Incomplete insecticide coverage

The extensive mobility of stored-product insects can often compensate for incomplete insecticide coverage. The attracticide (attract and kill) method uses an attractant to compensate for incomplete insecticide coverage as does the use of pheromones for pathogen auto-dissemination. The following list adds to the references on incomplete coverage in the Fundamentals of Stored-Product Entomology textbook. Citations for 19 studies on attracticides and 9 studies on the auto-dissemination of pathogens of stored-product insects using an attractant also are included here. Incomplete coverage also can be an issue with commodity penetrating pest management methods such as biological control, fumigation, heat treatment and irradiation for which obtaining a uniform distribution may be a problem.

Incomplete insecticide coverage

Amos, T. G., P. Williams and W. Minett. 1978. Non-uniform application of grain protectants in commercial storages. p. 344-349. In Proc. 2nd International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection.

Arthur, F. H. 1992. Efficacy of Chlorpyrifos-Methyl for Control of Maize Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and Red Flour Beetles (Tenebrionidae) in Mixtures of Treated and Untreated Corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 554-560.

Arthur, F. H. 1998. Residual studies with cyfluthrin wettable powder: toxicity toward red flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed for short intervals on treated concrete. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 309-319.

Arthur, F. H. 1999. Survival of Red Flour Beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Concrete Partially Treated with Cyfluthrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 981-987.

Arthur, F. H. 2008. Aerosol distribution and efficacy in a commercial food warehouse. Insect Sci. 15: 133-140.

Arthur, F.H., 2019. Residual efficacy of a Deltamethrin emulsifiable concentrate formulation against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) after partial treatment of brown rice. Insects 10, 95.

Arthur, F. H., and J. F. Campbell. 2008. Distribution and efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol to control Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in food storage facilities. J. Stored Prod. Res. 44: 58-64.

Arthur, Frank H., J. F. Campbell, D. L. Brabec, G. R. Ducatte, and J. E. Donaldson. 2018. Aerosol insecticide distribution inside a flour mill: Assessment using droplet measurements and bioassays. Journal of Stored Products Research 77: 26-33.

Arthur, F. H. and E. Fontenot. 2012. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom (R)). J. Pest Sci. 85(2): 277-282.

Athanassiou, C. G., F. H. Arthur and J. E. Throne. 2009. Efficacy of spinosad in layer-treated wheat against five stored-product insect species. J. Stored Prod. Res. 45: 236-240.

Athanassiou, Christos G., Frank H. Arthur, and James E. Throne. 2010. Effects of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat or maize on four stored-grain insects. Journal of economic entomology 103(1): 197-202.

Barson, G., D. A. Fleming, and E. Allan. 1992. Laboratory assessment of the behavioural responses of residual populations of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) to the contact insecticide pirimiphos-methyl by linear logistic modelling. Journal of Stored Products Research 28(3): 161-170

Barson, Graham 1991. Laboratory assessment of the residual toxicity of commercial formulations of insecticides to adult Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) exposed for short time intervals. Journal of Stored Products Research 27(4): 205-211.

Campbell, James F., Frank H. Arthur, Daniel Brabec and Deanna Scheff 2018. Temporal and Spatial Patterns in Aerosol Insecticide Droplet Distribution: Modifying Application Strategies to Improve Coverage and Efficacy. p. 998-1002.  In C.S. Adler, G. Opit, B. Fürstenau, C. Müller-Blenkle, P. Kern, F.H. Arthur, C.G. Athanassiou, R. Bartosik, J. Campbell, M.O. Carvalho, W. Chayaprasert, P. Fields, Z. Li, D. Maier, M. Nayak, E. Nukenine, D. Obeng-Ofori, T. Phillips, J. Riudavets, J. Throne, M. Schöller, V. Stejskal, H. Talwana, B. Timlick, P. Trematerra eds. Proceedings of the12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018.

Campbell, James F., Frank H. Arthur, and Kun Yan Zhu. 2014. Spatial pattern in aerosol insecticide deposition inside a flour mill. Journal of economic entomology 107(1): 440-454.

Campos, M., 2009. Attract-and-kill Methods for Plodia interpunctella, (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and Comparisons with Other Pheromone-based Methods. Ph.D. dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 114 p.

Campos, M. and T. W. Phillips. 2010. Contact toxicity of insecticides for attract and-kill applications against adult Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pest Management Science 66: 752–761.

Campos, M., and T. W. Phillips. 2013. Laboratory evaluation of attract-and-kill formulations against the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 52:12-20.

Campos, Manuel and Thomas W. Phillips. 2014. Attract-and-Kill and Other Pheromone-Based Methods to Suppress Populations of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) J. Econ. Entomol. 107(1): 473-480.

Collins, P. J., E R.Sinclair, C J. Howitt and R L. Haddrell. 1988. Dispersion of grain beetles (Coleoptera) in grain partially treated with insecticide.  J. Econ. Entomol. 81(6): 1810-1815.

Coulon, J., Barres, P. and Delorme, R. 1972. Activities of different formulations of dichlorvos applied to grain contaminated internally by Sitophilus granarius. Influence of the amount and of the homogeneity of the dispersion on emergences. Phytiatr. –Phytopharm 21: 27

Cox, P. D. and Parish, W. E. 1991. Effects of refuge content and food availability on refuge-seeking behavior in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), J. Stored Prod. Res. 27: 135-139.

Cox, P., W. Parish, and M. Beirne. 1989. Variations in the Refuge-Seeking Behavior of 4 Strains of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) at Different Temperatures. J. Stored Prod. Res. 25:239-242.

Cox, P., W. Parish, and M. Ledson. 1990. Factors Affecting the Refuge-Seeking Behavior of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 26:169-174.

Cox, P., J. Atkinson, K. Bannon, and J. Hatfield. 1993. Studies of Refuge-Seeking Behavior and Locomotory Activity in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera, Cucujidae) using Time-Lapse Video Recordings. J. Stored Prod. Res. 29:283-289.

Cox, P., D. Fleming, J. Atkinson, K. Bannon, and J. Whitfield. 1997. The effect of behaviour on the survival of Cryptolestes ferrugineus in an insecticide-treated laboratory environment. J. Stored Prod. Res. 33:257-269.

Daglish, G. J. and M. K. Nayak. 2010. Uneven application can influence the efficacy of s-methoprene against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) in wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 46: 250-253.

Desmarchelier, J. M. and A. D. Wilson. 1981. Distribution of fenitrothion applied to wheat by gravity feeding and spraying. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 21:432-434.

Haynes, K. F., W. G. Li and T. C. Baker. 1986. Control of pink bollworm moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with insecticides and pheromones (attracticide): lethal and sublethal effects. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 1466-1471.

Hodges, R. J., P. Carr and A. I. Hussein. 1999. Limiting the amount of pesticide applied to small bulks of maize in rural stores. p. 956-963. In Zuzan, J., L. Quan, L. Yongsheng, T. Xiachang, and G. Liaghua [eds.] Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Sichuan Publishing House, Chengdu, Peoples Republic of China.

Hossain, M. S., A. B. M. M. Hossain, D. G. Williams, and S. Chandra. 2013. Management of Carpophilus spp. beetles (Nitidulidae) in stone fruit orchards by reducing the number of attract-and-kill traps in neighbouring areas. Int. J. Pest Manage. 59:135-140.

Hossain, M. S., R. J. Bartelt, M. A. B. M. Hossain, D. G. Williams, and S. Chandra. 2008. Longevity of pheromone and co-attractant lures used in attract-and-kill stations for control of Carpophilus spp. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 129:148-156.

Hossain, M. S., M. A. B. M. Hossain, D. G. Williams, and S. Chandra. 2010. Potential to reduce the spatial density of attract and kill traps required for effective control of Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in stone fruit in Australia. Aust. J. Entomol. 49:170-174.

Hossain, M. S., D. G. Williams, M. A. B. M. Hossain, and S. Norng. 2007. Comparison of trap designs for use with aggregation pheromone and synthetic co-attractant in a user-friendly attract and kill system to control Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera : Nitidulidae). Aust. J. Entomol. 46:244-250.

Hossain, M., D. Williams, C. Mansfield, R. Bartelt, L. Callinan, and A. Il’ichev. 2006. An attract-and-kill system to control Carpophilus spp. in Australian stone fruit orchards. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 118:11-19.

Kavallieratos, N. G., C. G. Athanassiou and F. H. Arthur. 2015. Efficacy of Deltamethrin Against Stored-Product Beetles at Short Exposure Intervals or on a Partially Treated Rice Mass J. Econ. Entomol. 108: 1416-1421.

Kharel, Kabita, Frank H. Arthur, Kun Yan Zhu, James F. Campbell, and Bhadriraju Subramanyam. 2015. Influence of temperature and artificially-created physical barriers on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aerosol. Journal of stored products research 60: 36-42.

Kroschel J. and O. Zegarra. 2010. Attract-and-kill: a new strategy for the management of the potato tuber moths Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen) in potato – laboratory experiments towards optimizing pheromone and insecticide concentration. Pest Manag Sci 66:490–496.

Kroschel, Jurgen and Octavio Zegarra 2013. Attract-and-kill as a new strategy for the management of the potato tuber moths Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen) in potato: evaluation of its efficacy under potato field and storage conditions. Pest Manag Sci  69:1205-1215.

Minett, W. and P. Williams. 1971. Influence of malathion distribution on the protection of wheat grain against insect infestation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 7: 233-242.

Minett, W. and P. Williams. 1976. Assessment of non-uniform malathion distribution for insect control in a commercial wheat silo. J. Stored Prod. Res. 12: 27-33.

Muda, R. and B. W. Cribb. 1999. Effect of uneven application of azadirachtin on reproductive and anti-feedant behaviour of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera : Bostrichidae). Pesticide Science 55 (10): 983-987.

Mvumi, Brighton M., T. E. Stathers, P. Golob and D. P. Giga. 2006. Penetration of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through diatomaceous earth-treated bulk maize grain. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26: 28-34.

Nansen, C. and T. W. Phillips. 2002. Attracticide for control of Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). p. 306–310. In Proc. 8th Intern. Working Conf. Stored-Product Prot.

Nansen, C., and T. W. Phillips. 2004. Attractancy and toxicity of an attracticide for Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 97:703-710.

Nicholls, A. W. 1991. Single grain/single insect assay for investigating evenness of insecticide application to Australian wheat. p. 1403-1407.  In Proc. 5th Intern. Working Conf. Stored Product Prot., Bordeaux, France.

Phelan, P. L., and T. C. Baker. 1987. An attracticide for control of Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds. J. Econ. Entomol. 80:779-783.

Pinniger, D. B. 1974. A laboratory simulation of residual populations of stored product pests and an assessment of their susceptibility to a contact insecticide. J. Stored Prod. Res. 10: 217-223.

Pinniger, D. B. 1975. The behaviour of insects in the presence of insecticides: the effect of fenitrothion and malathion on resistant and susceptible strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). p. 301-308. in Proc. 1st Intern. Working Conf. Stored-Product Entomology, Savannah, Ga.

Potter, C. 1956. Resistance of insects to insecticides: The effect of age and stage of development and nutrition. Chemistry and Industry 42: 1178-1181.

Prickett, A. J. and C. A. Ratcliffe. 1977. The behaviour of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus granarius (L.) in the presence of insecticide-treated surfaces. J. Stored Prod. Res. 13: 145-148.

Savoldelli, S., and P. Trematerra. 2011. Mass-trapping, mating-disruption and attracticide methods for managing stored-product insects: success stories and research needs, doi: 10.2212/spr.2011.3.7 ed.

Scheff, Deanna S., James F. Campbell, and Frank H. Arthur. 2018. Aerosol Dispersal Patterns and Resulting Effects on Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Adults. Journal of economic entomology 111(5): 2435-2442.

Scully, Erin D., Alison R. Gerken, Adriane Fifield, Valerie Nguyen, Nicholas Van Pelt and Frank H. Arthur 2021. Impacts of Storicide II on internal feeders of Brown rice. J. Stored Prod. Res. 90, 101758

Subramanyam, B. H., D. R. Boina, and F. H. Arthur. 2014 Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill. J. Stored Prod. Res. 59: 96-100.

Subramanyam, Bhadriraju, Dhana Raj Boina, Blossom Sehgal and Fernanda Lazzari. 2014. Efficacy of partial treatment of wheat with spinosad against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) adults J. Stored Prod. Res. 59: 197-203.

Toews, M. D., J. F. Campbell, F. H. Arthur and M. West. 2005. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with residual applications of (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 1391-1398.

Trematerra, P. and A. Capizzi. 1991. Attracticide method in the control of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller: studies on effectiveness. Journal of Applied Entomology 111: 451–456.

Trematerra, P. 1994. The use of sex pheromones to control Ephestia kuehniella Zeller in flour mill by mass trapping and attracticide methods. p. 375–382. In Proc. 6th Intern. Working Conf. Stored-Product Prot.

Trematerra, P. 1995. The use of attracticide method to control Ephestia kuehniella Zeller in flour mills. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 68: 69–73.

Vassilakos, Thomas N. and Christos G. Athanassiou. 2012. Effect of uneven distribution of spinetoram-treated wheat and rice on mortality and progeny production of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Journal of Stored Products Research 50: 73-80.

Vassilakos, T. N. and C. G. Athanassiou. 2012. Effect of short exposures to spinetoram against three stored-product beetle species. J. Econ. Entomol. 105: 1088-1094.

Zhang, G., Y. Lee, B. Xu, Z. Ye and Z. Shen. 1982. Research of rice husk-carrier method as non-uniform treatment with malathion. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 9: 55-60.

Auto-dissemination of Pathogens

Baxter, I. H. 2008. Entomopathogen Based Autodissemination for the Control of Plodia Interpunctella (Hübner): An Examination of the Critical Components. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton.

Baxter, I. H., N. Howard, C. G. Armsworth, L.E.E. Barton, and C. Jackson. 2008. The potential of two electrostatic powders as the basis for an autodissemination control methods of Plodia interpuncterlla (Hubner). J. Stored Prod. Res. 44: 152-161.

Baxter, Ian H., Hansjuergen Schuppe, Chris Jackson, and Christian Nansen. 2009. Using Image Analysis to Design a Prototype Autodissemination Device Intended for the Biorational Control of Plodia Interpunctella. Journal of Economic Entomology 102 (1): 453-465.

Burkholder, W. E., and G. M. Boush. 1974. Pheromones in Stored Product Insect Trapping and Pathogen Dissemination EPPO Bulletin 4:455-461.

Burkholder, W. E.; Shapas,T. J. 1978. Use of entomopathogens with pheromones and attractants in pest management systems for stored-product insects. p. 236-248. In G. E. Allen, C. M. Ignoffo, and R. P. Jaques eds. Future strategies in pest management systems. Proceedings of the National Science Foundation, United States Department of Agriculture and the University of Florida Workshop on Microbial Control of Insect Pests, Gainesville, FL

Dowd, Patrick F., and Fernando E. Vega. Autodissemination of Beauveria bassiana by sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to overwintering sites. Biocontrol Science and Technology 13, no. 1 (2003): 65-75.

Shapas, T., W. Burkholder, and G. Boush. 1977. Population Suppression of Trogoderma-Glabrum (Coleoptera-Dermestidae) by using Pheromone Luring for Protozoan Pathogen Dissemination. J. Econ. Entomol. 70: 469-474.

Smith, S., D. Moore, L. Karanja and E. Chandi. 1999. Formulation of vegetable fat pellets with pheromone and Beauveria bassiana to control the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). Pestic. Sci. 55: 711-718.

Vail, PV, DF Hoffmann, and JS Tebbets. 1993. Autodissemination of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) Granulosis-Virus by Healthy-Adults. Journal of Stored Products Research 29 (1): 71-74.

Yasuda, K. 1999. Auto-infection system for the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana using a modified sex pheromone trap in the field. Appl. Entomol. Zool., 34: 501-505.


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