Natural enemies of Tribolium castaneum

Burges and Weiser 1973, Schöller 1998, Rumbos 2017a, b and Martynov 2017 together lists 28 natural enemies for Tribolium castaneum. Table 1 Natural Enemies has these 28 and 43 other species for totals of 11 bacterium, 15 fungi, 13 protozoan, 10 nematodes, 7 acarina, 1 coleopteran, 8 hemipteran and 6 hymenopteran species. Wakil et al. (2014) list an additional 13 species of entomopathogenic fungi naturally occurring on T. castaneum. The acarina are in the families Acarophenacidae (2), Ascidae (2), Cheyletidae (1) and Pyemotidae (1), the hemipteran are in the families Anthocoridae (4), Joppeicidae (1) and Reduviidae (3) and the hymenopteran in the families Bethylidae (3), Pteromalidae (2) and Trichogrammatidae (1). The majority of natural enemies are pathogens (49) or predators (16) with only 6 are parasitoids. Only one of parasitoids, Holepyris sylvanidis, has been studied extensively on T. castaneum. More than one primary pathogen was recorded in 52.6% of the samples of Tribolium castaneum (Njila and Mwansat 2012). The majority of studies were on efficacy of natural enemies in the laboratory (62) with fewer studies on natural occurrence (24) and only 9 on field efficacy.

References cited

Adler C, Schöller M, Beier S. 2012a. Development of Insects in a Flour Mill Treated with Holepyris Sylvanidis (Hym., Bethylidae) for Biological Control of the Confused Flour Beetle, Tribolium confusum (Col., Tenebrionidae). IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 81:169–70.

Adler C, Schöller M, Beier S. 2012b Entwicklung einer Reismehlkäferpopulation bei Einsatz der Larvalparasitoiden Holepyris sylvanidis in einer Mühle (Development of a Flour Beetle Population When Releasing the Larval Parasitoid Holepyris Sylvanidis in a Flour Mill). Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung Julius-Kühn-Archiv 438, 74.

Ahmad R, Hussain MA, Shaheen A, Ali SS. 2010. Susceptibility of 23 agriculturally important insect pests to entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema masoodi (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). International Journal of Nematology 20: 157-61.

Ahmedani MS, Haque MI, Afzal SN, Iqbal U, Naz S. 2008. Scope of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner as an alternative to methyl bromide against Tribolium castaneum adults. Pak J Bot 40:2149-56.

Akmal M, Freed S, Bilal M, Malik MN. 2020. A Laboratory Evaluation for the Potential of Entomopathogenic Fungi against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology 8: 1232-35.

Alfazairy AA, El-Abed YMG, Karam HH, Ramadan HM. 2020. Morphological characteristics of local entomopathogenic protozoan strains isolated from insect cadavers of certain stored-grain pests in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 30, 7.

Al-Keridis, LA. 2016. Application of Penicillium sp as entomopathogenic fungi to control the red rust beetle Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia 12: 7-12.

Allen WW. 1967. Acarophenax tribolii – a parasitoid of Tribolium. Tribolium Information Bull. 10: 87–8.

Amante M, Russo A, Schöller M, Steidle JLM. 2018. Olfactory host location and host preference of Holepyris sylvanidis (Brèthes) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Du Val and T. castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 78:105–9.

Ardjoune AF, Tinkeu LSN, Ngatanko I, Ngassoum MB, Hance T. 2008. Functional response of Xylocoris falvipes, a biological control agent of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology 4:39-42.

Ashford RW. 1970. Some relationships between the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Lymphotropha tribolii Ashford (Neogregarinida, Schizocystidae). Acta Protozoologica 7:512–529.

Asl MHA, Talebi AA, Kamali H, Kazemi S. 2009. Stored product pests and their parasitoid wasps in Mashhad, Iran. Advances in environmental Biology 3:239-43.

Baker PS. 1967 Bionomics of Blattisocius keegani (Fox) (Acarina: Ascidae), a predator on eggs of pests of stored grains. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 45:1093–99.

Batta YA, Abu Safieh DI. 2005. A study of treatment effect with Metarhizium anisopliae and four types of dusts on wheat grain infestation with red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum Herbs., Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Islamic University of Gaza (Series of Natural Studies and Engineering) 13:11–22.

Binoy CF. 2015. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with some important stored product pests in Kerala, India. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 4:509–13.

Biswas T, Joop G, Rafaluk-Mohr C. 2018. Cross-resistance: A consequence of bi-partite host-parasite coevolution. Insects 9, 28.

Bosly HA, El-Banna OM. 2015. Isolation and identification of fungal growth on Tribolium castaneum in stored wheat flour. Journal of Entomology and Nematology 7:11-17.

Bridwell JC. 1920. Some Notes on Hawaiian and other Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) with the Description of a New Genus and Species. 2nd Paper. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 4:291-314.

Broumandnia F, Ali R. 2020. Efficacies of some isolates of Lecanicillium lecanii to control Tribolium castaneum (Col., Tenebrionidae). Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 127:625–631.

Brower JH, Press JW. 1992. Suppression of Residual Populations of Stored-Product Pests in Empty Corn Bins by Releasing the Predator Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter). Biological Control 2:66–72.

Bruce WA, LeCato, GL. 1979. Pyemotes Tritici – Potential Biological Control Agent of Stored-Product Insects. Recent Advances in Acarology 1:213–20

Burges HD, Weiser J. 1973. Occurrence of pathogens of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Journal Invertebrate Pathology 22:464-66.

Camara M, Borgemeister C, Markham RH, Poehling H‐M. 2003. Electrophoretic analysis of the prey spectrum of Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis) (Col., Histeridae), a predator of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae), in Mexico, Honduras, and Benin. Journal of applied entomology 127:360-8.

Cebolla R, Stano Pekár, and Jan Hubert. 2009. Prey range of the predatory mite Cheyletus malaccensis (Acari: Cheyletidae) and its efficacy in the control of seven stored-product pests. Biological Control 50:1-6.

Champ BR. 1966. Insects and mites associated with stored products in Queensland. 4. Acarina and Pseudoscorpiones. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 23:197–210.

Chu, Yau-I. 1969. On the bionomics of Lyctocoris beneficus (Hiura) and Xylocoris galactinus (Fieber) (Anthocoridae, Heteroptera). Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 15:1-136.

Donnelly BE, Phillips TW. 2001. Functional response of Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) – effects of prey species and habitat. Environmental Entomology, 30:617-24.

Elgizawy KK, Ashry NM. 2019.Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis strains and their Cry proteins against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Egypt. J. Biol. Pest Control 29, 94.

Er MK, Tunaz H, Ceyda UCUK, Bariş C, Işikber AA. 2016. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on insect pests of stored wheat and maize in Central and South Anatolia in Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 40:249-63.

Fisher FMJ, Sanborn RC. 1962. Observations on the susceptibility of some insects to Nosema (Microsporidia: Sporozoa). Journal of Parasitology 48:926–32.

Flinn PW, Kramer K.J, Throne JE, Morgan TD. 2006. Protection of stored maize from insect pests using a two-component biological control method consisting of a hymenopteran parasitoid, Theocolax elegans, and transgenic avidin maize powder. Journal of Stored Products Research 42:218–25.

Ghose S, Haldar DP. 1989. Role of environmental factors in the incidence of two new species of apicomplexan parasites, Hirmocystis lophocateri sp. n. and Hirmocystis triboli sp. n. from coleopteran insects. Acta Protozoologica 28:49-60

Ghose S, Sengupta T, Haldar DP. 1986. Two new septate gregarines (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea), Gregarina basiconstrictonea sp. n. and Hirmocystis oxeata sp. n. from Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Acta Protozoologica 25:93-108.

Gigliolli AAS, Julio AHF, Conte H. 2016. The life cycle of Gregarina cuneata in the midgut of Tribolium castaneum and the effects of parasitism on the development of insects. Bulletin of entomological research 106: 258-67

Golshan HE, Saber MO, Majidi-Shilsar FA, Karimi F. 2013. Efficacy of nine isolates of Beauveria bassiana against adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 56:201-6.

Goodacre SL, Claudia Fricke C, Martin OY. 2015. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species. Insect Science 22:165-77.

Haines CP. 1981. Laboratory studies on the role of an egg predator, Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) (Acari: Ascidae), in relation to the natural control of Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Warehouses. Bulletin of Entomological Research 71:557–74.

Hussein AM, Kamass NA, Sultan A, Al-Saidy HA. 2013. Using some entomopathogenic fungi to control the red rust beetle Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Diyala Agricultural Science Journal 5:275-82.

Hussain, S, Aslam NA. 1970. Some observations on a beneficial reduviid bug: Amphibolus venator Klug (Fam. Reduviidae: Hemiptera). Agriculture Pakistan 21:37–42.

Ishii, S. 1914. On four polycystid gregarines from the intestine of Tribolium ferrugineum F: Annotationes Zoological Japonenses 8:435-41.

Kang, Y, Dung W-S, Tao J-P, Young C-H, Hu W-C. 1984. A preliminary study on the biology of the biannulated assassin bug, Peregrinator blannvlipes Montrouzier (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). Journal of Huazhong Agri-cultural University 1:44–7.

Kengkanpanich R, Visarathanonth P, Miyanoshita A, Imamura T, Nishi A. 2006. The biology and prey range of Peregrinator biannulipes (Montrouzier & Signoret) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a predator of stored product insect pests. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS) Working Report 45: 95-9.

Khashaveh A. 2011. The use of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in assays with storage grain beetles. Joumal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13: 35-43.

Khashaveh A, Chelav HS. 2013. Laboratory bioassay of Iranian isolates of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against two species of storage pest. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 78:35–40.

Kumari SM, Neelgund YF. 1985. Preliminary infectivity tests using six bacterial formulations against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Journal Invertebrate Pathology 46:198-9.

Kwadjo KE, Doumbia M, Tano Y, Kra KD, Douan BG, Haubruge E. 2013. Voracity of Rhynocoris albopilosus Signoret (Heteroptera: Raduviidae) nymphs against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) young ones. Journal of Biopesticides 6: 204-6.

Laird H. 1959. Gregarines from laboratory colonies of flour beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum Duval, at Montreal. Canadian Journal of Zoology 37:378-81.

LeCato, GL, Collins JM, Arbogast RT. 1977. Reduction of residual populations of stored-product insects by Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 50: 84-8

LeCato GL, Davis R. 1973. Preferences of the predator Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for species and instars of stored-product insects. Florida Entomologist 56:57-9.

LeCato, GL, Collins JM. 1976. Xylocoris flavipes Hemiptera-Anthocoridae – maximum kill of Tribolium castaneum Coleoptera-Tenebionidae and minimum kill required for survival of predator. Environmental Entomology 5: 1059–61.

Lopez JE, Gallinot LP, Wade MJ. 2005. Spread of parasites in metapopulations: an experimental study of the effects of host migration rate and local host population size. Parasitology 130: 323-32

Magda S, Moharam ME. 2014. Evaluations of Bacillus species against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under laboratory and store conditions. European Journal of Academic Essays 1: 36-41.

Martin JHD, Champ BR. 1964. Records of protozoan parasites from insect pests of stored products in Queensland. Journal of the Entomological Society of Queensland 3: 83

Martynov VO. 2017. Parasites of beetles which are pests of grain and products of its processing. Biosystems Diversity 25:342–53.

Milner, RJ. 1972. Nosema whitei, a Microsporidan Pathogen of Some Species of Tribolium III. Effect on Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 19: 248-55

Milner RJ. 1973a.Nosema whitei, a microsporidan pathogen of some species of Tribolium. IV. The effect of larval age, temperature and humidity on pathogenicity for T. casteneum. Entomophaga, 18:305–16.

Milner RJ. 1973b. Nosema whitei, a microsporidan pathogen of some species of Tribolium V. Comparative pathogenicity and host range. Entomophaga 18:383-390

Miyanoshita A, Imamura T, Visarathamonth P, 2003. Predatory ability of Joppeicus paradoxus Puton, a predator of stored-product insect pests. JIRCAS Research Highlights 2003, 44–5.

Mummigatti SG, Raghunathan AN, Karanth NGK. 1994. Bacillus thuringiensis variety tenebrionis (DSM-2803) in the control of coleopteran pests of stored wheat. Stored Product Protection, Proc. 6th. Int. Work. Conf. on Stored-Prod. Entomol., Highley E, Wright EJ, Banks HJ, Champ BR. eds. p. 1112-1115, Wallingford, United Kingdom: CAB International

Murali-Baskaran RK, Muthukrishnan N, Roy PJS, Venugopal MS. 1993. Age susceptibility of the eggs of Tribolium castaneum to Trichogramma chilonis. Trichogramma News 7, 31.

Njila HL, Mwansat GS. 2012. Evaluation of some Protozoan Pathogens of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Dermestes maculatus DeGeer. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) as possible Biocontrol Agents. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology 1: 174-9

Oliveira CRF, Faroni LRA, Guedes RNC. 2003a. Host egg preference by the parasitic mite Acarophenax lacunatus (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 39: 571-75.

Oliveira CRF, Faroni LRA, Guedes RNC, Pallini A. 2003b. Parasitism by the mite Acarophenax lacunatus on beetle pests of stored products. Biocontrol 48: 503-13.

Oliveira CRF, Faroni LRD, Gonçalves JR, Silva RM, Garcia FM. 2006a. Biology of Acarophenax lacunatus Mite and Its Potential for Parasitism on Different Densities of the Beetle Tribolium castaneum. Revista Brasileira de Armazenamento 31: 23–28.

Oliveira CRF, Faroni LRA, Guedes RNC, Pallini A, Goncalves JR. 2006b. Parasitism of the Mite Acarophenax lacunatus on Tribolium castaneum. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 41: 1059–61.

Oliveira CRF, Faroni LRA, Guedes RNC, Gonçalves JR, Garcia FM. 2007. Biologia de Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross & Krantz) (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae) sobre Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) e Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens)(Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Neotropical entomology 36: 459-64.

Padin, SB, Dal Bello GM, Vasicek AL. 1997. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana for adults of Tribolium castaneum (Col.: Tenebrionidae) in stored grains. Entomophaga 42: 569–74.

Parajulee MN, Phillips TW. 1993. Effects of prey species on development and reproduction of the predator Lyctocoris campestris (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae). Environmental Entomology 22: 1035–42.

Parajulee, MN, Phillips TW, Hogg DB. 1994. Functional-Response of Lyctocoris campestris (F.) Adults – Effects of Predator Sex, Prey Species, and Experimental Habitat. Biological Control 4: 80–7.

Park, T. 1948. Experimental studies of interspecific competition. I. competition between populations of the flour beetles Tribolium confusum Duval and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Ecological Monograph 18:267–307.

Park T, Frank, MB. 1950. The population history of Tribolium free of sporozoan infection. Journal of Animal Ecology 19:95-105.

Pingale SV. 1954. Biological control of some stored grain pests by the use of a bug predator, Amphibolus venator Klug. Indian J. Entomol. 16:300-2

Press JW, Flaherty BR, Arbogast RT. 1975. Control of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, in a warehouse by a predaceous bug, Xylocoris flavipes. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 10: 76-8.

Press JW, Flaherty BR, Arbogast RT. 1979. Vertical dispersion and control efficacy of the predator Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in farmers stock peanuts. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 52:561-4.

Press JW, LeCato GL, Flaherty BR. 1978. Influence of media particle size on the distribution of the predaceous bug Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 13:274-8.

Purrini K. 1976. The insect fauna and its diseases in some old mills of Kosava area, Yugoslavia, Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 11:305-16.

Rabindra RJ, Balasubramanian M, Jayaraj S. 1983. The susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum [Col.: Tenchrionidae] to Farinocystis tribolii [Protozoa: Schizogregarinida]. Entomophaga 28: 73-81.

Rabindra RJ, Subraman TR. 1974. First Record of Gregarine Farinocystis tribolii Weiser on Tribolium castaneum Herbst from India. Current Science 43: 688–9.

Rahman MM, Islam W, Ahmed KN. 2009. Functional response of the predator Xylocoris flavipes to three stored product insect pests. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11: 316-20.

Ramaswamy K, Vijayarangan N, Krishnaiah HE. 2009 Insecticidal effect of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). J Pure Appl Microbiol 3:637–42.

Ramos-Rodríguez O, Campbell JF, Ramaswamy SB. 2006. Pathogenicity of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes to some major stored-product insect pests. J Stored Prod Res 42:241–52.

Ramos-Rodriguez O, Campbell JF, Ramaswamy SB. 2007. Efficacy of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Riobrave against the Stored-Product Insect Pests Tribolium castaneum and Plodia Interpunctella. Biological Control 40:15–21.

Rice, WC, Cogburn RR. 1999. Activity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) against three coleopteran pests of stored grain. Journal of Economic Entomology 92:691-4.

Riudavets J, Maya M, Monserrat, M. 2002. Predation by Blattisocius tarsalis (Acari: Ascidae) on stored product pests. Integrated Protection of Stored Products IOBC Bulletin 25:121-6.

Rasool B, Khalid M, Rasul A, Mansoor-ul-Hassan FJ, Rasool A, Munir R. 2019. Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera): Population dynamics, screening of Wolbachia in different regions and cereal foods of Pakistan. Pak. Entomol 41:13-20.

Rumbos CI, Athanassiou CG. 2017. The use of entomopathogenic nematodes in the control of stored-product insects. Journal of Pest Science, 90:39-49.

Rumbos CI, Athanassiou, CG. 2017. Use of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of stored-product insects: can fungi protect durable commodities? J. Pest Sci. 90:839–854

Russo A, Cocuzza GE, Vasta MC. 2004. Life tables of Xylocoris flavipes (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) feeding on Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 40: 103-112.

Sabbour MM. 2014. Efficacy of some microbial control agents and inorganic insecticides against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Integrated Protection of Stored Products. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin 98:193-201.

Saravanan L, Gujar GT. 2006. Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in samples from warehouse and insect cadavers. Journal of Entomological Research 30: 25-28.

Schöller M. 1998 Biologische Bekämpfung vorratsschädlicher Arthropoden mit Räubern und Parasitoiden – Sammelbericht und Bibliographie (Biological control of arthropods harmful to stored products with predators and parasitoids – general report and bibliography). In: Reichmuth Ch (ed) 100 Jahre Pflanzenschutzforschung – Wichtige Arbeitsschwerpunkte im Vorratsschutz. 341 S., Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, Heft 342, Parey, Berlin. 191-226.

Shahina F, Salma J. 2011. Pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematode as a biological control agent against stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum. Pak. J. Nematol. 29:25–34.

Sengupta T, Ghosh S, Haldar, DP. 1991. The biology of Eliptocystis triboli n. gen., n. sp., infecting the larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in walnuts. Archiv für Protistenkunde 140:209-218.

Sokolova YY, Issi IV, Morzhina EV, Tokarev YS, Vossbrinck CR. 2005. Ultrastructural analysis supports transferring Nosema whitei Weiser 1953 to the genus Paranosema and creation a new combination, Paranosema whitei. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 90:122-6

Somchaudhary AK, Mukherjee AB. 1971. Bionomics of Acaropsis docta(Berlese) (Acarina: Cheyletidae), a predator on the eggs of some pests of stored grains. Indian J. Ent.33:79-81.

Tyler P. 1962. On an infection of Tribolium spp. by the sporozoan Triboliocystis garnhami Dissanaike. J. Insect Path. 4:270-272.

Wakil W, Schmitt T. 2015 Field trials on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana, diatomaceous earth and Imidacloprid for the protection of wheat grains from four major stored grain insect pests. J. Stored Prod. Res. 64:160-7.

Wakil W, Ghazanfar MU, Yasin, M. 2014. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Insect Science 14, 182.

Watwood S, Janovy JJ, Peterson E, Addison MA. 1997. Gregarina triboliorum (Eugregarinida: Gregarinidae) n. sp. from Tribolium confusum and resolution of the confused taxonomic history of Gregarina minuta Ishii, 1914. J. Parasitol.. 83:502-7.

Weiser J. 1953 Parasites of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Proc. Soc. Protozool. 4:21.

Yao, K., Deng W-X, Tao J-P, Hu W-Z. 1982. Preliminary observations of the bionomics of Peregrinator biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret. Kunchong Zhishi 19:24-7.

Zamani Z., Aminaee M.M, Khaniki G.B. 2013. Introduction of Beauveria bassiana as a biological control agent for Tribolium castaneum in Kerman province. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 46:2235-43.