The following list expands, updates and rearranges the list of pesticides, insect species and countries summarized in the Subramanyam and Hagstrum (1996) paper for which resistance ratios have been calculated for field-collected strains of insects. At the bottom of page, there is an annotated list of references on monitoring and managing pesticide resistance. Research since 1991 has examined the use of phosphine-induced narcosis as a same-day test for phosphine resistance. Majority of susceptible insects are immobilized while resistant individuals are still active.
Resistance ratio is the LD50 for resistant insects divided by the LD50 for susceptible insects. The LD50 is the pesticide dose killing 50% of the insect population. With a higher resistance ratio, a higher pesticide dose may be required to control insect pests. The resistance ratios for the LD50 tend to be conservative since the resistance ratios calculated for LD90, LD95 or LD99.9 are often higher than those for LD50. This resistance may be a result of the insect detoxifying a pesticide, modification of the target site binding a pesticide or reduced penetration of a pesticide into the insect. Resistance screening generally does not test for behavioral resistance. The following list is sorted by pesticide and then by the maximum resistance ratios so that the reader can see how the published resistance ratios for a pesticide vary with insect species, year and country.
In the following list, resistance ratios at LD50 have been calculated in a number of studies or for more than one pesticide (n) for 16 insect species: Acanthoscelides obtectus (Aobt, n=1), Alphitobius diaperinus (Adia, n=1), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Cfer, n=1), Cadra cautella (Ccau, n=12), Ephestia kuehniella (Ek, n=1), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Osur, n=30), Plodia interpunctella (Plodia, n=12), Rhyzopetha dominica (Rdom, n=16), Sitophilus granarius (Sgra, n=8), Sitophilus oryzae (Sory, n=13), Sitophilus zeamais (Szea, n=14), Tribolium castaneum (Tcas, n=66), Tribolium confusum (Tcon, n=18), Trogoderma granarium (Tgra, n=3), Trogoderma versicolor (Tver, n=1) and Typhaea stercorea (Tser, n=2) (Freqency Distributions). Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Tribolium castaneum were the most studied insect species. Resistance ratios have been calculated in 60 studies on 26 pesticides and for insects from 24 countries, the majority (58%) were for insects from Australia or the United States (US). Together lindane, malathion and pirimiphos methyl were 42% of the 197 pesticide-insect species-study-country combinations and the pesticides included four fumigants: ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, methyl bromide and phosphine. Seventy six of these 197 records (38.4%) were more recent than 1995. Most of the studies were with adults, but seven studies were with larvae of Ccau (Arthur et al 1988, Attia et al 1979, Zettler 1977), Ek (Attia et al 1979), Plodia (Arthur et al 1988, Attia et al 1979), Tgra (Ahmedani et al 2007, Borah and Chahal 1979, Udeaan 1990) and Tver (Obretenchev 2011). Borah and Chahal (1979) also determined resistance ratio for eggs and pupae. Zettler (1977) compared the resistance ratios for diapausing and non-diapausing Ccau. Sardesai (1972) did not calculate resistance ratio, but found that diapausing and non-diapausing Plodia larvae were equally susceptible to hydrogen cyanide and that diapausing larvae were 1.8 times more resistant to methyl bromide.
This list (Full List) includes the resistance ratios for 1029 insect populations and the number of populations is included in parentheses when a range for resistance ratios is given. Because these resistance ratios are for so many pesticides (26), insect species (16), countries (26) and a 42 year period, resistance ratios for these 1029 populations provide only some general trends for the changes in resistance. When the 1029 resistance ratios are summarized into three time periods (1959-1975, 1976-1990 and 1991-2011) and four resistance ratio ranges (1 = none or slight resistance (0.9-5 resistance ratios), 2 = moderate resistance (5.1-20 resistance ratios), 3 = high resistance (21-100 resistance ratio) and 4 = very high resistance (>100 resistance ratios)) (Freqency Distributions), the levels of resistance were similar for the three time periods, i. e., 79.3% of the populations are resistance level 1, 12.0% are resistance level 2, 5.2% are resistance level 3 and 3.6% are resistance level 4 for the first time period; 52.1% are resistance level 1, 18.6% are resistance level 2, 11.3 are resistance level 3 and 18.0% are resistance level 4 for the second time period and 58.4% are resistance level 1, 23.9% are resistance level 2, 12.3% are resistance level 3 and 5.4% are resistance level 4 for the third time period. None or slight resistance was reported for 79.3, 52.1 and 58.4% of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. Moderate resistance was reported for 12.0, 18.6 and 23.9% of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. High resistance was reported for 5.2, 11.3 and 12.3 of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. Very high resistance was reported for 3.6, 18.0 and 5.4% of the populations during the three time periods, respectively. The similarity of the resistance ratios over time periods may at least in part be the results of insecticides being replaced by newer insecticides, i. e., lindane by malathion and malathion by others. Differences in resistance ratios among the three time periods are in part the results of differences in the insect species, pesticides and countries for which resistance ratios were reported. The primary insect species were: 1) Szea and Tcas, 2) Plodia and Tcas, and 3) Rdom and Tcas during the three time periods, respectively. The total numbers of pesticides tested were 8, 22 and 14 during the three time periods, respectively. During the three time periods, 1) Lindane and malathion, 2) dichlorvos and malathion, and 3) malathion and phosphine were the most prevalent pesticides, respectively. The majority of insect populations were from: 1) Kenya and US, 2) Australia and US and 3) Italy and Brazil during the three time periods, respectively.
Pesticide Insect Species Resist Ratio Study, Country
bioresmethrin Osur 3 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
bioresmethrin Osur 3.8, 3.9 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
bioresmethrin Tcas 4.2, 12 Collinsb1990, Australia
carbaryl Osur >14, >14 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
carbaryl Tcas 18, 86 Collins 1990, Australia
carbaryl Osur 150 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
chlorpyrifos Tcas 1.5-2.7(7) Rossi 2010, Italy
chlorpyrifos Tcon 0.8, 5.7 Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
chlorpyrifos Tcon 0.7-9.3(11) Rossi 2010, Italy
chlorpyrifos Tcas 2.8-11.7(3) Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
chlorpyrifos methyl Szea 1.1, 1.2 Ribeiro et al 2003, Brazil
chlorpyrifos methyl Plodia 0.8-1.3(8) Arthur et al 1988, US
chlorpyrifos methyl Sgra 0.8-2.7(4) Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
chlorpyrifos methyl Osur 2.2, 2.9 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
chlorpyrifos methyl Osur 3.1 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
chlorpyrifos methyl Tcas 1.7, 3.4 Collins 1990, Australia
chlorpyrifos methyl Ccau 1.8-4.1(7) Arthur et al 1988, US
chlorpyrifos methyl Rdom 21.3-100.4(8) Guedes et al 1996, Brazil
chlorpyrifos methyl Rdom 5.6-167.9(7) Guedes et al 1996, US
cyfluthrin Osur 2 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
cyfluthrin Tcas 4.1, 270 Collins 1990, Australia
cyhalothrin Tcas 4.2, 310 Collins 1990, Australia
cypermethrin Szea 0.7-1.4(4) Ribeiro et al. 2003, Brazil
cypermethrin Tcon 0.3, 1.4 Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
cypermethrin Sgra 1-2.1(4) Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
cypermethrin Osur 2.4 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
cypermethrin Tcon 0.3-2.7(9) Rossi 2010, Italy
cypermethrin Tcas 3-8(3) Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
cypermethrin Tcas 3-14(6) Rossi 2010, Italy
cypermethrin Adia 1-92(8) Chernaki-Leffer 2011, Brazil
cypermethrin Tcas 3.2, 130 Collins 1990, Australia
DDT Tcas 2.3 Bhatia et al 1971, India
DDT Osur 6.2, 6.4 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
DDT Szea 1.3-14.1(9) Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
DDT Sory 16.6, 17.9 Santhoy-Morallo-Rejesus 1984, Philippines
DDT Tcas 1.5-84.2(3) Speirs 1971, US
deltamethrin Tcas 0.1 Stadler 2003, Argentina
deltamethrin Tcon 0.3, 0.5 Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
deltamethrin Tcas 0.5-1.5(3) Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
deltamethrin Szea 1.2, 1.8 Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
deltamethrin Osur 2.2 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
deltamethrin Tcas 0.5-14(7) Rossi 2010, Italy
deltamethrin Tcon 0.5-16.7(11) Rossi 2010, Italy
deltamethrin Sgra 5.8-20.9(4) Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
deltamethrin Rdom 1-63.8(12) Chen 2013, Taiwan
deltamethrin Rdom 1-873.8(11) Lorini-Galley 1999, Brazil
deltamethrin Tcas 19, 950 Collins 1990, Australia
deltamethrin Sory 2633.7 Guedes et al 1994, Brazil
diazinon Tcas 0.5-1.6(7) Rossi 2010, Italy
diazinon Tcon 0.5, 2.2 Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
diazinon Tcas 0.6-3(3) Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
diazinon Tcon 0.5-10.4(11) Rossi 2010, Italy
dichlorvos Ccau 1.1-1.3(8) Zettler 1982, US
dichlorvos Plodia 1.1-1.9(6) Zettler 1982, US
dichlorvos Ccau 1.4-2.3(6) Arthur et al 1988, US
dichlorvos Tcas 1.1-2.7(4) Zettler 1982, US
dichlorvos Sgra 1.5-3.3(4) Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
dichlorvos Osur 3.9 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
dichlorvos Rdom 4,6 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
dichlorvos Osur 7.8, 8.2 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
dichlorvos Plodia 2.1-9.3(16) Arthur et al 1988, US
dichlorvos Tcas 0.9-10.5(13) Saxena-Sinha 1989, India
dichlorvos Adia 1-134.4(8) Chernaki-Leffer 2011, Brazil
d-Phenothrin Tcas 8.3, 25 Collins 1990, Australia
ethylene dibromide Tcas 0.9-1.1(10) Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
ethylene dibromide Tcon 1-1.8(7) Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
fenitrothion Tcas 7 Stadler 2003, Argentina
fenitrothion Tcas 8.2, 9.5 Collins 1990, Australia
fenitrothion Sory 14.3 Collins et al 1993, Australia
fenitrothion Osur 145 Collins-Wilson 1986, Australia
fenitrothion Osur 172.3 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
fenitrothion Osur 164, 244 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
fenvalerate Tcas 4.4, 29 Collins 1990, Australia
flucythrinate Tcas 4.4, 77 Collins 1990, Australia
fluvalinate Tcas 2.6, 9 Collins 1990, Australia
hydrogen cyanide Tcas 1-1.4(10) Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
hydrogen cyanide Tcon 0.9-1.4(7) Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
lindane Sory 0.3 Stadler 2003, Argentina
lindane Tcas 1 Bhatia et al 1971, India
lindane Osur 2 Parkin 1965, England
lindane Sgra 2.5 Parkin 1965, South Africa
lindane Sory 2, 2.6 Parkin 1965, Tanzania
lindane Osur 2.7 Parkin 1965, Kenya
lindane Szea 3.1 Parkin 1965, Zimbabwe
lindane Szea 2, 3.7 Parkin 1965, Kenya (Thailand)
lindane Szea 7.9 Parkin 1965, Trinidad (Thailand)
lindane Sory 9.5 Parkin 1965, Kenya
lindane Sory 13.2 Parkin 1965, Trinidad
lindane Szea 5-22(9) Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
lindane Osur >24 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
lindane Szea 1-49(48) DeLima 1972, Kenya
lindane Sory 100 McDougall 1964, Australia
malathion Tcas 0.1-0.3(6) Rossi 2010, Italy
malathion Tcas 0.2-0.3(3) Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
malathion Osur 0.5-1.1(6) Subramanyam et al 1989, US
malathion Tcon 0.8-1.2(8) Strong et al 1959, US
malathion Tcon 0.8-1.3(6) Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
malathion Tcas 0.8-1.3(39) Strong et al 1959, US
malathion Osur 1.5 Subramanyam-Harein 1990, US
malathion Tcon 0.6, 2.3 Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
malathion Tcas 2.4 Speirs 1971, US
malathion Sory 1.6-2.5(5) Pandey et al 1979, India
malathion Tcon 0.4-3.4(10) Rossi 2010, Italy
malathion Sory 4.1 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion Sgra 4.2 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion Sgra 2.5-4.4(4) Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
malathion Sory 1.2-5.8 (6) Rajak 1973, India
malathion Tcas 0.6-6.4(11) Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
malathion Sory 6.5 Stadler 2003, Argentina
malathion Ccau 1.2-7.2(6) Zettler et al 1973, US
malathion Ccau 6, 7.5 Zettler 1977, US
malathion Tcas 1.8-8.9(5) Pandey et al 1979, India
malathion Rdom 2.1-8.9(7) Guedes et al 1996, US
malathion Tcas 1.1-11.3(10) Speirs 1967, US
malathion Rdom 5.8-12.1(8) Guedes et al 1996, Brazil
malathion Tcas 12.7 Stadler 2003, Argentina
malathion Ccau 3-7.4(6) Zettler 1982, US
malathion Tcas 18, 15 Collins 1990, Australia
malathion Osur 16 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
malathion Osur 15.4, 16.6 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
malathion Tcas 2.9-18.3(9) Ataur Rahman et al 2007, Bangladesh
malathion Tcas 2-21.2(7) Rajak 1973, India
malathion Szea 1.6-31.4(10) Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
malathion Tcas 37.8 Bhatia et al. 1971, India
malathion Tcas 1-38(9) Zettler 1975, US
malathion Tcas 5.9-40.6(4) Subramanyam et al 1989, US
malathion Tcas 44 Bansode-Campbell 1979, US
malathion Tcas 6.1-46.3(7) Subramanyam-Harein 1990, US
malathion Tcas 10-60(7) Parkin 1965, Nigeria
malathion Rdom >62 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion Tser 65.7 Weinzierl-Porter 1990, US
malathion Tcas 73 Beeman 1982, US
malathion Tcas 9.6-108.7(6) Zettler 1974, US
malathion Tcas 3.6-111(3) Beeman-Nanis 1986, US
malathion Plodia 45.7->114(12) Zettler 1982, US
malathion Tcas 3.5-129.6(4) Zettler 1982, US
malathion Plodia 177-206(7) Zettler et al 1973, US
malathion Tcas 3-232.6(40) Irshad 1990, Pakistan
malathion Ek 1->244(6) Attia et al 1979, Australia
malathion Tcas >256 Greening et al. 1975, Australia
malathion Ccau 1->259(19) Attia et al 1979, Australia
malathion Plodia 1->260(15) Attia et al 1979, Australia
malathion Tcas 405.6 White-Bell 1988, Canada
methacrifos Tcas 2.3, 2.4 Collins 1990, Australia
methyl bromide Tcas 1(10) Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
methyl bromide Tcon 1-1.2(7) Lindgren-Vincent 1965, US
permethrin Osur 3.2 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
permethrin Szea 2.3-3.7(6) Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
permethrin Szea 18.75 Ribeiro et al. 2003, Brazil
permethrin Tcas 6.1, 21 Collins 1990, Australia
phosphine Ccau 1.7-2.7(3) Zettler 1991, US
phosphine Plodia 0.9-3.7(4) Zettler 1991, US
phosphine Tgra 2.5, 4.0 Ahmedani et al. 2007, Pakistan
phosphine TverL 0.8-5.9(4) Obretenchev 2011, Bulgaria
phosphine TverA 0.7-8.7(4) Obretenchev 2011, Bulgaria
phosphine Tcas 20.7 Opit et al. 2012, US
phosphine Tgra 2.4-40.7(7) Borah-Chahal 1979, India
phosphine Tgra 10.4-47.9(7) Udeaan 1990, India
phosphine Szea 1.1-86.6(21) Pimentel 2009, Brazil
phosphine Rdom 98.7-442.8(3) Opit et al. 2012, US
phosphine Rdom 3-549(21) Lorini et al. 2007, Brazil
phosphine Rdom 2.4-610.3(16) Song et al. 2011, China
pirimiphos methyl Tcas 0.9 Stadler 2003, Argentina
pirimiphos methyl Sgra 1-1.9(4) Kljajic 2006, Yugoslavia
pirimiphos methyl Tcas 1.7-2.6(4) Zettler 1982, US
pirimiphos methyl Plodia 1.4-3.2(11) Arthur et al 1988, US
pirimiphos methyl Ccau 1.7-3.5(8) Zettler 1982, US
pirimiphos methyl Szea 3, 3.7 Perez-Mendoza 1999, Mexico
pirimiphos methyl Plodia 1.1-4.1(8) Zettler 1982, US
pirimiphos methyl Rdom 2.4-4.5(7) Guedes et al 1996, US
pirimiphos methyl Tcas 5.4, 6.7 Collins 1990, Australia
pirimiphos methyl Rdom 4.4-9.2(8) Guedes et al 1996, Brazil
pirimiphos methyl Osur 22, 22 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
pirimiphos methyl Osur 33 Collins-Wilson 1987, Australia
pirimiphos methyl Tser 38.2 Weinzierl-Porter 1990, US
pirimiphos methyl Ccau 1.9-50(12) Arthur et al 1988, US
pirimiphos methyl Aobt 49.4, 149.8 Sriharen et al. 1991, Rwanda
pirimiphos methyl Sory 196.9, 210.2 Sriharen et al. 1991, Rwanda
pyrethin, synergized Ccau 0.9-1.4(7) Arthur et al 1988, US
pyrethin, synergized Plodia 1.4-4.8(20) Arthur et al 1988, US
pyrethin, synergized Osur 2.3, 2.4 Attia-Frecker 1984, Australia
pyrethin, synergized Plodia 2.5 Zettler et al 1973, US
pyrethin, synergized Ccau 2.5, 3.3 Zettler et al 1973, US
pyrethrins Tcon 0.7-1.3(6) Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
pyrethrins Tcas 1.2-2.1(3) Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
pyrethrins Tcon 1.4, 3 Rofrano et al. 2009, Italy
pyrethrins Tcas 1.2-4.9(7) Rossi 2010, Italy
pyrethrins Tcas 0.6-5.7(11) Vincent-Lindgren 1967, US
pyrethrins Tcon 0.9-8.6(11) Rossi 2010, Italy
spinosad Rdom 0.5, 1 Huang et al 2004, US
spinosad Rdom 1, 1 Sehgal et al 2013, US
spinosad Plodia 1.7, 1.7 Huang et al 2004, US
spinosad Cfer 1.7 Huang et al 2004, US
spinosad Tcas 1.7, 2.2 Sehgal et al 2013, US
spinosad Rdom 1-2.7(16) Chen 2013, Taiwan
spinosad Osur 3.4, 4.5 Sehgal et al 2013, US
spinosad Tcas 4.8, 7.5 Huang et al 2004, US
Resistance of Insects to Pesticides
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Rossi, E., S. Cosimi and A. Loni. 2010. Insecticide resistance in Italian populations of Tribolium flour beetles. Bulletin of Insectology 63: 251-258.
Santhoy, O. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1984. Toxicity of six organophosphate insecticides to field-collected DDT-resistant strains of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Phillipp. Entomol. 2: 283-290
Sardesai, J. 1972. Response of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella Lepidoptera Pyralidae to hydrogen cyanide and methyl bromide. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 1562-1565.
Saxena, J., and S. Sinha. 1989. Dichlorvos resistance in Tribolium castaneum. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 59: 191-193.
Sehgal, B., B. Subramanyam, F. H. Arthur, and B. S. Gill. 2013. Variation in susceptibility of field three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat. 106: 1911-1919. J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 1911-1919.
Song, X., P. Wang, and H. Zhang. 2011. Phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) from different geographical populations in China. African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 16367-16373.
Speirs, R. D., L. M. Redlinger and H. P. Boles. 1967. Malathion resistance in the red flour beetle. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 1373-1374.
Speirs, R. D., L. M. Redlinger and H. P. Boles. 1971. DDT-Resistant red flour beetles from a Georgia peanut sheller. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 1328-1329.
Sriharen, S., F. Dunkel, and E. Nizeyimana. 1991. Status of actellic resistance in three stored product insects infesting sorghum and beans in Rwanda., pp. 1051-1060. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc
Stadler, T., Bh. Subramanyam and A. A. Ferrero. 2003. Monitoring for insecticide resistance in major stored products pests in Argentina: a review. Agriscentia 20: 99-110.
Strong, R., G. Partida and T. Archer. 1969. Genetic plasticity of stored-product insects in relation to insecticides – comparative susceptibility of confused and red flour beetles from various aeas of California to malathion. J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 470-474.
Subramanyam, Bh. and P. K. Harein. 1990. Status of malathion and pirimiphos-methyl resistance in adults of red flour beetle and sawtoothed grain beetle infesting farm-stored corn and wheat in Minnesota. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 7: 127-136.
Subramanyam, B., P. Harein, and L. Cutkomp. 1989. Organo-phosphate resistance in adults of red flour beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and sawtoothed grain beetle (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) infesting barley stored on farms in Minnesota. J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 989-995.
Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1996. Resistance measurement and management. p. 331-397. In Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum [eds.], Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
Udeaan, A.S., 1990. Susceptibility status of Trogoderma granarium Everts populations to
phosphine in Punjab. Indian J. Ecol. 17: 195-96.
Vincent, L. E. and D. L. Lindgren. 1967. Susceptibility of laboratory and field collected cultures of the confused flour beetle and red flour beetle to malathion and pyrethrins. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 1763-1764.
Weinzierl, R. A. and R. P. Porter. 1990. Resistance of hairy fungus beetle (Coleoptera: Mycetophagidae) to pirimiphos methyl and malathion. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 325-328.
White, N., and R. Bell. 1988. Inheritance of malathion resistance in a strain of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and effects of resistance genotypes on fecundity and larval survival in malathion-treated wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 381-386.
Zettler, J. 1977. Susceptibility of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Cadra cautella to malathion. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 12: 56-58.
Zettler, J. 1974. Malathion resistance in Tribolium castaneum collected from stored peanuts. J. Econ. Entomol. 67: 339-340.
Zettler, J. 1975. Malathion resistance in strains of Tribolium castaneum collected from rice in USA. J. Stored Prod. Res. 11: 115-117.
Zettler, J. 1982. Insecticide resistance in selected stored-product insects infesting peanuts in the southeastern United-States. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 359-362.
Zettler, J. L. 1991. Phosphine resistance in stored product insects in the United States. p. 1075-1082. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc
Zettler, J. L., McDonald, L. L., Redlinger, L. M. and Jones, R. D. 1973. Plodia interpunctella and Cadra cautella resistance in strains to malathion and synergized pyrethrins. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 1049-1050.
Resistance monitoring and management
Bhatia, S. K. 1988. Status and management of insecticide resistance in agricultural pests in India. J. Insect Sci. 1: 1-7.
Bridgeman, B.W., Davis, D. and Reid, R. 2002. Resistance management; a case study. 137–138. In: Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Highley, E., ed., Stored grain in Australia 2000. Proceeding of the Australian Postharvest Technical Conference, Adelaide, 1-4 August 2000 Canberra, CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory. In 1997, GRAINCO Australia experienced a series of control failures in a storage facility located in Millmerran, Queensland. Storages at the depot at Millmerran, near Toowoomba on the Darling Downs of Queensland are of the South Australian type. There are eight 2000 t cells and two 500 t cells. They are unsealed, of the open-top type and are fitted for SIROFLO® fumigation.
The bins in which resistance was detected contained wheat that had been held for 2 years. The grain had been fumigated between 6 and 8 times, depending on the bin. Resistance was detected following survival of Rhyzopertha dominica of a fumigation rate of 50 ppm phosphine for 15 days. The usual target rate is 35 ppm for 15 days. Grainco was using the higher rate to gain efficacy at all sites.
For the bins containing grain, the grain was turned and treated with full rates of bioresmethrin and reldan. Empty bins were cleaned and structurally treated with Alfracon. The grain path and other areas were also cleaned and disinfested. The bins were subsequently sealed (doors were replaced) and phosphine fumigation was by recirculation. The resistance alert was suspended following two seasons of nil detections of a high level of Rhyzopertha dominica phosphine resistance. Subsequent alerts at Dalby and Miles were dealt with with similar results.
Bridgeman Barry and Collins Pat 2012. Resistance management in stored products fumigation. p. 633-637. In: Navarro S, Banks HJ, Jayas DS, Bell CH, Noyes RT, Ferizli AG, Emekci M, Isikber AA, Alagusundaram K, eds. Proc 9th. Int. Conf. on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Antalya, Turkey. 15 – 19 October 2012, ARBER Professional Congress Services, Turkey
Collins, P. J. 1991. Management of resistance to insecticides in stored grain: resistance risk and impact assessment., pp. 983-988. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 9-14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc.
Collins, P.J. 1994. Resistance considerations for choosing protectants. p. 755–761. In: Highley, E., Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Champ, B.R., ed., Stored product protection. Wallingford, CAB International
Collins, P.J., Daglish, G.J., Nayak, M.K., Ebert, P., Schlipalius, D., Chen, W., Pavic, H., Lambkin, T.M., Kopittke, R.A. and Bridgeman, B.W. 2001. Combating resistance to phosphine in Australia. p. 593–607. In: Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S. and Leesch, J., ed., Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products 2000, Fresno, CA, USA.
Collins, Patrick J., Robert N. Emery and Barry E. Wallbank 2003. Two decades of monitoring and managing phosphine resistance in Australia. p. 570-575. In Credland, P.F.; Armitage, D.M.; Bell, C.H.; Cogan, P.M.; Highley, E. eds.Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002, York, UK. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom
Collins, P.J., Falk, M.G., Nayak, M.K., Emery, R.N., Holloway, J.C., 2017. Monitoring resistance to phosphine in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in Australia: a national analysis of trends, storage types and geography in relation to resistance detections. J. Stored Prod. Res. 70: 25-36. Strong resistance was significantly more common in central storages, particularly bunker storages, than on farms.
Collins, Patrick J. and David I. Schlipalius. 2018. Insecticide Resistance. p. 169-182 In Athanassiou, Christos G.; Arthur, Frank eds.Recent Advances in Stored Product Protection, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
Daglish, G. J., A. W. Ridley, and G. H. Walter. 2010. Resistance management and the ecology of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in subtropical Australia, pp. 104-109. In M. O. Carvalho, P. G. Fields, C. S. Adler, F. H. Arthur, C. G. Athanassiou, J. F. Campbell, F. Fleurat-Lessard, P. W. Flinn, R. J. Hodges, A. A. Isikber, S. Navarro, R. T. Noyes, J. Riudavets, K. K. Sinha, G. R. Thorpe, B. H. Timlick, P. Trematerra and N. D. G. White (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June-2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut, Berlin, Germany. More Rhyzopertha dominica were caught than Tribolium castaneum, similar numbers of R. dominica were caught near farm silos and in paddocks at least 1 km from the nearest silo, and more T. castaneum were caught near silos than in paddocks. Females have mated before emigrating. Spread of resistance genes may be faster than would occur if most emigrating females were virgins. Adults of both species were trapped throughout the year with the lowest numbers corresponding to the coldest part of the year. The coldest trapping period had mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 21.1 and 3.5°C respectively.
Dean, K.R. 1994. An integrated approach to stored-grain protection in Western Australia. p. 1179-1182. Highley, E.; Wright, E.J.; Banks, H.J.; Champ, B.R. (Eds.), Stored Product Protection, Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 17-23 April 1994, Canberra, Australia. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. During the period 1976-1987 the regulatory program concentrated on reducing the on-farm insect problem and managing organophosphate resistance. Since 1986 the emphasis of the on-farm program has been redirected to managing phosphine resistance and eliminating insecticide residues.
Emery, R.N. 1994. A Western Australian farm survey for phosphine-resistant grain beetles. p. 98–103..In: Highley, E., Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Champ, B.R., ed., Stored product protection. Wallingford, CAB International added Refw
Emery, R.N., Tassone, R.A., 1998. The Australian Grain Insect Resistance Database, a national approach to resistance data management. In: Banks, H. J., Wright, E. J., Damcevski, K. A. (Eds), Stored Grain in Australia. Proceedings of the Australian Postharevest Technical Conference, Canberra, 26-29 May, 1998, pp. 312-324.
Emery, R.N.; Tassone, R.A.; E. Kostas. 2001. The internet as a tool for managing grain insect resistance to fumigants on Australian farms. Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S. and Leesch J.G. [Eds.] Proc. Int. Conf. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Fresno, CA. 29 Oct. – 3 Nov. 2000, Executive Printing Services, Clovis, CA, U.S.A. pp. 541-545 have digital added Refw
Emery, Robert N., Collins, Patrick J. and Wallbank, Barry E. 2003. Monitoring and manging phosphine resistance in Australia. p.142-155. In E.J. Wright, M.C. Webb, E. Highley eds Proceedings of the Australian Postharvest Technical Conference, Canberra, 25-27 June 2003, CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Canberra. Weak resistance is managed by reporting results directly to the collecting field officer who then provides extension information. Strong resistance is still relatively localized, so that eradication can usually be implemented urgently before the infested bulk is moved to further sites or placed into the market. If the sample comes from a bulk handling company, then the company will generally take immediate action. This includes turning the grain into another silo and treating it with an effective grain protectant. The empty storage bins are then subjected to detailed cleaning protocols and treated with a residual insecticide. Eradicating resistant populations from farm silos or grain merchant premises is more difficult. Where strong resistance is discovered, farmers are advised personally by entomologists of the severity of the situation and offered assistance with treatment of storages and equipment. Most farmers will then willingly cooperate in eliminating the infestation—usually by treating the grain with dichlorvos and grain protectants. Eradication appears to be successful in almost all cases, since we have been unable to detect resistant insects in follow-up sampling of storages.
Emery, Robert N., Manoj K. Nayak and Joanne C. Holloway. 2011. Lessons learned from phosphine resistance monitoring in Australia. Stewart Postharvest Rev. 7(3): 1-8. Resistance monitoring project staff visit and collect samples from farms, central storages and other sectors of the industry including grain merchants and flour mills. In Western Australia a network of about 50 Department of Agriculture and Food field staff are used with an allocation of six days each. The eastern states have a smaller number of dedicated staff from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, in Queensland; and the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries who service the northern and southern regions of Australia, respectively.
In Western Australia, field staff should have phytosanitary inspector status to allow them to enter farms, because some growers may refuse entry especially if they are aware that they have poor hygiene and storage conditions and may incur some penalty, quarantine or requirement to perform storage maintenance at their own expense. While this is not the case in the eastern states, most companies and growers are happy to allow grain samples to be taken, and it allows the inspector a chance to educate the staff on procedures that may improve their storages and insect control.
Guedes, R. N. C. and E. J. G. Pereira. 2008. Maize weevil x insecticides: pyrethroid resistance, associated fitness costs and mitigation, and management implications, p. 125-150. In E. N. Burton and P. V. Williams (eds.), Crop protection research advances. Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Holloway, J.C., Falk, M.G., Emery, R.N., Collins, P.J., Nayak, M.K., 2016. Resistance to phopshine in Sitophilus oryzae in Australia: a national analysis of trends and frequencies over time and geographic spread. J. Stored Prod. Res. 69: 129-137. Fumigation in unsealed storages, combined with a high frequency of weak resistance, were found to be the main criteria that led to the development of strong resistance in Sitophilus oryzae. Independent development, rather than gene flow via migration, appears to be primarily responsible for the geographic incidence of strong resistance to phosphine in S. oryzae.
Kang, J. K., B. R. Pittendrigh, and D. W. Onstad. 2013. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 106: 2473-2490.
Kaur, R., E. V. Daniels, M. K. Nayak, P. R. Ebert, and D. I. Schlipalius. 2013. Determining changes in the distribution and abundance of a Rhyzopertha dominica phosphine resistance allele in farm grain storages using a DNA marker. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:685-688.
Longstaff, B. 1988. Temperature Manipulation and the Management of Insecticide Resistance in Stored Grain Pests – a Simulation Study for the Rice Weevil, Sitophilus-Oryzae. Ecol. Model. 43: 303-313.
McFarlane, J. A. 1990. Differences between some strains of stored –grain beetles in their capacity to cause grain damage: possible implications for the management of pesticide resistance. Tropical Science Series 30: 357-371.
Mohan, S., and A. Rajesh. 2016. Use of light traps in a phosphine resistance management strategy for Tribolium castaneum in Indian grain storage warehouses, pp. 410-413. In S. Navarro , D. S. Jayas and K. Alagusundaram (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, 6-11 November 2016, New Delhi, India. CAF Permanent Committee Secretariat, Winninpeg, Canada.
Nayak, M. K., J. C. Holloway, R. N. Emery, H. Pavic, J. Bartlet, and P. J. Collins. 2013. Strong resistance to phosphine in the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): its characterisation, a rapid assay for diagnosis and its distribution in Australia. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:48-53.
Nayak, Manoj K., Matthew G. Falk, Robert N. Emery, Patrick J. Collins, and Joanne C. Holloway. 2017. An analysis of trends, frequencies and factors influencing the development of resistance to phosphine in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Australia. Journal of Stored Products Research 72: 35-48. Strong resistance in T. castaneum was significantly more prevalent in quarantine intereceptions than in central storages and on farms.
Newman, C. R. 2010. A novel approach to limit the development of phosphine resistance in Western Australia. p. 1038-1044. In Carvalho, M.O.; Fields, P.G.; Adler, C.S.; Arthur, F.H.; Athanassiou, C.G.; Campbell, J.F.; Fleurat-Lessard, F.; Flinn, P.W.; Hodges, R.J.; Isikber, A.A.; Navarro, S.; Noyes, R.T.; Riudavets, J.; Sinha, K.K.; Thorpe, G.R.; Timlick, B.H.; Trematerra, P.; White, N.D.G. (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 27 June to 2 July 2010, Estoril, Portugal. Julius Kühn-Institut Berlin, Germany. From 2008, the abolition of the centralised marketing system in Australia has allowed growers opportunity to market their own grain. Australia is one of the few countries in the world where phosphine is available to farmers for the protection of grain in their own storage. Phosphine has been available to farmers in Australia since the 1950’s when the label recommendations included the use of the product in unsealed storages and admixture to a grain stream. In 2008, the label was changed and the two practices removed from the recommended-use table.
A large proportion of the funds for resistance management are derived from grain growers though a levy on delivered grain. The Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) receive this levy and invest the funds in defined research and extension projects maximising the return for the grain growers who contributed the levy. Eradication of strong resistance outbreaks at source cannot continue to be funded by government and industry in the long-term and will most likely revert to advice provided on site by qualified personnel to enable individual growers to manage the problem.
Newman, Christopher R., Robert N. Emery, and Michelle Chami. 2012. Eradication of a strain of a strong phosphine resistant insect population from steel farm silos in western Australia. p: 644-652. In Navarro, S., Banks, H.J., Jayas, D.S., Bell, C.H., Noyes, R.T., Ferizli, A.G., Emekci, M., Isikber, A.A., Alagusundaram, K. (eds.) Proc. 9th. Intern. Conf. on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Antalya, Turkey. 15-19 October 2012, ARBER Professional Congress Services, Turkey. In June, 2008 strong resistance to phosphine in Tribolium castaneum was detected at Dalwallinu (220km north-east of Perth, Western Australia, 30.2833° S, 116.6667° E). Surrounding farms were surveyed for strong resistance to determine that eradication was possible and none was found.
Phosphine has been readily available to Australian farmers for control of grain insects since the late 1940s. Grower interviews determined that AlP in tablet formulation had been applied annually for approximately 11 years using the ineffective and dangerous method of punching holes in the product container and hanging it in the silo headspace. Strong resistance strain was created on-farm through poor fumigations in unsealed silos over many years.
The infested Dalwallinu property had nine 40-70 ton silos of which eight were found to be sealable. Rubber seals of inlet and outlet ports were replaced and pressure relief valves were refilled with oil. A hygiene program involved cleaning up spilt grain, disposing of derelict grain and removing dry grass around the silos. The concrete silo pads were cleaned and silos were sprayed with Deltamethrin. Eradication begun by fumigating at registered rates of 0.3 mgL-1 for 10 d <25°C and 1.0 mg L-1 for 7d >25°C. Pressure testing of the sealable silos ranged between 5 and 180 seconds.
Seven of the silos were found to be free of insects but some T. castaneum were trapped in the unsealed silo as well as one of the poorer silos. Both silos were re-fumigated and the grain out-loaded for seed. A tub containing approximately 25 kg of whole grain was installed under the silos to trap any insects that may have flown onto the property.
There was some uncertainty that the strong resistant strain had been eliminated in the first year because of survival in the unsealable silo and the presence of insects in the tub trap under the silos. Accordingly, two months prior to harvest 2010 a follow-up hygiene procedure was conducted on the silo area in October. All empty silos were dusted inside with ~300g of Dryacide® according to the recommended practice. Grain was fumigated soon after loading in December 2010 using bag chain formulation of AlP at ~1.5g/m³. Insects were found in one silo in April and it was re-fumigated with a bag chain of AlP at 1.5g/m³. The older unsealable silo contained a residual population of potentially strong resistant insects that could move into other silos. Ethyl Formate was used to fumigate this silo in May 2011 to eradicate the last of the insects. The Dalwallinu property was declared free of strong resistance after 18 months of follow-up inspections, sampling and resistance testing.
Opit, G., P. Collins and G. Daglish. 2012. Resistance Management, pp. 143-155. In D. W. Hagstrum, T. W. Phillips and G. Cuperus (eds.), Stored Product Protection, vol. S156. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
Rajendran, S. and K. Narasimhan. 1994. Phosphine Resistance in the Cigarette Beetle Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Overcoming Control Failures during Fumigation of Stored Tobacco. Int. J. Pest Manage. 40:207-210.
Rajesh, A. and S. Mohan. 2016. Studies on Use of TNAU-UV Light Trap for Management of Phosphine Resistance in Lasioderma serricorne (F.)(Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Turmeric Warehouses. Madras Agricultural Journal 103:137-140.
Schlipalius, D., P. J. Collins, Y. Mau, and P. R. Ebert. 2006. New tools for management of phosphine resistance. Outlooks on Pest Management 17: 52-56.
Shi, M., P. J. Collins, T. J. Ridsdill-Smith, R. N. Emery, and M. Renton. 2013. Dosage consistency is the key factor in avoiding evolution of resistance to phosphine and population increase in stored‐grain pests. Pest Manag. Sci. 69: 1049-1060.
Sinclair, E., and J. Alder. 1985. Development of a Computer-Simulation Model of Stored Product Insect Populations on Grain Farms. Agricultural Systems 18: 95-113.
Subramanyam, Bh. and D. W. Hagstrum. 1995. Resistance Measurement and Management, Chapter 8, p. 331-397. In Bh. Subramanyam and D. W. Hagstrum eds. Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products, Marcel Dekker, Inc., N. Y.
Wallbank, B.E. and Farrell, J.F. 2002. Development of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica in southern New South Wales, and strategies for containment. p. 105–108. In: Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Highley, E., ed., Stored grain in Australia 2000. Canberra, CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Adelaide, 1-4 August 2000. Containment strategies included effective re-fumigation at elevated rates and admixture treatments with synergized bioresmethrin and/or dichlorvos. Retreated grain was monitored for insects before release and empty storage were cleaned and treated.
Yuchi, C., W. Hui, L. Jinhuo, and Z. Qiang. 2008. How to effectively control phosphine resistance development in stored grain insects by integrated pest management, pp. 610-615. In D. Guo, S. Navarro, J. Yang, C. Tao, Z. Jin and Y. Li et al. eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China.
Zeng, L. 1999. Development and countermeasures of resistance in stored grain insects in Guangdong of China. p. 642-647. In Jin, Z., Liang, Q., Liang, Y., Tan, X. and Guan, L eds. Proc. 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 1998, Beijing, China.
Same-day test for phosphine resistance
Reichmuth, C. 1991. A Quick test to determine phosphine resistance in stored products research. GASGA Newsletters 15: 14-15.
Reichmuth, C. 1992. Schnelltest zur Resistenzbestimmung gegenüber Phosphorwasserstoff bei vorratsschädlichen Insekten (Rapid test to determine the resistance to phosphine in storage-injurious insects) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeine Angewandte Entomologie 8: 245-247.
Bell, C. H., Savvidou, N., Mills, K. A., Bradberry, S. and Barlow, M. L. 1994. A same-day test for detecting resistance to phosphine. Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection 1: 41-44.
Savvidou, N.; Mills, K. A.; Bell, C. H.; Pacheco, I. A. 1994. The development of a same-day test for detecting resistance to phosphine and its application to fumigation strategies. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference – Pests & diseases. 1: 449-456.
Waterford, C.J. and Winks, R.G. 1994 Correlation between phosphine resistance and narcotic response in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). p. 221-225. In Highley, E., Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J. and Champ, B.R. eds. Proc. 6th Int. Working Conf. on Stored-Product Protection, Canberra, Australia, 17-23 April 1994, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
Daglish, G.J. and P.J. Collins. 1999. Improving the Relevance of Assays for Phosphine Resistance, p. 584−593. In Z. Jin, Q. Liang, Y. Liang, X. Tan, and L. Guan (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection. Chengdu, Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Beijing, China.
Mills, K. A.; Athié, I. 1999. The development of a same-day test for the detection of resistance to phosphine in Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L) and findings on the genetics of the resistance related to a strategy to prevent its increase. p. 594-602. In Zuxun, J., Quan, L., Yongsheng, L., Xianchang, T. and Lianghua, G. eds. Stored Product Protection. Proc 7th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing, Chengdu, China
Zhang L 1999 Studies of the narcotic concentration of phosphine to three beetles in stored grain in China and the relationship between concentration and time. In: Zuxun, J., Quan, L., Yongsheng, L., Xianchang, T. and Lianghua, G. eds. Stored Product Protection. Proc. 7th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China. Sichuan Publishing, Chengdu, China, pp. 367-376.
Cao, Y., and D. Wang. 2000. Relationship between resistance and narcosis of stored grain insects to phosphone. J. Zhengzhou Grain College 21: 1-5.
Cao, Y.; Wang, D. 2001. Relationship between phosphine resistance and narcotic knockdown in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and S. zeamais (Motsch.). p. 609-616. In Donahaye, E.J., Navarro,S. and Leesch, J.G. (eds) Proceedings of the International Conference on Controlled Atmosphrere Fumigation Stored Products, 29 October – 3 November 2000, Fresno, CA. Executive Printing Services, Clovis, CA
Athié, Ivânia and K. A. Mills 2005. Resistance to Phosphine in Stored-Grain Insect Pests in Brazil. Braz. J. Food Technol. 8(2): 143-147. Compares the standard FAO bioassay method no. 16 and the more rapid CSL same-day test to detect resistance to the fumigant
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