Interpretation of Trap Catch

Traps provide relative estimates of insect density as insects per period of time or volume of air and catch is influenced by many factors. Increasing the trapping period increases the size of sample unit. Because some of the factors affecting trap catch can change over time, changes in trap catches over time can be misleading. To deal with this problem studies have examined factors influencing trap catch and attempted to convert trap catches to absolute estimates.

Burkholder, W. E. 1984. Use of pheromones and food attractants for monitoring and trapping stored-product insects. p. 70-86. In F. J. Baur ed. Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota

Cuperus, G. W., W. S. Fargo, P. W. Flinn and D. W. Hagstrum. 1990. Variables affecting capture of stored‑grain insects in probe traps. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 63: 486‑489.

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn, Bh. Subramanyam, D. W. Keever and G. W. Cuperus. 1990. Interpretation of trap catch for detection and estimation of stored‑product insect populations. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 63: 500‑505.

Toews, M. D., and C. Nansen. 2012. Trapping and Interpreting Captures of Stored Grain Insects, pp. 243-261. In D. W. Hagstrum, T. W. Phillips and G. Cuperus (eds.), Stored Product Protection, vol. S156. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Wright, V., and D. Hagstrum. 1990. Trapping Technology for Monitoring Stored-Product Insects. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 63: 464-465.

Factors influencing trap catch

1. Air flow

Bell, W., T. Tobin, and K. Sorensen. 1989. Orientation Responses of Individual Larder Beetles, Dermestes-Ater (Coleoptera, Dermestidae), to Directional Shifts in Wind Stimuli. J. Insect Behav. 2:787-801.

Birch, M. C., and P. R. White. 1988. Responses of flying male Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to female sex pheromone in a wind tunnel. J. Insect Behav. 1:111-115.

Campbell, J. F. 2012. Attraction of walking Tribolium castaneum adults to traps. J. Stored Prod. Res. 51: 11–22.

Fadamiro, H. 1996. Influence of stimulus dose and wind speed the orientation behaviour of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) to pheromone. Bull. Entomol. Res. 86:659-665.

Fadamiro, H. 1996. Flight and landing behaviour of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in relation to wind speed. J. Stored Prod. Res. 32:233-238

Fadamiro, H., I. Gudrups, and R. Hodges. 1998. Upwind flight of Prostephanus truncatus is mediated by aggregation pheromone but not food volatiles. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34:151-158.

Fadamiro, H., T. Wyatt, and M. Birch. 1998. Flying beetles respond as moths predict: Optomotor anemotaxis to pheromone plumes at different heights. J. Insect Behav. 11:549-557.

Fouad, H. A., L. R. D. Faroni, E. F. Vilela, and E. R. d. Lima. 2013. Flight responses of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to corn kernel volatiles in a wind tunnel. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 7:651-658.

Girling, R. D., and R. T. Carde. 2007. Analysis and manipulation of the structure of odor plumes from a piezo-electric release system and measurements of upwind flight of male almond moths, Cadra cautella, to pheromone plumes. J. Chem. Ecol. 33:1927-1945.

Kennedy, J. S. 1983. Zigzagging and casting as a programmed response to wind-borne odour: a review. Physiol. Entomol. 8:109-120.

Kennedy, J. S., and D. Marsh. 1974. Pheromone-regulated anemotaxis in flying moths. Science 184: 999-1002.

Kuenen, L., and H. Rowe. 2006. Cowpea weevil flights to a point source of female sex pheromone: analyses of flight tracks at three wind speeds. Physiol. Entomol. 31:103-109.

Mafra-Neto, A., and R. Carde. 1995. Influence of Plume Structure and Pheromone Concentration on Upwind Flight of Cadra cautella Males. Physiol. Entomol. 20:117-133.

Mafra-Neto, A., and R. Carde. 1998. Rate of realized interception of pheromone pulses in different wind speeds modulates almond moth orientation. Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 182: 563-572.

Marsh, D., Kennedy, J. S., and Ludlow, A. R. 1978. An analysis of anemotactic zig-zaging flight in male moths stimulated by pheromone. Physiol. Entomol. 3: 221-240.

Phelan, P., and T. Baker. 1986. Cross-Attraction of 5 Species of Stored-Product Phycitinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in a Wind-Tunnel. Environ. Entomol. 15: 369-372.

Shapas, T., and W. Burkholder. 1978. Patterns of Sex-Pheromone Release from Adult Females, and Effects of Air Velocity and Pheromone Release Rates on Theoretical Communication Distances in Trogoderma glabrum (Coleoptera-Dermestidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 4:395-408.

Tobin, Thomas R., and William J. Bell. 1986. Chemo-orientation of maleTrogoderma variabile (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) in a simulated corridor of female sex pheromone. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 158(5): 729-739.

2. Design of trap

Ahmad, T. R. 1987. Effects of pheromone trap design and placement on capture of almond moth, Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 80:897-900.

Barak, A. 1989. Development of a New Trap to Detect and Monitor Khapra Beetle (Coleoptera, Dermestidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 1470-1477.

Barak, A. 1995. The Design of Traps for Stored-product Insects, pp. 179-186. In V. Krischik, G. Cuperus and D. Galliart (eds.), Stored Product Management, vol. E912. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

Barak, A., and W. Burkholder. 1985. A Versatile and Effective Trap for Detecting and Monitoring Stored-Product Coleoptera. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 12: 207-218.

Barak, A., W. Burkholder, and D. Faustini. 1990. Factors Affecting the Design of Traps for Stored-Product Insects. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 63: 466-485.

Collins, L. E., and Chambers, J. 2003. The I-Spy Insect Indicator: An effective trap for the detection of insect pests in empty stores and flat surfaces in the cereal and food trades. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39:277-292.

Compton, J. A. F., S. Floyd, K. Acquaye, and R. Boxall. 1997. Comparison of three types of pheromone-baited flight Trap for the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 17: 205-211.

Dendy, J., P. Dobie, J. Saidi, and C. Sherman. 1989. The Design of Traps for Monitoring the Presence of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) in Maize Fields. J. Stored Prod. Res. 25:187-191.

Epsky, N. D., and Shuman, D. 2004. Arena size, hole density and capture of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) in grain probe trap. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:150-154.

Fargo, W., G. Cuperus, E. Bonjour, W. Burkholder, B. Clary, and M. Payton. 1994. Influence of Probe Trap Type and Attractants on the Capture of 4 Stored-Grain Coleoptera. J. Stored Prod. Res. 30:237-241.

Faustini, D., A. Barak, W. Burkholder, and J. Leos Martinez. 1990. Combination-Type Trapping for Monitoring Stored-Product Insects – a review.  J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 63: 539-547. (light trap vs pheromone trap for Lasioderma serricorne)

Gilbert, D. 1984. Insect electrocutor light traps. Pages 87-108 in: Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing. F. J. Baur, Ed. Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem., St. Paul, MN.

Likhayo, P. W., and Hodges, R. J. 2000. Field monitoring Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using refuge and flight traps baited with synthetic pheromone and cracked wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 36: 341-353.

Loschiavo, S. and J. Atkinson. 1973. Improved Trap to Detect Beetles (Coleoptera) in Stored Grain. Can. Entomol. 105: 437-440.

Mullen, M. 1992. Development of a Pheromone Trap for Monitoring Tribolium castaneum. J. Stored Prod. Res. 28:245-249.

Mullen, M., E. Wileyto, and F. Arthur. 1998. Influence of trap design and location on the capture of Plodia interpunctella (Indian meal moth) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) in a release-recapture study. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 33-36.

Mullen, M., and A. Dowdy. 2001. A pheromone-baited trap for monitoring the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 37:231-235.

Subramanyam, B., D. Hagstrum, and T. Schenk. 1993. Sampling Adult Beetles (Coleoptera) Associated with Stored Grain – Comparing Detection and Mean Trap Catch Efficiency of 2 Types of Probe Traps. Environ. Entomol. 22: 33-42.

Subramanyam, B., P. K. Harein and L. K. Cutkomp. 1989. Field tests with probe traps for sampling adult insects infesting farm stored grain. J. Agric. Entomol. 6: 9-21. (upward slanting holes)

Wyatt, T. D., J. Wynn and A. Phillips. 1989. The beetle is always right: using trap catch data and behavioural responses to design the ultimate stored product beetle trap, pp. 94-95. In H. Arn and R. Bues (eds.), Working Group Use of pheromones and other semiochemicals in integrated control. Proceedings of the International Union of Biological Sciences Western Palearctic Region Section Bulletin (IOBC-WPRS Bulletin XII(2)), Sept 19-24, 1988, Avignon, France. Responses of Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Tribolium castaneum to sticky traps concluded than an overhang and lip were critical for storage beetles as well as cockroaches. This trap is now commercially available as a ‘window’ beetle trap.

Weston, P. A., and Barney, R. J. 1998. Comparison of three trap types for monitoring insect populations in stored grains. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 1449-1457.

 3. Design or location of trap with landing platform

Kitashima,Y., Hirao, M. and Takahashi. T. 2007. Influence of pheromone trap location on the capture of cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Med. Entomol. Zool. 58:45–51. (in Japanese with English summary)

Mankin, R. W., and Hagstrum, D. W. 1995. Three-dimensional orientation of male Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) flying to calling females in a windless environment. Environ. Entomol. 24: 1616-1626.

Nansen, C., T.W.Phillips, and S. Sanders. 2004. The effects of height and adjacent surfaces on captures of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pheromone-baited traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 1284-1290.

4. Food

Campbell, James F. 2013. Influence of landscape pattern in flour residue amount and distribution on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) response to traps baited with pheromone and kairomone. Journal of Stored Products Research 52:112-117.

Stejskal, V., 1995. The influence of food and shelter on the efficacy of a commercial sticky trap in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 31, 229-233.

Toews, M., F. Arthur, and J. Campbell. 2005. Role of food and structural complexity on capture of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) in simulated warehouses. Environ. Entomol. 34:164-169.

5. Height or depth of trap

Alm, S. R., Williams, R. N., McGovern, T. P., and Hall, F. R. 1989. Effective chemical structures, release methods, and trap heights for attracting Glischrochilus quadrisignalus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). J. Econ. Emomol. 82: 477-481.

 Bartelt, R., R. Vetter, D. Carlson, and T. Baker. 1994. Influence of Pheromone Dose, Trap Height, and Septum Age on Effectiveness of Pheromones for Carpophilus mutilatus and C. hemipterus (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) in a California Date Garden. J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 667-675.

Bartelt, R. J. 1999. Sap beetles. p. 69-89. In Jim Hardie and Albert K. Minks (eds.) Pheromones of Non-lepidopteran Insects Associated with Agricultural Plants. CABI Publ., London.

Cline, L. D. and D. W. Keever. 1982. Capture of Ephestia cautella (Walker) in a warehouse with light traps:  effects of trap height and light source. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 19: 377-382.

Eddie, P. A., T. W. Phillips and M. D. Toews. 2005. Response of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) to its aggregation pheromones as influenced by trap design, trap height, and habitat. Environ. Entomol. 34: 1549-1557.

Eliopoulos, P. A. and C. G. Athanassiou. 2004. Seasonal occurrence of dried fig pests and their parasitoids in a fig warehouse in Greece. Proceedings Integrated Protection of Stored Products IOBC Bulletin 27: 159-171.

Fadamiro, H., T. Wyatt, and M. Birch. 1998. Flying beetles respond as moths predict: Optomotor anemotaxis to pheromone plumes at different heights. J. Insect Behav. 11: 549-557.

Ho, S., and K. Boon. 1995. Spatial-Distribution of Flying Tribolium castneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in a Rice Warehouse. Bull. Entomol. Res. 85:355-359.

Imai, T., Y. Kasaishi, and T. Fukushima 2010. Influence of Trap Position with Respect to Height and Placement Surface on Capture of the Tobacco Moth, Ephestia elutella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in Pheromone Traps. Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24: 29–32.

Keever, D. W., and Cline, L. D. 1983. Effect of light trap height and light source on the capture of Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin-Meneville) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in a warehouse. J. Econ. Entomol. 76:1080-1082.

Kehat, M., A. Eitam, D. Blumberg, E. Dunkelblum, L. Anshelevich, and Devora Gordon. 1992. Sex pheromone traps for detecting and monitoring the raisin moth, Cadra figulilella, in date palm plantations. Phytoparasitica 20(2): 99-106. No differences were found between captures of males in traps hung at a height of 8 m (near the bunches) or 2–3 m (on palm trunks).

Nansen, C., T.W.Phillips, M. N. Parajulee, and R. A. Franqui-Rivera. 2004. Comparison of direct and indirect sampling procedures for Plodia interpunctella in a corn storage facility. J. Stored Prod. Res 40: 151-168. (sticky traps on wooden stake at 10 cm (low) and 1m (high) above the maize surface)

Nansen, C., T.W.Phillips, and S. Sanders. 2004. The effects of height and adjacent surfaces on captures of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pheromone-baited traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 1284-1290.

Peng, Chengwang, and Roger N. Williams. 1991. Effect of trap design, trap height, and habitat on the capture of sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) using whole-wheat bread dough. Journal of economic entomology 84(5): 1515-1519.

Trematerra, P. and F. Fontana. 1996. Monitoring of webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisselliella (Hummel), by sex pheromone. Anz. Schadlingskde Pflanzenschutz Unweltschutz 69: 119-121.

Vela-Coiffier, E. L., W. S. Fargo, E. L. Bonjour, G. W. Cuperus & W. D. Warde, 1997. Immigration of insects into on-farm stored wheat and relationships among trapping methods. Journal of Stored Products Research 33: 157–166.

6. Killing agent

Athanassiou, C. 2001. Influence of killing agents and water on the capture of six Coleoptera species in probe traps. Phytoparasitica 29:367-372.

Nansen, C., D. Davidson, and P. Porter. 2009. Using water bottles for trapping of Indianmeal moths in stored peanuts. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 133:251-259.

Ni, X., G. Gunawan, S. L. Brown, P. E. Sumner, J. R. Ruberson, G. D. Buntin, C. C. Holbrook, R. D. Lee, D. A. Streett, J. E. Throne, and J. F. Campbells. 2008. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:631-636.

Watson, E., G. Barson, D. B. Pinniger, G. Roberts, and A. R. Ludlow. 1997. Evaluation of the behavioural responses of Anthrenus verbasci adults and larvae to permethrin (ec) using a computerized tracking system. Journal of Stored Products Research 33(4): 335-346

White, N. D. G., R. T. Arbogast, P. G. Fields, R. C. Hillmann, S. R. Loschiavo, Bh. Subramanyam, J. E. Throne and V. F. Wright. 1990. Development and use of pitfall and probe traps for capturing insects in stored grain. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 63: 506-525. (escape)

7. Light intensity threshold for flight

Hagstrum, D., J. Stanley, and K. Turner. 1977. Flight Activity of Ephestia cautella as Influenced by Intensity of UV or Green Radiation. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 12:231-236.

8. Light as attractant

Abreu, J. M., and Williams, R. N. 1981. Effectiveness of fluorescent lamps and synthetic sex pheromone on suction-trap catches of Ephestia cautella. Rev. Theobroma 11: 245-248.

Duehl, A.J., Cohnstaedt, L.W., Arbogast, R.T., Teal, P.E.A., 2011. Evaluating light attraction to increase trap efficiency for Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104, 1430-1435.

Keever, D. W., and Cline, L. D. 1983. Effect of light trap height and light source on the capture of Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin-Meneville) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in a warehouse. J. Econ. Entomol. 76:1080-1082.

Rees, D. P. 1985. Review of the response of stored product insects to light of various wavelengths, with particular reference to the design and use of light traps for population monitoring. Trop. Sci. 25: 197-213.

9. Lure

Bashir, T., Birkinshaw L.A., Hall D.R. and Hodges R.J. 2001. Host odours enhance the responses of adult Rhyzopertha dominica to male-produced aggregation pheromone. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 101: 273–280.

Burks, C. S., and L. P. S. Kuenen. 2012. Effect of mating disruption and lure load on the number of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) males captured in pheromone traps. J. Stored Prod. Res. 49:189-195.

Cogan, P. M. and M. E. Wakefield, 1987. Further developments in traps used to detect low-level infestations of beetle pests in stored grain. Stored Product Pest Control. T. J. Lawson ed., British Council Pest Control (BCPC) Monograph  37: 161-167. Croydon, UK. (upward slanting holes, escape)

Collins, L. E., G. P. Bryning, M. E. Wakefield, J. Chambers, K. Fennah, and P. D. Cox. 2008. Effectiveness of a multi-species attractant in two different trap types under practical grain storage. conditions. J. Stored Prod. Res. 44:247-257.

Collins, L. E., G. P. Bryning, M. E. Wakefield, J. Chambers, and P. D. Cox. 2007. Progress towards a multi-species lure: Identification of components of food volatiles as attractants for three storage beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43:53-63.

Collins, L., M. Wakefield, J. Chambers, and P. Cox. 2004. Progress towards a multi-species lure: comparison of behavioural bioassay methods for multi-species attractants against three pests of stored grain. J. Stored Prod. Res. 40:341-353.

Cosse, A. A., J. J. Endris, J. G. Millar, and T. C. Baker. 1994. Identification of volatile compounds from fungus-infected date fruit that stimulate upwind flight of female Ectomyelois ceratoniae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 72:233-238.

Cox, P., and L. Collins. 2002. Factors affecting the behaviour of beetle pests in stored grain, with particular reference to the development of lures. J. Stored Prod. Res. 38:95-115.

Dowdy, A. K., Howard, R. W., Seitz, L. M., and McGaughey, W. H. 1993. Response of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) to its aggregation pheromone and wheat volatiles. Environ. Entomol. 22: 965-970.

Fardisi, M., and L. J. Mason. 2013. Influence of lure (food/sex pheromone) on young mated cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne (F.)) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) flight initiation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 53:15-18.

Hodges, R., S. Addo, D. Farman, and D. Hall. 2004. Optimising pheromone lures and trapping methodology for Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera : Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 40:439-449.

Hodges, R. J., Hall, D. R., Mbugua, J. N., and Likhayo, P. W. 1998. The response of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to pheromone and synthetic maize volatiles as lures in crevice or flight traps. Bull. Entomol. Res. 88:131-139.

Javer, A., Borden, J. H., Pierce, H. D., Jr., and Pierce, A. M. 1990. Evaluation of pheromone baited traps for monitoring of cucujid and tenebrionid beetles in stored grain. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:268-272.

Keys, G. E., Tigar, B. J., Flores-Sanchez, E., and Vazquez-Arista, M. 1994. Response of Prostephanus truncatus and Teretriosoma nigrescens to pheromone-baited flight traps. Pages 410-414 in: Proc. Int. Work. Conf. Stored-Prod. Prot., 6th. E. Highley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks, and B. R. Champ, Eds. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Levinson, H. Z., and Levinson, A. R. 1987. Pheromone biology of the tobacco beetle (Lasioderma serricorne F., Anobiidae) with notes on the pheromone antagonist between 4S,6S,7S and 4S,6S,7R-serricornin. J. Appl. Entomol. 103:217-240.

Mullen, M. A., H. A. Highland, and F. H. Arthur. 1991. Efficiency and longevity of two commercial sex pheromone lures for commercial moth and almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 26: 64–68. (pheromone-baited sticky traps that captured the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults were repulsive for adults of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae))

Ni, X., and C. C. Holbrook. 2006. Using nutrient solutions to trap the almond moth (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) in a peanut shelling and storage facility. J. Entomol. Sci. 41:285-291.

Sinclair, E. R., and C. Howitt. 1985. Tests of pheromones for monitoring infestations of stored products insects. p. 482-487. In P. Bailey and D. Swincer (eds.), Proceedings of the fourth Australian applied entomological research conference, Pest Control: Recent advances and future prospects, 24-28 Sept. 1984, Adelaide, Australia

Trematerra, P., and P. Girgenti. 1989. Influence of Pheromone and Food Attractants on Trapping of Sitophilus oryzae (L) (Col, Curculionidae) – a New Trap. Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie 108: 12-20.

Walgenbach, C., W. Burkholder, M. Curtis, and Z. Khan. 1987. Laboratory Trapping Studies with Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 80: 763-767

Watters, F. L., and Cox G. A. 1957. A water trap for detecting insects in stored grain. Can. Entomol. 89: 188-192.

10. Mobility of species

Birkinshaw, L. A., Hodges, R. J., and Addo, S. 2004. Flight behaviour of Prostepahnus truncatus and Teretrius nigrescens demonstrated by a cheap and simple pheromone-baited trap designed to segregate catches with time. J. Stored Prod. Res. 40:227-232.

Cox, P. D., M. E. Wakefield, and T. A. Jacob. 2007. The effects of temperature on flight initiation in a range of moths, beetles and parasitoids associated with stored products. J. Stored Prod. Res. 43: 111-117.

Mankin, R. W., Vick, K. W., Coffelt, J. A., and Weaver, B. A. 1983. Pheromone-mediated flight by male Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 12:1218-1222. (30% of the males were captured—but males were captured only 62% of the times that they approached the sticky trap)

Obeng-Ofori, D. 1993. The behaviour of 9 stored product beetles at pitfall trap arenas and their capture in millet. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 66:161-169. (escape)

Wakefield, M. 1995. A study of the behaviour of the grain weevil Sitophilus granarius (L) at the pitfall cone trap using a method to identify individuals. J. Stored Prod. Res. 31: 273-277.

Walgenbach, C. A., Burkholder, W. E., Curtis, M. J., and Khan, Z. A. 1987. Laboratory trapping studies with Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 80:763-767.

11. Physiological state of insect

Boughton, A., and H. Fadamiro. 1996. Effect of age and sex on the response of walking Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:Bostrichidae) to its male-produced aggregation pheromone. J. Stored Prod. Res. 32: 13-20.

Duehl, A.J., Arbogast, R.T., Teal, P.E., 2011. Age and sex related responsiveness of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in novel behavioral bioassays. Environmental Entomology 40: 82-87.

Fedina, T.Y. and Lewis, S.M. 2007. Effect of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) nutritional environment, sex, and mating status on response to commercial pheromone traps. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 1924–1927.

 12. Previous catch

Athanassiou, C. G., N. G. Kavallieratos, and J. F. Campbell. 2016. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in floor traps: the effect of previous captures. J. Econ. Entomol. 109: 461–466.

Athanassiou, Christos G., Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, and Pasquale Trematerra. 2006. Responses of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to traps baited with pheromones and food volatiles. European Journal of Entomology 103(2): 371-378

Athanassiou, C. G., Z. Korunic, N. G. Kavallieratos, G. G. Peteinatos, M. C. Boukouvala, and N. H. Mikeli. 2006. Behavioural responses of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to flour previously infested or contaminated by Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) semiochemicals, pp. 441–445. In I. Lorini, B. Bacaltchuk, H. Beckel, E. Deckers, E. Sundfeld, J. F. dos Santos, J. D. Biagi, J. C. Celaro, L. R. D’ A. Faroni, L. de O. F. Bortolini, et al (eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 15–18 October, Campinas, Brazil. ABRAPOS, Rodovia, Brazil.

Athanassiou, Christos G., Nickolas G. Kavallieratos and James F. Campbell. 2017. Effect of the Presence of Live or Dead Insects on Subsequent Captures of Six Stored-Product Beetle Species: The Relative Species Matters. Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(2): 770–775.

Dowdy, A. K., and M. A. Mullen. 1998. Multiple stored-product insect pheromone use in pitfall traps. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 75–80. trap which contained pheromones for T. variabile, R. dominica, and T. castaneum was equally effective for all three species, but there was a slight repulsive effect of T. castaneum pheromone on the captures of T. variabile.

Lindgren, B. S., Borden, J. H., Pierce, A. M., Pierce, H. D., Jr., Oehlschlager, A. C., and Wong, J. W. 1985. A potential method for simultaneous, semiochemical-based monitoring of Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Cucujidae and Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 21: 83-87.

Mullen, M. A., H. A. Highland, and F. H. Arthur. 1991. Efficiency and Longevity of two Commercial Sex-Pheromone Lures for Indianmeal Moth and Almond Moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 26: 64–68. (pheromone-baited sticky traps that captured the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults were repulsive for adults of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae))

Mullen M. A. 1994. Response of Cadra cautella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to pheromone baited traps. Journal of Entomological Science 29: 215-221.

Trematerra, P., F. Fontana, and M. Mancini. 1996. Effects of accumulate dead and alive insects in trap on the capture of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Anz. Scha¨dlingskd. Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 69: 3–9.

Vick, K. W., J. Kvenberg, J. A. Coffelt, and C. Steward. 1979. Investigation of sex pheromone traps for simultaneous detection of Indian meal moths and Angoumois grain moths. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 245–249. Traps that contained P. interpunctella adults reduced captures of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

13. Spacing or location of traps

Arbogast, R. T., P. E. Kendra, R. W. Mankin, and J. E. McGovern. 2000. Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis. Journal-of Economic Entomology 93:1531-1542. (nearby commodities)

Bowditch, T., and J. Madden. 1996. Spatial and temporal distribution of Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a confectionary factory: Causal factors and management implications. J. Stored Prod. Res. 32:123-130. (use of room)

Buckman, K. A., and J. F. Campbell. 2013. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum capture in pheromone traps. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 146: 404–412. (dome trap)

Campbell, J., M. Mullen, and A. Dowdy. 2002. Monitoring stored-product pests in food processing plants with pheromone trapping, contour mapping, and mark-recapture. J. Econ. Entomol. 95:1089-1101.

Hawkin, K. J. 2008. Monitoring populations of the flour beetles Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in flour mills and laboratory settings. MSc, University of Manitoba. (nearby equipment)

Hawkin, K. J., D. M. Stanbridge, and P. G. Fields. 2013. Sampling Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in flour mill rollstands. J. Stored Prod. Res 52:7-11. (nearby equipment)

Imai, Toshihiro and Yoshihiro Kasaishi. 2011. Optimal Spacing of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring the Tobacco Moth, Ephestia elutella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Phyralidae), in Tobacco Warehouses. Beiträge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research Volume 24(6): 289-292. have Refw

Larson, Z., B. Subramanyam, and T. Herrman. 2008. Stored-product insects associated with eight feed mills in the Midwestern United States. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:998-1005. (use of room)

Mankin, R. W., Arbogast, R. T., Kendra, P. E., and Weaver, D. K. 1999. Active space of pheromone traps for Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in enclosed environments. Environ. Entomol. 28:557-565.

Nansen, C., Subramanyam, B., and Roesli, R. 2004e. Characterizing spatial distribution of trap catches of beetles in retail pet stores using SADIE® software. J. Stored Prod. Res. 40:471-483. (nearby commodities)

Platt, R. R., Cuperus, G. W., Payton, M. E., Bonjour, E. L., and Pinkston, K. N. 1998. Integrated pest management perceptions and practices and insect populations in grocery stores in south-central United States. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34:1-10. (nearby commodities)

Rees, D. 1999. Estimation of the optimal number of pheromone baited flight traps needed to monitor phycitine moths (Ephestia cautella and Plodia interpunctella) at a breakfast cereal factory–A case study. Pages 1464-1471 in: Proc. Int. Work. Conf. Stored Prod. Prot., 7th. J. Zuzan, L. Quan, L. Yongsheng, T. Xiachang, and G. Liaghua, Eds. Sichuan Publishing House, Chengdu, Peoples Republic of China.

Roesli, R., Subramanyam, B., Campbell, J. F., and Kemp, K. 2003a. Stored-product insects associated with a retail pet store chain in Kansas. J. Econ. Entomol. 96:1958-1966. (nearby commodities)

Roesli, R., Subramanyam, B., Campbell, J. F., and Kemp, K. 2003b. Impact of selected IPM practices on insect populations in retail pet stores. Pages 410-419 in: Advances in Stored Product Protection. Proc. Int. Work. Conf. on Stored Prod. Prot., 8th. (York, UK.) P. F. Credland, D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan, and E. Highley, Eds. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (nearby commodities)

Vick, K. W., Koehler, P. G., and Neal, J. J. 1986. Incidence of stored-product phycitinae moths in food distribution warehouses as determined by sex pheromone-baited traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 79:936-939. (nearby commodities)

14. Temperature

Arbogast, Richard T., David K. Weaver, Paul E. Kendra, and Shahpar R. Chini. Temperature variation in stored maize and its effect on capture of beetles in grain probe traps. Journal of Stored Products Research 40, no. 2 (2004): 135-150.

Fargo, W. S., D. Epperly, G. W. Cuperus, B. C. Clary, and R. Noyes. 1989. Effect of Temperature and Duration of Trapping on 4 Stored Grain Insect Species. J. Econ. Entomol. 82:970-973.

15. Visual image

Levinson, H. and T. Hoppe. 1983. Preferential Flight of Plodia interpunctella and Cadra cautella (Phycitinae) Toward Figures of Definite Shape and Position with Notes on the Interaction between Optical and Pheromone Stimuli. Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie-Journal of Applied Entomology 96: 491-500.

Quartey, G. and T. Coaker. 1992. The Development of an Improved Model Trap for Monitoring Ephestia cautella. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 64: 293-301. (pheromone, visual and wind)

Semeao, A.A., Campbell, J.F., Whitworth, R.J., Sloderbeck, P.E., 2011. Response of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum adults to vertical black shapes and its potential to improve trap capture. Journal of Stored Products Research 47: 88-94.

 Wisniewska, J., and R. T. Carde. 2012. Visual cues collimate the trajectories of almond moth Cadra cautella males flying in wind and still air within a wind-formed plume of pheromone. Physiol. Entomol. 37:42-52.

II. Conversion of trap catch to absolute estimates

Athanassiou, C. G., and C. Th Buchelos. 2000. Comparison of four methods for the detection of Coleoptera adults infesting stored wheat: efficiency and detection sensitivity. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde= Journal of pest science 73(5): 129-133.

Athanassiou C.G. & Buchelos C.TH. 2001. Detection of stored wheat beetle species and estimation of population density using unbaited probe traps and grain trier samples. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 98: 67–78.

Barak, A., and P. Harein. 1982. Trap Detection of Stored-Grain Insects in Farm-Stored, Shelled Corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 108-111. (larger holes for Cynaeus angustus)

Buchelos, C. Th, and C. G. Athanassiou. 1999. Unbaited probe traps and grain trier: a comparison of the two methods for sampling Coleoptera in stored barley. Journal of Stored Products Research 35(4): 397-404.

Buckman, K. A., and J. F. Campbell. 2013. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum capture in pheromone traps. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 146: 404–412. (dome trap)

Couldridge, Clare; Wilkin, D. (Robin); Knight, R.(Jon). 2003. The effectiveness of different methods of detecting and enumerating insects in stored grain. p. 315-318. Credland, P.F.; Armitage, D.M.; Bell, C.H.; Cogan, P.M.; Highley, E. eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002, York, UK. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom

Flinn, P. W., G. P. Opit and J. E. Throne 2009. Predicting Stored Grain Insect Population Densities Using an Electronic Probe Trap. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 1696-1704.

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn, and Bh. Subramanyam. 1998. Predicting insect density from probe trap catch in farm stored wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 251-262.

Haines, C., Rees, D., Ryder, K., Sistyanto, S., and Cahyana, Y. 1991. Brown-rice bait-bags for monitoring insect pest populations in bag stacks of milled rice as an aid to pest control decision-making. Pages 1351-1358 in: Proc. Int. Work. Conf. on Stored-Product Entomology, 5th. (Bordeaux, France.) F. Fluerat-Lessard and P. Ducom, Eds. Imprimerie Médocaine, Blanquefort Cedex, France.

Reed, C. R., V. F. Wright, T. W. Mize, J. R. Pedersen & J. Brockschmidt, 1991. Pitfall traps and grain samples as indicators of insects in farm- stored wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84: 1381–1387.

Toews, M. D., T. W. Phillips, and M. E. Payton. 2005. Estimating populations of grain beetles using probe traps in wheat-filled concrete silos. Environ. Entomol. 34: 712-718.

Subramanyam, B., Wright, V.F., Fleming, E.E., 1992. Laboratory evaluation of food baits for their relative ability to retain 3 species of stored-product beetles (Coleoptera). Journal of Agricultural Entomology 9: 117-127.

III. Conversion of other relative methods to absolute estimates

1. Acoustic

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn, and D. Shuman. 1996. Automated monitoring using acoustical sensors for insects in farm-stored wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 211-217.

2. Tracks in dust

Hawkin, K. J. 2008. Monitoring populations of the flour beetles Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in flour mills and laboratory settings. MSc, University of Manitoba.

Hawkin, K. J., D. M. Stanbridge, and P. G. Fields. 2013. Sampling Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in flour mill rollstands. J. Stored Prod. Res 52: 7-11.

3. Wall count

Rees, D. 1999. Comparison between use of pheromone baited traps and counting resting moths as population measures of phyticine moths (Ephestia cautella and Plodia interpunctella) at a breakfast cereal factory. Pages 1472-1475 in: Proc. Int. Work. Conf. Stored Prod. Prot., 7th. J. Zuzan, L. Quan, L. Yongsheng, T. Xiachang, and G. Liaghua, Eds. Sichuan Publishing House, Chengdu, Peoples Republic of China.

Somme, L. 1968. Field trial with dichlorvos vapouur for the control of Ephestia kuehniella Zell. (Lepidoptera, Phycitidae) in flour mills. J. Stored Prod. Res. 4: 275-278. Uses wall counts to estimate effectiveness.

IV. Mark-release-recapture estimates

Mark-release-recapture method assumes that % of marked-released individuals recaptured is the same as % of unmarked insects captured in storage facility and uses this to estimate absolute insect density with following equation.

Total population = total captured * total marked / total recaptures

Hagstrum, D. W. and Stanley, J. M. 1979. Release-recapture estimates of the population density of Ephestia cautella (Walker) in a commercial peanut warehouse. J. Stored Prod. Res. 15: 117-122.

Walker, D. W. 1960. Population fluctuations and control of stored grain insects. Wash. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 31. (Tribolium castaneum)

V. Situations in which trap catches are misleading

1. Low temperature reduces insect catch in fall while insect population is still increasing

Flinn, P. W., G. P. Opit and J. E. Throne 2009. Predicting Stored Grain Insect Population Densities Using an Electronic Probe Trap. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 1696-1704.

Hagstrum, D. W., P. W. Flinn, and Bh. Subramanyam. 1998. Predicting insect density from probe trap catch in farm stored wheat. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34: 251-262.

Toews, M. D., T. W. Phillips, and M. E. Payton. 2005. Estimating populations of grain beetles using probe traps in wheat-filled concrete silos. Environ. Entomol. 34: 712-718.

2. Insecticides reduce insect catch, but not insect population

Toews MD, Arthur FH, Campbell JF. 2009. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with Bcyfluthrin: are residual insecticides and trapping compatible? Bulletin of Entomological Research 99: 121-129.

Toews MD, Campbell JF, Arthur FH, West M. 2005. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with residual applications of (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(4): 1391-1398.

3. Sanitation, associated disturbance of insects and air flow from machinery or open door or window increase insect catch even when insect population is unchanged

Campbell, J. F. 2012. Attraction of walking Tribolium castaneum adults to traps. J. Stored Prod. Res. 51: 11–22.

Nansen, C., Bh. Subramanyam, and R. Roesli. 2004e. Characterizing spatial distribution of trap captures of beetles in retail pet stores using SADIE® software. Journal of Stored Products Research 40: 471-483.

Roesli R, Subramanyam BH, Campbell J, Kemp K. 2003. Impact of selected IPM practices on insect populations in retail pet stores. In: Credland PF, Armitage DM, Bell CH, Cogan PM, Highley E, editors. Advances in Stored Product Protection, pp. 410-419. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002.