Johnson’s American Miller column

Willis Grant Johnson wrote 71 articles for American Miller entitled “Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills” and a number of others between 1895 and 1907. The following references for the columns by Johnson in the trade journal American Miller were not included in our earlier publications and are important additions to our reference lists in these earlier publications.

According to Osborn (1937), Johnson (1866-1908) began entomological career at Stanford University, but had studied earlier at Ohio State University. He was assistant at Stanford from 1891-1892 and at Champaign, Illinois from 1894-1896 and Entomologist at Maryland Experiment Station from 1896-1901. He was editor of American Agriculturalist.

While Johnson was writing the columns, he also wrote a book on fumigation entitled, Fumigation methods, a practical treatise for farmers, fruit growers, nurserymen, gardeners, florists, millers, grain dealers, transportation companies, colleges and experiment station workers, etc., that was published in 1902 by Orange Judd, New York. Back and Cotton in their 1926 paper, The cadelle. USDA Bulletin 1428, credit Johnson’s column (1895 p. 661, 1896 p. 114, 1898 p. 440) with originating the common name “bolting cloth beetle” for the cadelle.

Johnson numbered his columns in American Miller from 2-68, the first column was unnumbered (given the number 1 below) and three times he used the same column number twice. Johnson wrote 6 columns in 1895 (1-6), 6 in 1896 (7-12), 4 in 1897 (13-16), 6 in 1898 (17-22), 2 in 1899 (23-27), 5 in 1900 (28-32), 3 in 1901 (34-36), 3 in 1902 (37-39), 4 in 1903 (40-43), 3 in 1904 (44-45), 5 in 1905 (46-49), 9 in 1906 (50-58), 11 in 1907 (59-68). List of topics covered or insect species identified and the state from which the insects were received, and citations for each of his columns are given below. Each topic or insect species is followed by the number or numbers of his column in which these were discussed.

Johnson discussed 36 insect species in his columns and had received infested samples so the insects could be correctly identified. Ephestia kuehniella and Tribolium confusum are by far the most widely distributed pests with both being found in 21 states and Canada and Mexico. The discussed species include 4 parasitoids (Habrobracon hebetor, Mesostenus gracilis, Omorga columbiana and an unidentified parasite of grain beetles) and 2 predators (Reduvius personatus and Scenopenus fenestralis).

Johnson emphasized thoroughly cleaning and burning of old bags and the silk matting clogging elevators and spouts of mills followed by fumigation with carbon disulfide and later hydrogen cyanide. He also discussed many innovations such as water traps, fumigation rooms, replacing wooden spouting with metal, white washing to seal cracks in walls, heat sterilization of packaged breakfast cereal, steam cleaning, inspection and accepting only uninfested grain or flour, insect resistant packaging and releasing parasites to control Ephestia kuehniella. One miller ran steam pipes throughout the building and disinfested with steam once per week. The miller said that one man with steam can do the work of 20 with broom or brush. Johnson discussed used bags and equipment, railcars and field infestation as sources of insect infestation. He describes Ephestia kuehniella in the calling position, although pheromones had not been discovered yet.

List of topics and insect species

Ahasverus advena 50

Alphitobius diaperinus, California 7

Amara impuncticollis and Amara cupreolata established mill Canada 42

Attagenus unicolor, Canada 17, 61

Attagenus unicolor, Kansas 39

Attagenus unicolor, Massachusetts 7

Attagenus unicolor, Maryland 3, 7

Attagenus unicolor, Michigan 61

Attagenus unicolor, Minnesota 37

Attagenus unicolor, Ohio 3, 7

Attagenus unicolor, South Dakota 6, 7

Attagenus unicolor, Utah 5, 13

Burn old bags etc. 1, 23, 44, 46, 60

Calculated hydrogen cyanide needed for mill 47, 55, 59, 64, 65, 68

Carbon bisulfide (Fuma) 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 32, 34, 46, 58

Cathartus quadricollis 50

Cathartus quadricollis, Michigan 54

Clean thoroughly 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 14, 16, 23, 31, 32, 40, 43, 59, 60, 64, 66

Dermestes lardarius, Idaho 66

Disposal hydrogen cyanide residue 53, 54, 68

Ephestia kuehniella 35

Ephestia kuehniella, Alabama 16

Ephestia kuehnella, California 5, 6, 7, 13, 24, 28, 37

Ephestia kuehniella, Canada 6, 13, 16, 23, 24, 28, 41, 47, 52, 59, 61

Ephestia kuehniella, Colorado 16

Ephestia kuehnella, Clog spouts with silk 5

Ephestia kuehniella, female calling with abdomen protruding between wings 23

Ephestia kuehniella, first reported California 1892 6

Ephestia kuehniella, first reported Ontario, Canada in 1889 6, 7

Ephestia kuehniella, mature larva crawl to find pupation site 6

Ephestia kuehniella, Illinois 55, 59, 61

Ephestia kuehniella, Indiana 38, 55, 59, 61, 62, 64

Ephestia kuehniella, Iowa 45, 66

Ephestia kuehniella, Kansas 58, 59, 61, 66

Ephestia kuehniella, list of first records 52

Ephestia kuehniella, Maryland 52, 59, 61

Ephestia kuehniella, Mexico 13, 16

Ephestia kuehniella, Michigan 56, 59, 61, 62, 66

Ephestia kuehniella, Minnesota 28, 44, 58

Ephestia kuehniella, Missouri 46

Ephestia kuehniella, Montana 46

Ephestia kuehniella, Nebraska 62

Ephestia kuehniella, New Hampshire 42

Ephestia kuehniella, New Mexico 16

Ephestia kuehniella, New York 7, 13, 24, 28, 41, 46, 55, 59, 61

Ephestia kuehniella, Ohio 24, 28, 45, 56, 59, 61, 62, 65

Ephestia kuehniella, Pennsylvania 7, 13, 17, 24, 28, 59, 61

Ephestia kuehniella, Texas 65

Ephestia kuehniella, Washington 41, 62

Ephestia kuehniella, Wisconsin 44

Fan to cool heating rice South Carolina 31

Field infestation wheat and corn by Sitotroga cerealella 30

Figure of larva and adult of Attagenus unicolor 37, 52

Figures of adult, larva and pupa of Attagenus unicolor 15

Figure of Ephestia kuehniella 7

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Ephestia kuehniella 16, 23, 40, 50, 52

Figure of silk matting by Ephestia kuehniella 16, 23, 38, 46

Figure of mite 43

Figures of siro mite and longior mite 39

Figure of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adult 1

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Oryzaephilus surinamensis 15, 58

Figure of Plodia interpunctella 48, 50, 57

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Pyralis faarinalis 31, 34, 47, 50, 54

Figure of kernels silked together by Pyralis farinalis 31

Figure of Reduvius (Opiscaetes) personatus 58

Figure of roaches 29, 41

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Sitophilus 20, 43, 68

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Sitotroga cerealella 43

Figures of adult, larva and pupa of Tenebrio molitor 15, 34, 55

Figures of adult of Tenebrio obscurus 41

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Tenebrio obscurus 40

Figures of Tenebroides mauritanicus adult and larvae 4, 8

Figures of larva, pupa and adult of Tenebroides mauritanicus 15, 20, 42, 47, 55

Figures of adult, larva and pupa of Tribolium castaneum and mouth parts 3

Figures of adult, larva and pupa of Tribolium confusum 15, 40, 47, 50, 56, 68

Fumgate with sulfur smoke 5

Gnatocerus cornutus 50

Gnathocerus cornutus, California 7

Gnatocerus maxillosus 50

Grain beetle parasites from Pennsylvania 34

Habrobracon hebetor egg to adult in 2 weeks 6

Habrobracon hebetor eliminating Ephestia kuehniella in England 6

Habrobracon hebetor, first record on Ephestia kuehniella 6

Habrobracon hebetor on Plodia interpuctella in Massachusetts 6

Habrobracon hebetor parasite Ephestia kuehniella 28

Heat sterilization packaged breakfast food 30

Hydrogen cyanide fumigant 23, 29, 31, 34, 36, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67

Insect resistant packaging 30

Inspect and accept only the uninfested grain 5

Insurance company refused permission to fumigate 35

Larger crock so hydrogen cyanide does not bubble over 57

Mesostenus gracilis parasite Ephestia kuehniella 28

Mite, Arkansas 58

Mite, Canada 52

Mite, Michigan 55, 61

Mite, Ohio 12, 13, 39

Mite, Pennsylvania 25

Mite, Wisconsin 43

Moistened gunny sack to trap Tenebrio molitor 17

Nemapogon granella 4, 57, 58

Nemapogon granella, California 47

Nemapogon granella, Canada 47

Nemapogon granella, Connecticut 61

Nemapogon granella, Michigan 56, 61

Omorga columbiana parasite Ephestia kuehniella 28

Opens mill cold weather 44

Oryzaephilus surinamensis 50

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Illinois 7, 13

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Maryland 13, 17

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Massachusetts 1, 7

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Michigan 7, 10, 13

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, New York 26, 28

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Pennsylvania 24, 28

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, South Dakota 6, 7

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Utah 6, 7

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Washington 17

Palorus ratzeburgi 50

Parasites Ephestia kuehniella from Pennsylvania 25

Paris green in molasses and wheat bran bait for roaches 17

Plodia interpunctella 35

Plodia interpunctella, Illinois 13

Plodia interpunctella, Indiana 61

Plodia interpunctella, Maryland 13

Plodia interpunctella, Mexico 13

Plodia interpunctella, Ohio 13

Plodia interpunctella, Pennsylvania 57

Psocids from South Carolina 36, 48

Ptinus brunneus, Iowa 62

Ptinus fur, Canada 59, 61

Pyralis farinalis, California 6, 7

Pyralis farinalis, Illinois 7, 47

Pyralis farinalis, Indiana 61

Pyralis farinalis, Oregon 7, 13

Pyralis farinalis, New York 13

Pyralis farinalis, North Dakota 34

Pyralis farinalis, Pennsylvania 31, 57

Reduvius (Opiscaetes) personatus prey on Tribolium confusum 57, 58, 61

Remote device for dropping cyanide into sulfuric acid 56

Replace wooden spouts with metal spouts 5, 7

Roaches 18, 19, 20, 29, 30

Roaches, Kansas 8 17

Roaches, North Carolina 41

Roaches, Ohio 17

Room to fumigate incoming bags, equipment, ingredients, etc. 56, 59, 61

Scenopenus fenestralis, Illinois 7

Scenopenus fenestralis, Massachusetts 2, 7

Scenopenus fenestralis, Ohio 4, 7

Sending parasites to control Ephestia kuehniella 25

Sitophilus granarius, California 7, 68

Sitophilus granarius, Ohio 4, 7

Sitophilus granarius, Pennsylvania 24

Sitophilus granarius, Utah 5, 7

Sitophilus oryzae, Illinois 7

Sitophilus oryzae, Kansas 7

Sitophilus oryzae, Massachusetts 43

Sitophilus oryzae, Ohio 4

Sitophilus oryzae, Pennsylvania 28

Sitophilus oryzae, Utah 65

Sitophilus spp. 50

Sitotroga cerealella 50

Sitotroga cerealella, Illinois 7, 13

Sitotroga cerealella, Indiana 51, 61

Sitotroga cerealella, Ohio 13, 43

Sitotroga cerealella, Maryland 13

Sitotroga cerealella, Pennsylvania 13

Sitotroga cerealella, Virginia 13

Source infestation 44, 66

Steam heat to disinfest mill 43, 44

Steam pipes to clean mill 5

Stored tobacco fumigated 48

Sulfur dioxide fumigant on flour 54, 55

Tenebrio molitor 50

Tenebrio molitor, Canada 17

Tenebrio molitor, Kentucky 34

Tenebrio molitor, Pennsylvania 24, 28

Tenebrio obscurus, Colorado 41

Tenebrio obscurus, Minnesota 2, 5, 7, 40

Tenebrio obscurus, Oregon 7

Tenebrio obscurus, Utah 5, 7

Tenebroides californica, California 6

Tenebroides corticalis 4

Tenebroides mauritanicus 50

Tenebroides mauritanicus, California 7

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Canada 17

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Illinois 7, 47

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Michigan 61

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Minnesota 40

Tenebroides mauritanicus, New Jersey 17, 28

Tenebroides mauritanicus, New York 8

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Ohio 4, 7, 61

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Oklahoma 67

Tenebroides mauritanicus, Pennsylvania 24, 28

Tenebroides mauritanicus, South Dakota 6, 7, 56, 61

Tribolium confusum 35

Tribolium confusum, California 6, 7, 13

Tribolium confusum, Canada 28

Tribolium confusum, Illinois 7, 13, 28

Tribolium confusum, Indiana 7, 28, 64

Tribolium confusum, Iowa 17

Tribolium confusum, Kansas 13

Tribolium confusum, Kentucky 56, 61

Tribolium confusum, Mexico 13

Tribolium confusum, Michigan 11, 13, 17, 61

Tribolium confusum, Minnesota 7, 13

Tribolium confusum, Missouri 28

Tribolium confusum, Montana 13

Tribolium confusum, New York 7, 13

Tribolium confusum, North Dakota 28

Tribolium confusum, Ohio 1, 4, 7, 13, 17

Tribolium confusum, Oregon 7

Tribolium confusum, Pennsylvania 7, 13, 24, 28, 34

Tribolium confusum, South Dakota 6, 7

Tribolium confusum, Texas 17, 61

Tribolium confusum, Utah 13

Tribolium confusum, Virginia 13

Tribolium confusum, Washington 17

Tribolium confusum, Wyoming 1

Tribolium madens, Montana 13

Tribolium madens, Utah 7, 13

Tribolium madens, Washington 15, 17

Water in bucket to capture Ephestia kuehniella 55

White wash to fill cracks 31

Citations:

Osborn, Herbert 1937. Fragments of Entomological History including some personal recollections of men and events. Published by the Author, Columbus, Ohio.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Insects in flour and grain. Amer. Miller 23: 33.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. The Mediterranean flour moth. Amer. Miller 23: 198.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills. American Miller 23: 276.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. The Mediterranean flour moth in New York. American Miller 23: 347.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. II. American Miller 23: 422.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. III. American Miller 23: 511.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Insects injurious to stored grain No. I. American Miller 23:587.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. IV. American Miller 23: 661.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. V. American Miller 23: 738-739.

Johnson, W. G. 1895. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. VI. American Miller 23: 810-811.

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. VII. Amer. Miller 24: 32-33.

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. VIII. Amer. Miller 24: 114.

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Indian-meal moth. American Miller 24: 270. (Reprinted from March issue of American Elevator and Grain Trade.)

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. IX. American Miller 24: 342-343.

Johnson, W. G. 1986. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. X. American Miller 24: 501.

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XI. American Miller 24: 725.

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XII. American Miller 24: 875.

Johnson, W. G. 1896. Silk fabric made by insect larvae. American Miller 24: 271-272.

Johnson, W. G. 1897. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XIII. American Miller 25: 24.

Johnson, W. G. 1897. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XIV. American Miller 25: 423-424.

Johnson, W. G. 1897. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XV. American Miller 25: 496.

Johnson, W. G. 1897. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XVI. American Miller 25: 728.

Johnson, W. G. 1898. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XVII. American Miller 26: 39-40.

Johnson, W. G. 1898. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XVIII. American Miller 26: 201.

Johnson, W. G. 1898. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XIX. American Miller 26: 283-284.

Johnson, W. G. 1898. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XX. American Miller 26: 363.

Johnson, W. G. 1898. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXI. Amer. Miller 26: 440.

Johnson, W. G. 1898. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXIII. American Miller 26: 844-845.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXIII. American Miller 27: 385.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXIV. American Miller 27: 463-864.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXV . American Miller 27: 612-613.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXVI. American Miller 27: 773.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXVII . American Miller 27: 847-848.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Hydrocyanic acid gas as a remedy for insects in mills. American Miller 27: 684-685.

Johnson, W. G. 1899. Hydrocyanic acid gas as a remedy for insects in mills and other enclosures II. American Miller 27: 849-850.

Johnson, W. G. 1900. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXVIII. American Miller 28: 128.

Johnson, W. G. 1900. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXIX. American Miller 28: 292-293.

Johnson, W. G. 1900. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXX. American Millers 28: 385-386.

Johnson, W. G. 1900. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXXI American Miller 28: 526-527.

Johnson, W. G. 1900. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXXII American Miller 28: 692-693.

Johnson, W. G. 1900. Hydrocyanic acid gas and mill pests. American Miller 28: 370.

Johnson, W. G. 1901. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXXIV. American Miller 29: 33.

Johnson, W. G. 1901. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXXV. American Miller 29: 455.

Johnson, W. G. 1901. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XXXVI. American Miller 29: 862-863.

Johnson, W. G. 1902. “Answers to Queries and Notes on Insect Injuries in Mills no. XXXVII.” American Miller 30: 134-135.

Johnson, W. G. 1902. “Answers to Queries and Notes on Insect Injuries in Mills no. XXXVIII.” American Miller 30: 466.

Johnson, W. G. 1902. “Answers to Queries and Notes on Insect Injuries in Mills no. XXXIX.” American Miller 30: 649.

Johnson, W. G. 1903. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XL. American Miller 31: 472.

Johnson, W. G. 1903. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLI. American Miller 31: 556.

Johnson, W. G. 1903. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLII. American Miller 31: 741.

Johnson, W. G. 1903. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLIII. American Miller 31: 974.

Johnson, W. G. 1904a. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLIV. American Miller 32: 45.

Johnson, W. G. 1904b. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLIV. American Miller 32: 489.

Johnson, W. G. 1904. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLV. American Miller 32: 569.

Johnson, W. G. 1905. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLVI. American Miller 33: 640.

Johnson, W. G. 1905. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLVII. American Miller 33: 749-750.

Johnson, W. G. 1905a. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLVIII. American Miller 33: 828-829.

Johnson, W. G. 1905b. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLVIII. American Miller 33: 904-905

Johnson, W. G. 1905. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. XLIX. American Miller 33: 988-989.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. L. American Miller 34: 44.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LI. American Miller 34: 146-147.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LII. American Miller 34: 479-480.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LIII. American Miller 34: 565-566.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LIV. American Miller 34: 657-658.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LV. American Miller 34: 741-743.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LVI. American Miller 34: 823.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LVII. American Miller 34: 905-906.

Johnson, W. G. 1906. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills No. LVIII. American Miller 34:981-982.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LIX. American Miller 35: 43-44.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LX. American Miller 35: 208-209.

Johnson, W. G. 1907a. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXI. American Miller 35: 43-44.

Johnson, W. G. 1907b. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXI. American Miller 35: 297-298.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXII. American Miller 35: 379-380.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXIII. American Miller 35: 456-457.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXIV. American Miller 35: 539.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXV. American Miller 35: 722.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXVI. American Miller, 35: 806.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXVII. American Miller 35: 889.

Johnson, W. G. 1907. Answers to queries and notes on insect injuries in mills no. LXVIII. American Miller 35: 973.

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