2.4            Collins 1990, Australia
methyl bromide   Tcas                  1(10)               Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
methyl bromide   Tcon                  1-1.2(7)          Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
permethrin  Osur                           3.2                   Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
permethrin  Szea                            2.3-3.7(6)      Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
permethrin  Szea                            18.75              Ribeiro et al. 2003, Brazil
permethrin  Tcas                            6.1, 21            Collins 1990, Australia
phosphine    Ccau                            1.7-2.7(3)      Zettler 1991, US
phosphine    Plodia                          0.9-3.7(4)     Zettler 1991, US
phosphine    Tgra                            2.5, 4.0         Ahmedani et al. 2007, Pakistan
phosphine    TverL                         0.8-5.9(4)    Obretenchev 2011, Bulgaria
phosphine    TverA                         0.7-8.7(4)    Obretenchev 2011, Bulgaria
phosphine    Tcas                             20.7             Opit et al. 2012, US
phosphine    Tgra                            2.4-40.7(7) Borah-Chahal 1979, India
phosphine    Tgra                            10.4-47.9(7) Udeaan 1990, India
phosphine    Szea                             1.1-86.6(21) Pimentel 2009, Brazil
phosphine    Rdom                          98.7-442.8(3) Opit et al. 2012, US
phosphine    Rdom                           3-549(21)   Lorini et al. 2007, Brazil
phosphine    Rdom                           2.4-610.3(16) Song et al. 2011, China
pirimiphos methyl   Tcas                0.9               Stadler 2003, Argentina
pirimiphos methyl   Sgra                1-1.9(4)       Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
pirimiphos methyl   Tcas                1.7-2.6(4)    Zettler 1982, US
pirimiphos methyl   Plodia             1.4-3.2(11)   Arthur et al 1988, US
pirimiphos methyl   Ccau               1.7-3.5(8)     Zettler 1982, US
pirimiphos methyl   Szea                3, 3.7            Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
pirimiphos methyl   Plodia             1.1-4.1(8)    Zettler 1982, US
pirimiphos methyl   Rdom             2.4-4.5(7)    Guedes et al 1996, US
pirimiphos methyl   Tcas               5.4, 6.7         Collins 1990, Australia
pirimiphos methyl   Rdom             4.4-9.2(8)    Guedes et al 1996, Brazil
pirimiphos methyl   Osur              22, 22           Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
pirimiphos methyl   Osur              33                 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
pirimiphos methyl   Tser              38.2              Weinzierl-Porter 1990, US
pirimiphos methyl   Ccau              1.9-50(12) Arthur et al 1988, US
pirimiphos methyl   Aobt              49.4, 149.8 Sriharen et al. 1991, Rwanda
pirimiphos methyl   Sory               196.9, 210.2 Sriharen et al. 1991, Rwanda
pyrethin, synergized   Ccau           0.9-1.4(7)  Arthur et al 1988, US
pyrethin, synergized   Plodia         1.4-4.8(20) Arthur et al 1988, US
pyrethin, synergized   Osur           2.3, 2.4       Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
pyrethin, synergized   Plodia        2.5                Zettler et al 1973, US
pyrethin, synergized   Ccau          2.5, 3.3         Zettler et al 1973, US
pyrethrins                    Tcon           0.7-1.3(6)   Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
pyrethrins                    Tcas            1.2-2.1(3)   Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
pyrethrins                    Tcon            1.4, 3           Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
pyrethrins                    Tcas            1.2-4.9(7)  Rossi 2010, Italy
pyrethrins                    Tcas            0.6-5.7(11) Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
pyrethrins                    Tcon            0.9-8.6(11) Rossi 2010, Italy
spinosad                       Rdom           0.5, 1          Huang et al 2004, US
spinosad                       Rdom           1, 1             Sehgal et al 2013, US
spinosad                       Plodia           1.7, 1.7       Huang et al 2004, US
spinosad                       Cfer              1.7              Huang et al 2004, US
spinosad                       Tcas             1.7, 2.2       Sehgal et al 2013, US
spinosad                       Rdom           1-2.7(16)   Chen 2013, Taiwan
spinosad                       Osur            3.4, 4.5       Sehgal et al 2013, US
spinosad                       Tcas             4.8, 7.5       Huang et al 2004, US

Resistance of Insects to Pesticides

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Ataur, R., Shahjahan, M., Talukder, F., 2007. Malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 50: 204-209.

Attia, F., E. Shipp, and G. Shanahan. 1979. Survey of Insecticide Resistance in Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), Ephestia cautella (Walker) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in New-South-Wales. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 18: 67-70.

Attia, F. 1976. Insecticide resistance in Cadra cautella in New South Wales, Australia. J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 773-774.

Bansode, P. C. and W. V. Campbell. 1979. Evaluation of North Carolina field strains of the red flour beetle for resistance to malathion and other organophosphorus compounds. J. Econ. Entomol. 72:331-333.

Beeman, R. W. and S. M. Nanis. 1986. Malathion resistance alleles and their fitness in the red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 79:580-587.

Beeman, R. W., W. E. Speirs, and B. A. Schmidt. 1982. Malathion resistance in indianmeal moths (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) infesting stored corn and wheat in the north-central United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 950-954.

Bhatia, S., T. Yadav and Mookherjee, P. B. 1971. Malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in India. J. Stored Prod. Res. 7: 227-230.

Borah, B., and B. Chahal. 1979. Development of resistance in Trogoderma granarium Everts to phosphine in the Punjab. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 27: 77-80.

Chen, C., and M. Chen. 2013. Susceptibility of field populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), to deltamethrin and spinosad on paddy rice in Taiwan. J. Stored Prod. Res. 55: 124-127.

Chernaki-Leffer, A. M., D. R. Soso-Gomez, L. M. Almeida, and I. d. O. Negrao Lopes. 2011. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 55: 125-128.

Collins, P. 1986. Genetic analysis of fenitrothion resistance in the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 1196-1199.

Collins, P. 1990. A New Resistance to pyrethroids in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Pestic. Sci. 28: 101-115.

Collins, P. J. and D. Wilson. 1986. Insecticide resistance in the major coleopterous pests of stored grain in Southern Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 43: 107-114.

Collins, P. J., T. M. Lambkin, B. W. Bridgeman, and C. Pulvirenti. 1993. Resistance to grain-protectant insecticides in coleopterous pests of stored cereals in Queensland, Australia. Journal-of-Economic-Entomology 86: 239-245.

Collins, P., and D. Wilson. 1987. Efficacy of current and potential grain protectant insecticides against a fenitrothion-resistant strain of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. Pestic. Sci. 20:93-104.

DeLima, C. P. 1972. Lindane resistance in field strains OF Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) in Kenya. J. Stored Prod. Res. 8: 167-175.

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Lorini, I., P. J. Collins, G. J. Daglish, M. K. Nayak and H. Pavic. 2007. Detection and characterisation of strong resistance to phosphine in Brazilian Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera : Bostrychidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 63: 358-364.

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Obretenchev, A., D. Obretenchev, E. Staneva, and S. Maneva. 2011. Laboratory evaluation of availability and level of resistance to phosphine in five Bulgarian populations of Trogoderma versicolor Creutz. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). IOBC/wprs Bulletin 69: 329-339.

Opit, G. P., T. W. Phillips, M. J. Aikins, and M. M. Hasan. 2012. Phosphine Resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica From Stored Wheat in Oklahoma. J. Econ. Entomol. 105: 1107-1114.

Pandey, G., J. Srivastava, and B. Varma. 1979. Differences in Resistance to Malathion in Sitophilus oryzae Linn and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Occurring in Different Regions in India. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 49: 810-812.

Parkin, E. A. 1965. Onset of insecticide resistance among field populations of stored-product insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 1: 3-8.

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Rajak, R. L., M. Ghate and K. Krishnamurthy. 1973. Bioassay technique for resistance to malathion of stored product insects. International Pest Control 15: 11-16.

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Santhoy, O. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1984. Toxicity of six organophosphate insecticides to field-collected DDT-resistant strains of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Phillipp. Entomol. 2: 283-290

Sardesai, J. 1972. Response of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella Lepidoptera Pyralidae to hydrogen cyanide and methyl bromide. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 1562-1565.

Saxena, J., and S. Sinha. 1989. Dichlorvos resistance in Tribolium castaneum. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 59: 191-193.

Sehgal, B., B. Subramanyam, F. H. Arthur, and B. S. Gill. 2013. Variation in susceptibility of field three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat. 106: 1911-1919. J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 1911-1919.

Song, X., P. Wang, and H. Zhang. 2011. Phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) from different geographical populations in China. African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 16367-16373.

Speirs, R. D., L. M. Redlinger and H. P. Boles. 1967. Malathion resistance in the red flour beetle. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 1373-1374.

Speirs, R. D., L. M. Redlinger and H. P. Boles. 1971. DDT-Resistant red flour beetles from a Georgia peanut sheller. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 1328-1329.

Sriharen, S., F. Dunkel, and E. Nizeyimana. 1991. Status of actellic resistance in three stored product insects infesting sorghum and beans in Rwanda., pp. 1051-1060. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc

Stadler, T., Bh. Subramanyam and A. A. Ferrero. 2003. Monitoring for insecticide resistance in major stored products pests in Argentina: a review. Agriscentia 20: 99-110.

Strong, R., G. Partida and T. Archer. 1969. Genetic plasticity of stored-product insects in relation to insecticides – comparative susceptibility of confused and red flour beetles from various aeas of California to malathion. J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 470-474.

Subramanyam, Bh. and P. K. Harein. 1990. Status of malathion and pirimiphos-methyl resistance in adults of red flour beetle and sawtoothed grain beetle infesting farm-stored corn and wheat in Minnesota. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 7: 127-136.

Subramanyam, B., P. Harein, and L. Cutkomp. 1989. Organo-phosphate resistance in adults of red flour beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and sawtoothed grain beetle (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) infesting barley stored on farms in Minnesota. J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 989-995.

Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1996. Resistance measurement and management. p. 331-397. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Udeaan, A.S., 1990. Susceptibility status of Trogoderma granarium Everts populations to
phosphine in Punjab. Indian J. Ecol. 17: 195-96.

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Weinzierl, R. A. and R. P. Porter. 1990. Resistance of hairy fungus beetle (Coleoptera: Mycetophagidae) to pirimiphos methyl and malathion. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 325-328.

White, N., and R. Bell. 1988. Inheritance of malathion resistance in a strain of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and effects of resistance genotypes on fecundity and larval survival in malathion-treated wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 381-386.

Zettler, J. 1977. Susceptibility of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Cadra cautella to malathion. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 12: 56-58.

Zettler, J. 1974. Malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum collected from stored peanuts. J. Econ. Entomol. 67: 339-340.

Zettler, J. 1975. Malathion resistance in strains of Tribolium castaneum collected from rice in USA. J. Stored Prod. Res. 11: 115-117.

Zettler, J. 1982. Insecticide resistance in selected stored-product insects infesting peanuts in the southeastern United-States. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 359-362.

Zettler, J. L. 1991. Phosphine resistance in stored product insects in the United States. p. 1075-1082. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc

Zettler, J. L., McDonald, L. L., Redlinger, L. M. and Jones, R. D. 1973. Plodia interpunctella and Cadra cautella resistance in strains to malathion and synergized pyrethrins. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 1049-1050.

Resistance monitoring and management

Bhatia, S. K. 1988. Status and management of insecticide resistance in agricultural pests in India. J. Insect Sci. 1: 1-7.

Bridgeman, B.W., Davis, D. and Reid, R. 2002. Resistance management; a case study. 137–138. In: Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Highley, E., ed., Stored grain in Australia 2000. Proceeding of the Australian Postharvest Technical Conference, Adelaide, 1-4 August 2000 Canberra, CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory.  In 1997, GRAINCO Australia experienced a series of control failures in a storage facility located in Millmerran, Queensland. Storages at the depot at Millmerran, near Toowoomba on the Darling Downs of Queensland are of the South Australian type. There are eight 2000 t cells and two 500 t cells. They are unsealed, of the open-top type and are fitted for SIROFLO® fumigation.

The bins in which resistance was detected contained wheat that had been held for 2 years. The grain had been fumigated between 6 and 8 times, depending on the bin. Resistance was detected following survival of Rhyzopertha dominica of a fumigation rate of 50 ppm phosphine for 15 days. The usual target rate is 35 ppm for 15 days. Grainco was using the higher rate to gain efficacy at all sites.

For the bins containing grain, the grain was turned and treated with full rates of bioresmethrin and reldan. Empty bins were cleaned and structurally treated with Alfracon. The grain path and other areas were also cleaned and disinfested. The bins were subsequently sealed (doors were replaced) and phosphine fumigation was by recirculation. The resistance alert was suspended following two seasons of nil detections of a high level of Rhyzopertha dominica phosphine resistance. Subsequent alerts at Dalby and Miles were dealt with with similar results.

Bridgeman Barry and Collins Pat 2012. Resistance management in stored products fumigation. p. 633-637. In: Navarro S, Banks HJ, Jayas DS, Bell CH, Noyes RT, Ferizli AG, Emekci M, Isikber AA, Alagusundaram K, eds. Proc 9th. Int. Conf. on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Antalya, Turkey. 15 – 19 October 2012, ARBER Professional Congress Services, Turkey

Collins, P. J. 1991. Management of resistance to insecticides in stored grain: resistance risk and impact assessment., pp. 983-988. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc.

Collins, P.J. 1994. Resistance considerations for choosing protectants. p. 755–761. In: Highley, E., Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Champ, B.R., ed., Stored product protection. Wallingford, CAB International

Collins, P.J., Daglish, G.J., Nayak, M.K., Ebert, P., Schlipalius, D., Chen, W., Pavic, H., Lambkin, T.M., Kopittke, R.A. and Bridgeman, B.W. 2001. Combating resistance to phosphine in Australia. p. 593–607. In: Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S. and Leesch, J., ed., Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products 2000, Fresno, CA, USA.

Collins, Patrick J., Robert N. Emery and Barry E. Wallbank 2003. Two decades of monitoring and managing phosphine resistance in Australia. p. 570-575. In Credland, P.F.; Armitage, D.M.; Bell, C.H.; Cogan, P.M.; Highley, E. eds.Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002, York, UK. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom

Collins, P.J., Falk, M.G., Nayak, M.K., Emery, R.N., Holloway, J.C., 2017. Monitoring resistance to phosphine in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in Australia: a national analysis of trends, storage types and geography in relation to resistance detections. J. Stored Prod. Res. 70: 25-36. Strong resistance was significantly more common in central storages, particularly bunker storages, than on farms.

Collins, Patrick J. and David I. Schlipalius. 2018. Insecticide Resistance. p. 169-182 In Athanassiou, Christos G.; Arthur, Frank eds.Recent Advances in Stored Product Protection, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Daglish, G. J., A. W. Ridley, and G. H. Walter. 2010. Resistance management and the ecology of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in subtropical Australia, pp. 104-109. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany. More Rhyzopertha dominica were caught than Tribolium castaneum, similar numbers of R. dominica were caught near farm silos and in paddocks at least 1 km from the nearest silo, and more T. castaneum were caught near silos than in paddocks. Females have mated before emigrating. Spread of resistance genes may be faster than would occur if most emigrating females were virgins. Adults of both species were trapped throughout the year with the lowest numbers corresponding to the coldest part of the year. The coldest trapping period had mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 21.1 and 3.5°C respectively.

Dean, K.R. 1994. An integrated approach to stored-grain protection in Western Australia. p. 1179-1182. Highley, E.; Wright, E.J.; Banks, H.J.; Champ, B.R. (Eds.), Stored Product Protection, Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 17-23 April 1994, Canberra, Australia. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. During the period 1976-1987 the regulatory program concentrated on reducing the on-farm insect problem and managing organophosphate resistance. Since 1986 the emphasis of the on-farm program has been redirected to managing phosphine resistance and eliminating insecticide residues.

Emery, R.N. 1994. A Western Australian farm survey for phosphine-resistant grain beetles. p. 98–103..In: Highley, E., Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Champ, B.R., ed., Stored product protection. Wallingford, CAB International added Refw

Emery, R.N., Tassone, R.A., 1998. The Australian Grain Insect Resistance Database, a national approach to resistance data management. In: Banks, H. J., Wright, E. J., Damcevski, K. A. (Eds), Stored Grain in Australia. Proceedings of the Australian Postharevest Technical Conference, Canberra, 26-29 May, 1998, pp. 312-324.

Emery, R.N.; Tassone, R.A.; E. Kostas. 2001. The internet as a tool for managing grain insect resistance to fumigants on Australian farms. Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S. and Leesch J.G. [Eds.] Proc. Int. Conf. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Fresno, CA. 29 Oct. – 3 Nov. 2000, Executive Printing Services, Clovis, CA, U.S.A. pp. 541-545 have digital added Refw

Emery, Robert N., Collins, Patrick J. and Wallbank, Barry E. 2003. Monitoring and manging phosphine resistance in Australia. p.142-155. In E.J. Wright, M.C. Webb, E. Highley eds Proceedings of the Australian Postharvest Technical Conference, Canberra, 25-27 June 2003, CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Canberra.  Weak resistance is managed by reporting results directly to the collecting field officer who then provides extension information. Strong resistance is still relatively localized, so that eradication can usually be implemented urgently before the infested bulk is moved to further sites or placed into the market. If the sample comes from a bulk handling company, then the company will generally take immediate action. This includes turning the grain into another silo and treating it with an effective grain protectant. The empty storage bins are then subjected to detailed cleaning protocols and treated with a residual insecticide. Eradicating resistant populations from farm silos or grain merchant premises is more difficult. Where strong resistance is discovered, farmers are advised personally by entomologists of the severity of the situation and offered assistance with treatment of storages and equipment. Most farmers will then willingly cooperate in eliminating the infestation—usually by treating the grain with dichlorvos and grain protectants. Eradication appears to be successful in almost all cases, since we have been unable to detect resistant insects in follow-up sampling of storages.

Emery, Robert N., Manoj K. Nayak and Joanne C. Holloway. 2011. Lessons learned from phosphine resistance monitoring in Australia. Stewart Postharvest Rev. 7(3): 1-8. Resistance monitoring project staff visit and collect samples from farms, central storages and other sectors of the industry including grain merchants and flour mills. In Western Australia a network of about 50 Department of Agriculture and Food field staff are used with an allocation of six days each. The eastern states have a smaller number of dedicated staff from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, in Queensland; and the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries who service the northern and southern regions of Australia, respectively.

In Western Australia, field staff should have phytosanitary inspector status to allow them to enter farms, because some growers may refuse entry especially if they are aware that they have poor hygiene and storage conditions and may incur some penalty, quarantine or requirement to perform storage maintenance at their own expense. While this is not the case in the eastern states, most companies and growers are happy to allow grain samples to be taken, and it allows the inspector a chance to educate the staff on procedures that may improve their storages and insect control.

Guedes, R. N. C. and E. J. G. Pereira. 2008. Maize weevil x insecticides: pyrethroid resistance, associated fitness costs and mitigation, and management implications, p. 125-150. In E. N. Burton and P. V. Williams (eds.), Crop protection research advances. Nova Science Publishers Inc.

Holloway, J.C., Falk, M.G., Emery, R.N., Collins, P.J., Nayak, M.K., 2016. Resistance to phopshine in Sitophilus oryzae in Australia: a national analysis of trends and frequencies over time and geographic spread. J. Stored Prod. Res. 69: 129-137.  Fumigation in unsealed storages, combined with a high frequency of weak resistance, were found to be the main criteria that led to the development of strong resistance in Sitophilus oryzae. Independent development, rather than gene flow via migration, appears to be primarily responsible for the geographic incidence of strong resistance to phosphine in S. oryzae.

Kang, J. K., B. R. Pittendrigh, and D. W. Onstad. 2013. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 2473-2490.

Kaur, R., E. V. Daniels, M. K. Nayak, P. R. Ebert, and D. I. Schlipalius. 2013. Determining changes in the distribution and abundance of a Rhyzopertha dominica phosphine resistance allele in farm grain storages using a DNA marker. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:685-688.

Longstaff, B. 1988. Temperature Manipulation and the Management of Insecticide Resistance in Stored Grain Pests – a Simulation Study for the Rice Weevil, Sitophilus-Oryzae. Ecol. Model. 43: 303-313.

McFarlane, J. A. 1990. Differences between some strains of stored –grain beetles in their capacity to cause grain damage: possible implications for the management of pesticide resistance. Tropical Science Series 30: 357-371.

Mohan, S., and A. Rajesh. 2016. Use of light traps in a phosphine resistance management strategy for Tribolium castaneum in Indian grain storage warehouses, pp. 410-413. In S. Navarro , D. S. Jayas and K. Alagusundaram (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, 6-11 November 2016, New Delhi, India. CAF Permanent Committee Secretariat, Winninpeg, Canada.

Nayak, M. K., J. C. Holloway, R. N. Emery, H. Pavic, J. Bartlet, and P. J. Collins. 2013. Strong resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): its characterisation, a rapid assay for diagnosis and its distribution in Australia. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:48-53.

Nayak, Manoj K., Matthew G. Falk, Robert N. Emery, Patrick J. Collins, and Joanne C. Holloway. 2017. An analysis of trends, frequencies and factors influencing the development of resistance to phosphine in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Australia. Journal of Stored Products Research 72: 35-48.  Strong resistance in T. castaneum was significantly more prevalent in quarantine intereceptions than in central storages and on farms.

Newman, C. R. 2010. A novel approach to limit the development of phosphine resistance in Western Australia. p. 1038-1044. In Carvalho, M.O.; Fields, P.G.; Adler, C.S.; Arthur, F.H.; Athanassiou, C.G.; Campbell, J.F.; Fleurat-Lessard, F.; Flinn, P.W.; Hodges, R.J.; Isikber, A.A.; Navarro, S.; Noyes, R.T.; Riudavets, J.; Sinha, K.K.; Thorpe, G.R.; Timlick, B.H.; Trematerra, P.; White, N.D.G. (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June to 2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut Berlin, Germany. From 2008, the abolition of the centralised marketing system in Australia has allowed growers opportunity to market their own grain. Australia is one of the few countries in the world where phosphine is available to farmers for the protection of grain in their own storage. Phosphine has been available to farmers in Australia since the 1950’s when the label recommendations included the use of the product in unsealed storages and admixture to a grain stream. In 2008, the label was changed and the two practices removed from the recommended-use table.

A large proportion of the funds for resistance management are derived from grain growers though a levy on delivered grain. The Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) receive this levy and invest the funds in defined research and extension projects maximising the return for the grain growers who contributed the levy. Eradication of strong resistance outbreaks at source cannot continue to be funded by government and industry in the long-term and will most likely revert to advice provided on site by qualified personnel to enable individual growers to manage the problem.

Newman, Christopher R., Robert N. Emery, and Michelle Chami. 2012. Eradication of a strain of a strong phosphine resistant insect population from steel farm silos in western Australia. p: 644-652. In Navarro, S., Banks, H.J., Jayas, D.S., Bell, C.H., Noyes, R.T., Ferizli, A.G., Emekci, M., Isikber, A.A., Alagusundaram, K. (eds.) Proc. 9th. Intern. Conf. on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Antalya, Turkey. 15-19 October 2012, ARBER Professional Congress Services, Turkey.  In June, 2008 strong resistance to phosphine in Tribolium castaneum was detected at Dalwallinu (220km north-east of Perth, Western Australia, 30.2833° S, 116.6667° E). Surrounding farms were surveyed for strong resistance to determine that eradication was possible and none was found.

Phosphine has been readily available to Australian farmers for control of grain insects since the late 1940s. Grower interviews determined that AlP in tablet formulation had been applied annually for approximately 11 years using the ineffective and dangerous method of punching holes in the product container and hanging it in the silo headspace. Strong resistance strain was created on-farm through poor fumigations in unsealed silos over many years.

The infested Dalwallinu property had nine 40-70 ton silos of which eight were found to be sealable. Rubber seals of inlet and outlet ports were replaced and pressure relief valves were refilled with oil. A hygiene program involved cleaning up spilt grain, disposing of derelict grain and removing dry grass around the silos. The concrete silo pads were cleaned and silos were sprayed with Deltamethrin. Eradication begun by fumigating at registered rates of 0.3 mgL-1 for 10 d <25°C and 1.0 mg L-1 for 7d >25°C. Pressure testing of the sealable silos ranged between 5 and 180 seconds.

Seven of the silos were found to be free of insects but some T. castaneum were trapped in the unsealed silo as well as one of the poorer silos. Both silos were re-fumigated and the grain out-loaded for seed. A tub containing approximately 25 kg of whole grain was installed under the silos to trap any insects that may have flown onto the property.

There was some uncertainty that the strong resistant strain had been eliminated in the first year because of survival in the unsealable silo and the presence of insects in the tub trap under the silos. Accordingly, two months prior to harvest 2010 a follow-up hygiene procedure was conducted on the silo area in October. All empty silos were dusted inside with ~300g of Dryacide® according to the recommended practice. Grain was fumigated soon after loading in December 2010 using bag chain formulation of AlP at ~1.5g/m³. Insects were found in one silo in April and it was re-fumigated with a bag chain of AlP at 1.5g/m³. The older unsealable silo contained a residual population of potentially strong resistant insects that could move into other silos. Ethyl Formate was used to fumigate this silo in May 2011 to eradicate the last of the insects. The Dalwallinu property was declared free of strong resistance after 18 months of follow-up inspections, sampling and resistance testing.

Opit, G., P. Collins and G. Daglish. 2012. Resistance Management, pp. 143-155. In D. W. Hagstrum, T. W. Phillips and G. Cuperus (eds.), Stored Product Protection, vol. S156. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Rajendran, S. and K. Narasimhan. 1994. Phosphine Resistance in the Cigarette Beetle Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Overcoming Control Failures during Fumigation of Stored Tobacco. Int. J. Pest Manage. 40:207-210.

Rajesh, A. and S. Mohan. 2016. Studies on Use of TNAU-UV Light Trap for Management of Phosphine Resistance in Lasioderma serricorne (F.)(Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Turmeric Warehouses. Madras Agricultural Journal 103:137-140.

Schlipalius, D., P. J. Collins, Y. Mau, and P. R. Ebert. 2006. New tools for management of phosphine resistance. Outlooks on Pest Management 17: 52-56.

Shi, M., P. J. Collins, T. J. Ridsdill-Smith, R. N. Emery, and M. Renton. 2013. Dosage consistency is the key factor in avoiding evolution of resistance to phosphine and population increase in stored‐grain pests. Pest Manag. Sci. 69: 1049-1060.

Sinclair, E., and J. Alder. 1985. Development of a Computer-Simulation Model of Stored Product Insect Populations on Grain Farms. Agricultural Systems 18: 95-113.

Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1995. Resistance Measurement and Management, Chapter 8, p. 331-397. In Bh. Subramanyam and D. W. Hagstrum eds. Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., N. Y.

Wallbank, B.E. and Farrell, J.F. 2002. Development of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica in southern New South Wales, and strategies for containment. p. 105–108. In: Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Highley, E., ed., Stored grain in Australia 2000. Canberra, CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Adelaide, 1-4 August 2000. Containment strategies included effective re-fumigation at elevated rates and admixture treatments with synergized bioresmethrin and/or dichlorvos. Retreated grain was monitored for insects before release and empty storage were cleaned and treated.

Yuchi, C., W. Hui, L. Jinhuo, and Z. Qiang. 2008. How to effectively control phosphine resistance development in stored grain insects by integrated pest management, pp. 610-615. In D. Guo, S. Navarro, J. Yang, C. Tao, Z. Jin and Y. Li et al. eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China.

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Savvidou, N.; Mills, K. A.; Bell, C. H.; Pacheco, I. A. 1994. The development of a same-day test for detecting resistance to phosphine and its application to fumigation strategies. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference – Pests & diseases. 1: 449-456.

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Mills, K. A.; Athié, I. 1999. The development of a same-day test for the detection of resistance to phosphine in Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L) and findings on the genetics of the resistance related to a strategy to prevent its increase. p. 594-602. In Zuxun, J., Quan, L., Yongsheng, L., Xianchang, T. and Lianghua, G. eds. Stored Product Protection. Proc 7th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing, Chengdu, China

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Athié, Ivânia and K. A. Mills 2005. Resistance to Phosphine in Stored-Grain Insect Pests in Brazil. Braz. J. Food Technol. 8(2): 143-147. Compares the standard FAO bioassay method no. 16 and the more rapid CSL same-day test to detect resistance to the fumigant

Hori, M., Kasaishi, Y., 2005. Development of a new assay method for quickly evaluating phosphine resistance of the cigarette beetles, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), based on knockdown of the adult beetles. Applied Entomological Zoology 40: 99-104.

Hori, M., and Y. Kasaishi. 2005. Estimation of the phosphine resistance level of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), by the knockdown time of adult. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40: 557-561.

Masatoshi, H., Y. Kasaishi, M. Hori, and Y. Kasaishi. 2006. Effects of the conditions of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), on the knockdown time by phosphine fumigation. Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 50: 13-17.

Steuerwald, R., Dierks Lange, H., Schmitt, S., 2006. Rapid bioassay for determining the phosphine tolerance. p. 306-311. In: Lorini, I., Bacaltchuk, B. Beckel, H., Deckers, D. Sundfeld, E., dos Santos, J.P., Biagi, J.D., Celaro, J.C., Faroni, L.R.D’A., Bortolini, L.deO.F., Sartori, M.R., Elias, M.C., Guedes, R.N.C., da Fonseca, R.G., Scussel, V.M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 15-18 October 1994. Campinas, ABRAPOS, Brasil

Cao Yang, Zhang JianJun and Merv. Bengston 2007. Studies on a quick method to measure resistance of four strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to phosphine. p. 603-606. In Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S., Bell, C., Jayas, D., Noyes, R., Phillips, T.W (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Gold-Coast, Queensland, Australia, 8-13 August 2004, FTIC Ltd. Publishing.

Nayak, M.K., Collins, P.J., Holloway, J.C., Emery, R.N., Pavic, H. and Bartlet, J. 2013. Strong resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): its characterization, a rapid assay for diagnosis and its distribution in Australia. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:48-53

Cato, Aaron 2015. Phosphine resistance in North American Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Master of Science Department of Entomology, Kansas State University

Athanassiou, Christos G., Kavallieratos, N.G., Brabec, D.L., Oppert, B., Guedes, Raul Narcisco C., Campbell, James F. 2018. From narcosis to recovery: development of a rapid diagnostic test for phosphine resistance. p. 1006-1008. In Adler, C.S.; Opit, G.; Fürstenau, B.; Müller-Blenkle, C.; Kern, P.; Arthur, F.H.; Athanassiou, C.G.; Bartosik, R.; Campbell, J.; Carvalho, M.O.; Chayaprasert, W.; Fields, P.; Li, Z.; Maier, D.; Nayak, M.; Nukenine, E.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Phillips, T.; Riudavets, J.; Throne, J.; Schöller, M.; Stejskal, V.; Talwana, H.; Timlick, B.; Trematerra, P. eds. Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018.

Sakka, Maria K., Maria Riga, John Vontas, Marie Carolin Gotze, Jonny Allegra, Jakob Gehard and Christos G. Athanassiou 2018. Evaluation of tolerance/resistance to phosphine of stored product beetle populations from Europe, by using different diagnostic methods. p. 1008-1013. In Adler, C.S.; Opit, G.; Fürstenau, B.; Müller-Blenkle, C.; Kern, P.; Arthur, F.H.; Athanassiou, C.G.; Bartosik, R.; Campbell, J.; Carvalho, M.O.; Chayaprasert, W.; Fields, P.; Li, Z.; Maier, D.; Nayak, M.; Nukenine, E.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Phillips, T.; Riudavets, J.; Throne, J.; Schöller, M.; Stejskal, V.; Talwana, H.; Timlick, B.; Trematerra, P. eds. Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018. have Refw

Athanassiou, Christos G., Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Brabec, Daniel L.; Oppert, Brenda; Guedes, Raul N.C.; Campbell, James F. 2019. From immobilization to recovery: Towards the development of a rapid diagnostic indicator for phosphine resistance. J. Stored Prod. Res. 80: 28-33.

Athanassiou, Christos G., Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Daniel L. Brabec, Paraskevi Agrafioti, Maria Sakka and James F. Campbell 2019. Using immobilization as a quick diagnostic indicator for resistance to phosphine. J. Stored Prod. Res. 82: 17-26.

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